The occurrence of eleven elements in dairy cow´s milk, feed, and soil from three different regions of Slovakia
Keywords:essential element, toxic metal, cow milk, feed, soil
The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of eleven essential, potentially toxic and toxic elements (arsenic – As, calcium – Ca, cadmium – Cd, copper – Cu, iron – Fe, mercury – Hg, magnesium – Mg, nickel – Ni, lead – Pb, selenium – Se, zinc- Zn) in raw cow’s milk (spring, summer, and autumn season), feed (spring and autumn season) and soil (spring season) from three different environments by routine methods in the certified testing laboratory. The samples were collected in the undisturbed region around Novoť, the moderately disturbed region around Tulčík, and the strongly disturbed region around Čečejovce. The concentrations of all toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) and two essential elements (Cu, Se) in milk were under the limits of quantification (LOQ) from all investigated areas and during all seasons. Concentrations of other elements in milk from the undisturbed and disturbed areas were significantly different, generally with the highest levels in summer. In soil samples, the significantly highest concentrations of Ca, Cu, Ni were found in a strongly disturbed area, Mg and As in moderately disturbed area, and Fe, Se, Zn, Hg, and Pb in an undisturbed area. Cadmium was under the LOQ. In feed, the concentrations of essential elements, except of Se, were higher in the autumn. The significantly highest concentration of As, Ni were recorded in a moderately disturbed area and Pb in the undisturbed area in both seasons. Cadmium and Hg were under the LOQ. Despite the higher level of some elements in soil (Fe, Mg, Ca) from all regions, there were not elevated concentrations of any element in feed or milk. The concentrations of all toxic elements in milk were under the permitted limits. Thus, the milk from all investigated areas was not contaminated with the elements posing a health risk for consumers and it is considered safe for human consumption.
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