Selenium, cadmium and diazinon insecticide in tissues of rats after peroral exposure


  • Róbert Toman Robert Toman, Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Sources, Department of Veterinary Disciplines, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Martina Tunegová Robert Toman, Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Sources, Department of Veterinary Disciplines, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra



cadmium, selenium, diazinon, tissue, rat


The concentrations of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and diazinon (DZN) in selected tissues of rats after an oral administration in various combinations were analyzed. Male rats were orally dosed with diazinon (40 mg.L-1), diazinon (40 mg.L-1) +selenium (5 mg.L-1), diazinon (40 mg.L-1) +cadmium (30 mg.L-1), and diazinon (40 mg.L-1) +selenium (5 mg.L-1) +cadmium (30 mg.L-1) in drinking water. After 90 days of per oral administration of compounds, the samples of liver, kidney, muscle tissue (m. quadriceps femoris), and adipose tissue were collected. The content of DZN was analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Cd was analyzed using an Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS) and Se using a Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS) methods. Cadmium significantly increased in liver and kidney after DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd administration. Se significantly increased in liver of DZN +Se, DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd exposed rats, in kidney of DZN +Se and DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd, and in muscle of DZN +Se +Cd group. Highest DZN content was found in the adipose tissue in DZN, DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd but not in combined exposure with Se. Anyway, the differences between the control and experimental groups were not significant. The results indicate that cadmium and selenium accumulate mainly in liver, kidney and selenium also in muscle after p.o. administration but diazinon concentrations increases were not signifcant. The co-administration of diazinon, Se and Cd affects the content of these compounds in the organism and the accumulation rate depends on the combination of administered compounds. Diazinon and cadmium could contribute to the selenium redistribution in the organism after the peroral intake.


Download data is not yet available.


Adamkovicova, M., Toman, R., Martiniakova, M., Omelka, R., Babosova, R., Krajcovicova, V., Grosskopf, B., Massanyi, P. 2016. Sperm motility and morphology changes in rats exposed to cadmium and diazinon. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 42. PMid:27503218 DOI:

Cabaj, M., Toman, R., Adamkovicova, M., Massanyi, P., Šiška, B., Lukáč, N., Golian, J. 2010. Structural changes in the testis caused by diazinon and selenium. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 8-16. DOI:

Cabaj, M., Toman, R., Adamkovicova, M., Massanyi, P., Šiška, B., Lukáč, N., Golian, J., Hluchý, S. 2012. Qantitative and structural changes of testis and semen quality parameters changes caused by peroral administration of diazinon in rats. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 9-14. DOI:

Chen, R. W., Whanger, P. D., Weswig, P. H. 1975. Selenium - induced redistribution of cadmium binding to tissue proteins: a possible mechanism of protection against cadmium toxicity. Bioinorganic Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 125-133. DOI:

Chovancova, H., Omelka, R., Bobonova, I., Formicki, G., Toman, R., Martiniakova, M. 2014. Bone adaptation to simultaneous cadmium and diazinon toxicity in adult male rats. Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 107-113. DOI:

Combs, G. F. Jr., Gray, W. P. 1998. Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 79, no. 3, p. 179-192. DOI:

Dkhil, M. A., Al-Quraishy, S., Diab, M. M., Othman, M. S., Aref, A. M., Abdel Moneim, A. E. 2014. The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 74, p. 98-106. PMid:25265456 DOI:

El-Demerdash, F. M., Nasr, H. M. 2014. Antioxidant effect of selenium on lipid peroxidation, hyperlipidemia and biochemical parameters in rats exposed to diazinon. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 89-93. PMid:24188896 DOI:

Fried, K. W., Rozman, K. K., Summer, K.-H., Halbach, S., Kappus, H., Greim, H., Borm, P. J. A., Degen, G. H., Owens, J. W., Dekant, W., Anders, M. W., Szinicz, L., Zilker, T. 2008. Toxicity of selected chemicals. In Greim, H. et al. Toxicology and risk assessment: A comprehensive introduction. Chichester. UK : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., p. 513-655. ISBN-978-0-470-86893-5. DOI:

Fulton, M. H., Key, P. B. 2001. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in estuarine fish and invertebrates as an indicator of organophosphorus insecticide exposure and effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 37-45. PMid:11351414 DOI:

Gallo, M. A., Lawryk, N. J. 1991. Organic phosphorus pesticides. In Hayes, W. J. Jr., Laws, E. R. Jr. Handbook of pesticide Toxicology. New York, USA : Academic Press, p. 3-5. ISBN-10: 0123341612.

Gupta, S., Jaworska-Bieniek, K., Lubinski, J., Jakubowska, A. 2013. Can selenium be a modifier of cancer risk in CHEK2 mutation carriers? Mutagenesis, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 625-629. PMid:24106007 DOI:

Jamba, L., Nehru, B., Bansal, M. P. 1997. Redox modulation of selenium binding proteins by cadmium exposures in mice. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 177, no. 1-2, p. 169-175. DOI:

Jihen, el H., Imed, M., Fatima, H., Abdelhamid, K. 2008. Protective effects of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the liver and kidney of the rat: Histology and Cd accumulation. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 11, p. 3522-3527. DOI:

Kamel, F., Engel, L. S., Gladen, B. C., Hoppin, J. A., Alavanja, M. C. R., Sandler, D. P. 2007. Neurologic symptoms in licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 243-250. PMid:17439927 DOI:

Kippler, M., Goessler, W., Nermell, B., Ekstrom, E. C., Lonnerdal, B., El Arifeen, S., Vahter, M. 2009. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-a prospective cohort study. Environmental Research, vol. 109, no. 7, p. 914-921. PMid:19646688 DOI:

Kolesarova, A., Slamecka, J., Jurcik, R., Tataruch, F., Lukac, N., Kovacik, J., Capcarova, M., Valent, M., Massanyi, P. 2008. Environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury in brown hares and their relation to blood metabolic parameters. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, vol. 43, no. 6, p. 646-650. DOI:

Kryukov, G. V., Castellano, S., Novoselov, S. V., Lobanov, A. V., Zehtab, O., Guigó, R., Gladyshev, V. N. 2003. Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science, vol. 300, no. 5624, p. 1439-1443. PMid:12775843 DOI:

Liu, L., Yang, B., Cheng, Y., Lin, H. 2015. Ameliorative effects of selenium on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the chicken kidney. Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 167, no. 2, p. 308-319. PMid:25805271 DOI:

Lukacinova, A., Novakova, J., Lovasova, E., Cimbolakova, I., Nistiar, F. 2012. Influence of lifetame exposure of sublethal doses of cadmium to selected parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 36-40. DOI:

Ma, Y. L., Lindemann, M. D., Pierce, J. L., Unrine, J. M., Cromwell, G. L. 2014. Effect of inorganic or organic selenium supplementation on reproductive performance and tissue trace mineral concentrations in gravid first-parity gilts, fetuses, and nursing piglets. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 92, no. 12, p. 5540-5550. PMid:25403188 DOI:

Maravgakis, G., Tzatzarakis, M. N., Alegakis, A. K., Stivaktakis, P. D., Tsatsakis, A. M. 2012. Diethyl phosphates accumulation in rabbits' hair as an indicator of long term exposure to diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Forensic Science International, vol. 218, no. 1-3, p. 106-110. PMid:22024651 DOI:

Martiniaková, M., Boboňová, I., Omelka, R., Grosskopf, B. Stawarz, R., Toman, R. 2013. Structural changes in femoral bone tissue of rats after subchronic peroral exposure to selenium. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 8. PMid:23369508 DOI:

Martiniaková, M., Chovancová, H., Omelka, R., Grosskopf, B., Toman, R. 2011. Effects of a single intraperitoneal administration of cadmium on femoral bone structure in male rats. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 53, no. 1, p. 49. PMid:21884588 DOI:

Massányi, P., Lukáč, N., Uhrín, V., Toman, R., Pivko, J., Rafay, J., Forgács, Z., Somosy, Z. 2007. Female reproductive toxicology of cadmium. Acta Biologica Hungarica, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 287-299. PMid:17899786 DOI:

Meyer, S. A., House, W. A., Welch, R. M. 1982. Some metabolic interrelationships between toxic levels of cadmium and nontoxic levels of selenium fed to rats. Journal of Nutrition, vol. 112, no. 5, p. 954-961. PMid:7077426 DOI:

Nagy, G., Benko, I., Kiraly, G., Voros, O., Tanczos, B., Sztrik, A., Takács, T., Pocsi, I., Prokisch, J., Banfalvi, G. 2015. Cellular and nephrotoxicity of selenium species. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 30, p. 160-170. PMid:25604949 DOI:

Ognjanović, B. I., Marković, S. D., Pavlović, S. Z., Zikić, R. V., Stajn, A. S., Saicić, Z. S. 2008. Effect of chronic cadmium exposure on antioxidant defense system in some tissues of rats: protective effect of selenium. Physiological Research, vol. 57, no. 3, p. 403-411. PMid:17465690 DOI:

Oh, C. M., Oh, I. H., Lee, J. K., Park, Y. H., Choe, B. K., Yoon, T. Y., Choi, J. M. 2014. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males. Environmental Research, vol. 132, p. 119-125. PMid:24769560 DOI:

Ohta, H., Ichikawa, M., Seki, Y. 2002. Effects of cadmium intake on bone metabolism of mothers during pregnancy and lactation. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 196, no. 1, p. 33-42. PMid:12498324 DOI:

Pakzad, M., Fouladdel, S., Nili-Ahmadabadi, A., Pourkhalili, N., Baeeri, M., Azizi, E., Sabzevari, O., Ostad, S. N., Abdollahi, M. 2013. Sublethal exposures of diazinon alters glucose homostasis in Wistar rats: Biochemical and molecular evidences of oxidative stress in adipose tissues. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 105, no. 1, p. 57-61. PMid:24238291 DOI:

Paraiba, L. C., Castro, V. L. S. S., Maia, A. H. N. 2009. Insecticide distribution model in human tissues viewing worker's health monitoring programs. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 875-881. DOI:

Polettini, A. E., Fortaner, S., Farina, M., Groppi, F., Manenti, S., Libralato, G., Sabbioni, E. 2015. Uptake from water, internal distribution and bioaccumulation of selenium in Scenedesmus obliquus, Unio mancus and Rattus norvegicus: part A. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 94, no. 1, p. 84-89. DOI:


Raines, A. M., Sunde, R. A. 2011. Selenium toxicity but not deficient or super-nutritional selenium status vastly alters the transcriptome in rodents. BMC Genomics, vol. 12, p. 12-26. PMid:21226930 DOI:

Rasic-Milutinovic, Z., Jovanovic, D., Bogdanovic, G., Trifunovic, J., Mutic, J. 2017. Potential influence of selenium, copper, zinc and cadmium on L-thyroxine substitution in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, vol. 125, no. 2, p. 79-85. PMid:27793066 DOI:

Reddy, K. P., Sailaja, G., Krishnaiah, C. 2009. Protective effects of selenium on fluoride induced alterations in certain enzymes in brain of mice. Journal of Environmental Biology, vol. 30, suppl. no. 5, p. 859-864. PMid:20143719

Rinaldi, M., Micali, A., Marini, H., Adamo, E. B., Puzzolo, D., Pisani, A., Trichilo, V., Altavilla, D., Squadrito, F., Minutoli, L. 2017. Cadmium, organ toxicity and therapeutic approaches. A review on brain, kidney and testis damage. Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 24, no. 35, p. 3879-3893. PMid:28762312 DOI:

Roggeman, S., de Boeck, G., De Cock, H., Blust, R., Bervoets, L. 2014. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption. Science of the Total Environment, vol. 466-467, p. 175-184. PMid:23906855 DOI:

Rohlman, D. S., Anger, W. K., Lein P. J. 2011. Correlating neurobehavioral performance with biomarkers of organophosphorous pesticide exposure. Neurotoxicology, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 268-276. PMid:21182866 DOI:

Ross, S. M., McManus, I. C., Harrison, V., Mason, O. 2013. Neurobehavioral problems following low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 1, p. 21-44. PMid:23163581 DOI:

Schumacher, M., Camp, S., Maulet, Y., Newton, M., MacPhee-Quigley, K., Taylor, S. S., Friedmann, T., Taylor, P. 1986. Primary structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase deduced from its cDNA sequence. Nature, vol. 319, no. 6052, p. 407-409. PMid:3753747 DOI:

Shah, M. D., Iqbal, M. 2010. Diazinon-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 12, p. 3345-3353. PMid:20828599 DOI:

Shi, L., Yue, W., Zhang, C., Ren, Y., Zhu, X., Wang, Q., Shi, L., Lei, F. 2010. Effects of maternal and dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on oxidative status in testis and apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis of their offspring in goats. Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 119, no. 3-4, p. 212-218. PMid:20226605 DOI:

Shi, L., Zhao, H., Ren, Y., Yao, X., Song, R., Yue, W. 2014. Effects of different levels of dietary selenium on the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and antioxidant status in testis of roosters. Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 149, no. 3-4, p. 266-272. PMid:25115807 DOI:

Shokrzadeh, M., Ahangar, N., Abdollahi, M., Shadboorestan, A., Omidi, M., Payam, S. S. 2013. Potential chemoprotective effects of selenium on diazinon-induced DNA damage in rat peripheral blood lymphocyte. Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 32, no. 7, p. 759-765. PMid:23821592 DOI:

Spallholz, J. E., Hoffman, D. J. 2002. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds. Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 57, no. 1-2, p. 27-37. DOI:

Stolakis, V., Tsakiris, S., Kalafatakis, K., Zarros, A., Skandali, N., Gkanti, V., Kyriakaki, A., Liapi, C. 2013. Developmental neurotoxicity of cadmium on enzyme activities of crucial offspring rat brain regions. Biometals, vol. 26, no. 6, p. 1013-1021. PMid:24065572 DOI:

Tanvir, E. M., Afroz, R., Chowdhury, M., Gan, S. H., Karim, N., Islam, M. N., Khalil, M. I. 2016. A model of chlorpyrifos distribution and its biochemical effects on the liver and kidneys of rats. Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 35, no. 9, p. 991-1004. PMid:26519480 DOI:

Tapiero, H., Townsend, D. M., Tew, K. D. 2003. The antioxidant role of selenium and seleno-compounds. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 57, no. 3-4, p. 134-144. DOI:

Tinggi, U. 2008. Selenium: its role as antioxidant in human health. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 102-108. PMid:19568888 DOI:

Toman, R., Hluchy, S., Maruniakova, N., Hajkova, Z. 2013. Selenium and diazinon neurotoxicity after an intraperitoneal administration in rats. Scientifical Papers, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 166-170.

Toman, R., Massányi, P. 1996. Cadmium in selected organs of fallow-deer (Dama dama), sheep (Ovis aries), brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Slovakia. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 1043-1051. DOI:

Tomlin, C. D. S. 1997. The pesticide manual. A World Compendium. Hampshire, UK : British Crop Protection Council, p. 1606. ISBN-10: 1901396118.

Túri, M. S., Soós, K., Végh, E. 2000. Determination of residues of pyrethroid and organophosphorous ectoparasiticides in foods of animal origin. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 139-149. PMid:11402696

Ugwuja, E. I., Ogbonnaya, L. U., Uro-Chukwu, H., Obuna, J. A., Ogiji, E., Ezenkwa, S. U. 2015. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 77-83. PMid:27486364 DOI:

U.S. EPA I.R.E.D Facts. Diazinon. 2007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs.

U.S. EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED). Diazinon. 2006. EPA 738-R-04-006; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.

Zachara, B.A., Pawluk, H., Korenkiewicz, J. Skok, Z. 2001. Selenium levels in kidney, liver and heart of newborns and infants. Early Human Development, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 103-111. DOI:

Wallin, M., Sallsten, G., Lundh, T., Barregard, L. 2015. Low-level cadmium exposure and effects on kidney function. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 12, p. 452-461. DOI:

Wang, A., Cockburn, M., Ly, T. T., Bronstein, J. M., Ritz, B. 2014. The association between ambient exposure to organophosphates and Parkinson's disease risk. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 275-281. PMid:24436061 DOI:




How to Cite

Toman, R. ., & Tunegová, M. . (2017). Selenium, cadmium and diazinon insecticide in tissues of rats after peroral exposure. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 11(1), 718–724.

Most read articles by the same author(s)