Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo <p class="textnormal" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; color: #000000; font-weight: normal;" align="left"><strong>Welcome to administration panel</strong></p> HACCP Consulting en-US Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 1337-0960 <span style="font-size: 11px; color: #111111;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><ol type="a"><br /><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a style="text-decoration: underline; color: #006666;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><br /><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><br /><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a style="text-decoration: underline; color: #898e79;" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol></span> The influence of yeast extract and jasmonic acid on phenolic acids content of in vitro hairy root cultures of Orthosiphon aristatus https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1508 <p>Phenolic acids represent a big group of plant secondary metabolites that can be used as food additives, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Obtaining phenolic acids from the plant <em>in vitro</em> cultures provide an attractive alternative to produce high-value plant-derived products. The impact of yeast extract and jasmonic acid on the induction of defense responses and consequently the production of phenolic acids in <em>vitro</em> hairy root cultures of <em>O. aristatus</em> have been investigated. Treatment of <em>O. aristatus</em> cultures with jasmonic acid caused accumulation of 12.98 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW of phenolic acids, elicitation with yeast extract resulted in the highest amount of phenolic acids, particularly in 17.99 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW as compared to 4.03 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW for the non-treated cultures. Individual phenolic acids showed a different response to elicitation. Particularly rosmarinic acid content on the control plot reached 2.89 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW, while after the treatment with jasmonic acid is increased to 10.84 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW and after yeast application, it was 14.31 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW. Also, caffeic acid content increased until 0.75 and 2.01 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW after application of jasmonic acid and yeast extract, while at the control plot its concentration was 0.58 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> DW. Application of yeast extract influenced synthesis of phenolic acids <em>in vitro</em> cultures of <em>O. aristatus</em> stronger as jasmonic acid treatment.</p> Iryna Smetanska Oksana Tonkha Tetjana Patyka Dase Hunaefi Diaa Mamdouh Mуkola Patyka Anatolyi Bukin Mikhailo Mushtruk Natalia Slobodyanyuk Alina Omelian Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 1 8 10.5219/1508 The sustainability of rice farming practices in Tidal swamplands of South Sumatra Indonesia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1473 <p>Tidal swamplands are considered the national food security platform in Indonesia. Residues from the excessive chemical input used in the rice production affecting the environment, farmers’ health, and the safety of the product. Similarly, one can expect that excessive chemical use in tidal swamplands can also threaten rice production system sustainability. This study aimed to assess and identify factors influencing the sustainability of rice farming practices in tidal swamplands of South Sumatra, Indonesia. A survey was carried out to obtain information through direct interviews with 150 farmers in Muara Telang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. The Indonesia rice check was employed as indicators to assess the sustainability of rice farming practices in tidal swamplands. A percentage index was to categorize the sustainability status. A regression analysis with the Tobit model was applied to identify factors influencing the sustainability of rice farming practices. The result showed that the average sustainability index was 25.53%. It indicated rice farming practices in tidal swamplands tend to be unsustainable. The significant factors influencing the sustainability of rice farming practices were farmer’s education and household size. A policy recommendation is proposed to enhance the implementation of sustainable agriculture practices by the rice farmers in tidal swamplands.</p> Khairul Fahmi Purba Muhammad Yazid Mery Hasmeda Dessy Adriani Meitry Firdha Tafarini Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 9 17 10.5219/1473 The influence of cavitation effects on the purification processes of beet sugar production juices https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1494 <p>In the juices of sugar beet, the viscosity of the produced viscosity is determined. They contain sugars and non-sugary compounds. If they are in the form of associated or complex compounds, then when their state changes. Well under the action of external factors or at their removal from a solution it is obligatory. Its rheological properties will also change. Therefore, with the help of determining the viscosity, it is possible to conclude the complex processes that take place in juices under the action of the effects of vapor condensation cavitation, namely: the force between Leculiary bonds, the size of molecules, and the length of chemical bonds, etc. The paper presents studies of the influence of vapor-condensation cavitation effects on the change of such rheological properties of cell and diffusion juice as viscosity and surface tension. The viscosity of the steam-treated juice is affected by complex transformational changes that occur with the associated compounds under the effects of vapor-condensation cavitation, which leads to their destruction and this leads to a decrease in their molecular weight and changes in concentration. Studies have shown that with increasing steam consumption for juice processing in the range of 0 – 1.5% by weight of juice the upper tension increases. Such legitimacy is also an indirect confirmation of the processes of destruction of the association. important compounds of diffusion juice under the influence of the effects of steam condensation cavitation.</p> Marija Zheplinska Mikhailo Mushtruk Volodymyr Vasyliv Viktor Sarana Maxim Gudzenko Natalia Slobodyanyuk Anatolii Kuts Serhii Tkachenko Roman Mukoid Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 18 25 10.5219/1494 The quality characteristics of sausage prepared from different ratios of fish and duck meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1482 <p>The article aims to determine the effect of combining duck meat (<em>Anas platyrhynchos</em>) and freshwater fish (<em>Hypophthalmichthys molitrix</em>) on the quality (nutritional value, functional and technological properties, sensory attributes) of meat-containing semi-smoked sausages. The optimal version of the recipe with the highest quality indicators of semi-smoked meat sausages with duck meat and freshwater aquaculture was determined. It was found that the protein content of meat-containing, semi-smoked sausages with different ratios of duck and fish meat was 17.90% – 21.34% higher than that of the analog. A sample containing 50% duck and 30% fish has an ideal protein: fat ratio of 1:1. The following high functional properties of model minced experimental semi-smoked sausages were established: up to 72.75% moisture, water binding capacity of up to 71.47%, and water holding capacity of up to 60.60%. A comparative analysis of the rheological properties of minced meat showed that increasing the proportion of duck meat in minced meat modelling systems improves the strength of the system and increases shear stress. The addition of fish raw materials improves the elasticity of meat-containing systems. The optimal ratio of duck and fish is 50:30 for plastic and easily minced mince system. Combining duck meat with raw fish increases the stability of the emulsion to 74.8%. Analysis of the sensory parameters of the experimental sausages confirmed that the best ratio of duck to freshwater fish is 50:30.</p> Nataliia Bozhko Vasyl Tischenko Vasyl Pasichnyi Yevheniia Shubina Oleksandr Kyselov Andriy Marynin Igor Strashynskyi Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 26 32 10.5219/1482 The contribution of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol to the total energy value of the diet: a cross-sectional study https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1435 <p>While eating, people receive energy, as well as the necessary nutrients. However, different food products contain different amounts of macro- and micronutrients, so their consumption can vary significantly depending on eating habits. The diets of 105 people, first-year students of the Peoples` Friendship University of Russia from six different regions of the Earth: CIS countries; Latin America; Central and South Africa; North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia; Central and South Asia; Iran and Azerbaijan - were analyzed. Nutrition was evaluated by the frequency method. The median calorie intake among all examined was 2756 kcal per day. At the same time, the proportion of proteins from the total calorie content was 15.3%, from fats – 37.5%, from carbohydrates – 47.1%, from alcohol – 0.5%. It was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients or their contribution to the energy value of the diet between the regions. The exception was ethanol consumption: students coming from Central and South Africa consumed significantly more alcoholic drinks compared to students from Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. Due to the extremely high level of dispersion within each of the studied groups, it was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients, depending on the region of origin of the student. That is, intra-group differences turned out to be significantly more than inter-group differences. At the same time, the share of macronutrients in ensuring the total calorie content of the diet in this study turned out to be close to the data obtained in large cities of other countries and significantly differed from the results of the assessment of diets of rural residents. Probably, the student’s nutrition is formed largely under the influence of the urban environment and individual taste preferences; ethnic and cultural affiliation plays a much smaller role.</p> Alexey Galchenko Elizaveta Sidorova Artem Barinov Nikita Titiov Andrew Skalny Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 33 39 10.5219/1435 The possibility of improving meat quality by using peas and faba beans in feed for broiler chickens https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1451 <p>The price-to-quality ratio of broiler chicken meat is one of the reasons why consumers use these products in their daily diet. The quality of poultry products such as meat is closely associated with the nutritional value and quality of feed fed to broilers. In composing broiler diets, the main focus is turned on crude protein (CP). Because of the trend for the poultry industry to reduce its dependence on soybean meal as a source of protein, the role of pulses in the supply of protein and energy, which could partly replace the soybean meal in poultry diets, increases. Due to considerable progress in plant breeding, the present research study used peas (<em>Pisum sativum</em>) of the var. ‘Bruno’ and var. ‘Pinochio’ as well as faba beans (<em>Vicia faba minora</em>) of the var. ‘Lielplatone’ was developed in Latvia. Higher protein diets induce a higher meat protein content, accordingly, feed proteins are hydrolyzed in the digestive system into amino acids (AA) that, after absorption, are used to form proteins and to build different body tissues. The most important AA was twofold lower in peas and faba beans than in soybean meal. Although the amount of AA in feed is not directly proportional to the content of AA in broiler chicken meat, the amount of AA in poultry feed can significantly affect an important meat quality criterion for consumers – the nutritional value of protein. Therefore, the research aimed to identify changes in AA composition and chemical composition – a qualitative property of poultry meat – as a result of adding pulses (peas and beans) to poultry diets. The research results showed that the diets with an addition of faba beans and peas had a positive effect on the level of essential amino acids (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in broiler meat, decreased cholesterol concentration in meat, and increased energy value of meat.</p> Liga Proskina Sallija Cerina Anda Valdovska Irina Pilvere Vilija Alekneviciene Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 40 51 10.5219/1451 Comparative study of weaning pigs' muscle proteins using two-dimensional electrophoresis https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1449 <p>The proteostasis system of animals, including various types of protein modification during the growth stage, leads to an almost incomprehensible number of possible forms of protein, and each can regulate numerous functions. In the presented work, the composition of muscle tissue protein from different portions of piglets was studied to understand the main muscle protein formation. Comparative analysis of weaned piglets' main muscle protein from <em>l. dorsi</em>, <em>biceps femoris,</em> and <em>brachiocephalicus</em> were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Changes in the staining intensity of protein fractions inherent in different muscles were revealed. As part of this work, candidate groups of pig muscle proteins have been selected. Eleven protein spots were revealed for the longest muscle of the back, and seven for the biceps; the muscles of the neck are characterized by indicators of low protein fraction volume. Among the proteins found, myosin light chains, phosphoglycerate mutase, troponins, and adenylate kinase is most likely present. The obtained results of protein identification in muscle tissues, obtained during the intensive growth period, will allow a more detailed understanding of protein regulation, function, and interactions in complex biological systems, which will subsequently be significantly important for biomonitoring health and predicting farm animals productivity.</p> Anastasia Akhremko Liliya Fedulova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 52 57 10.5219/1449 Numerical methods and image processing techniques for melissopalynological honey analysis https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1517 <p class="PotText"><span lang="SK">Pollen analysis is a method used for verification of the botanical and geographical honey origin. Currently, much effort is being made to introduce automated systems with the use of image analysis programs. The automatic analysis is impeded by the insufficient depth of field of objects when using a light microscope, however, this can be avoided by using image reconstruction from images obtained from different focal planes. In this method, testing was performed on the normal focus (NF) and extended-depth-of-focus (EDF) images. These two methods were compared and statistically evaluated. The number of pollen grains and selected morphometric characteristics were compared. For EDF images, a higher number of pollen grains was obtained for the analysis, and except for the length/width ratio, a statistically significant difference was observed in the characteristics of pollen grains between the compared NF and EDF methods.</span></p> Zdeňka Javůrková Matej Pospiech Simona Ljasovská Pavel Hrabec Bohuslava Tremlová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 58 65 10.5219/1517 The influence of the denitrifying strain of Staphylococcus carnosus No. 5304 on the content of nitrates in the technology of yogurt production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1492 <p>Contamination of food with nitrates is a generally recognized problem. Milk is the basis for the production of many milk mixtures for baby food, and children are considered to be the most vulnerable category to the harmful influence of nitrates. The purpose of the search was to investigate the denitrification of milk with different amounts of nitrates by the denitrifying microorganisms of <em>Staphylococcus carnosus</em> in the technology of production of sour-milk products. The denitrification process of <em>S. carnosus</em> milk in the amount of 103 CFU.cm<sup>-3</sup> was found to reduce the nitrate content by an average of 88.0 ±3.9 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> and in the samples of the first group was 10.3 ±2.4 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, the second 110.7 ±4.1 and the third 214.5 ±6.3 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. In the search of the denitrification process of <em>S. carnosus</em> milk in the amount of 104 CFU.cm<sup>-3</sup>, was found that in the ready yogurt in the samples of the first group the amount of nitrates was 1.1 ±0.1 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, in the second group 56.4 ±3.5 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, and in the third 159.5 ±4.1 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. In the search of the denitrification process of <em>S. carnosus</em> milk in the amount of 105 CFU.cm<sup>-3</sup>, was found that nitrates were practically absent in the samples of the first group, the second group did not exceed 10 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, and the third was 107.4 ±3.9 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, received data indicate the possibility of using strain <em>S. carnosus</em> No. 5304 for denitrification of milk with a high content of nitrates in the technology of production of fermented milk products, in particular yogurt.</p> Mykola Kukhtyn Volodymyr Salata Yulia Horiuk Vyacheslav Kovalenko Larisa Ulko Sergiy Prosyanуi Viktor Shuplyk Leonid Kornienko Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 66 73 10.5219/1492 The mineral composition of cherry (Prunus cerasus Mill.) fruits depending on the scion-stock combination https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1454 <p>Cherry is a stone fruit crop that is valued for its early fruiting, productivity, and high taste and diet properties. The researches in the sphere of compatible scion-stock combinations selection of cherry crops with high winter hardiness and fruits quality were held in Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution All-Russian Horticultural Institute for Breeding, Agrotechnology, and Nursery (FSBSI ARHIBAN) for these crops introduction in industrial gardening of the Central region of Russia. The mineral composition of four cherry cultivars of FSBSI ARHIBAN selection (Apuсhtinskaya, Rusinka, Volochaevka, and Molodezhnaya) grown on rooted and grafted plants (stocks AVCH-2, Izmaylovskiy, and Moskoviya) was studied for the first time. The influence of scion-stock combinations on 11 elements (Na, P, K, Mn, Fe. Mg, Ca. Co, Zn, Se, Mo) accumulation in the fruits was determined. The greatest proportion of mineral substances in cherry fruits belongs to K. Depending on the scion-stock combination its amount is varied from 13.89 mass % (Apuсhtinskaya/Moskoviya) to 30.52 mass % (Molodezhnaya/Izmaylovskiy). For all cultivars fruits, the amount of K is 1.1 – 1.3 times higher on stock Izmaylovskiy than on rooted plants. The variation coefficient of K is low (V %) 1.37 – 6.91 for the majority of scion-stock combinations that indicate the stable entry of this element inside the fruit. The most content of all the elements under study was found in the fruits ash of Rusinka, Molodezhnaya, and Volochaevka on stock Izmaylovskiy that indicates the stable physiological state of the plants on these stocks. Results show that the cherry fruits analyzed could be an alternative to the supplementing of a mineral diet.</p> Svetlana Motyleva Galina Upadysheva Tatyana Tumaeva Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 74 82 10.5219/1454 The microperforated packaging design and evaluation of shelf life of fresh-sliced mushrooms https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1530 <p>Fresh mushrooms have a very short shelf life, of 1 – 3 days because of their high respiration rate and lack of cuticles that protect the plant from external factors. In the case of fresh-sliced mushrooms, they will be more susceptible to spoilage reactions due to the increase in respiration rate as a result of a broader surface area. Conventional packaging materials can not meet the requirements for modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-sliced mushrooms. One of the techniques to extend the fresh-cut produce shelf life is the passive modification of modified atmosphere packaging technology. For highly respiring fresh-cut produce such as fresh-sliced mushrooms, the permeability properties of the polymeric materials might not be enough to provide an equilibrium gas concentration in the passive modification of modified atmosphere technology. In this case, the microperforated packaging materials can be used for passive modification of fresh-cut produce. But the microperforation process needs a design for the application of the appropriate number and diameter of microholes to meet the requirements of passive modified atmosphere packaging. For this reason in this research, the design of the microperforation process to be used in passive modified atmosphere packaging was based on the diameter and the number of microholes, and the shelf life of fresh-sliced mushrooms was determined. The samples were stored at 15 °C/80% RH, and pH, color, weight loss, textural, sensorial, and microbial analysis were performed periodically during storage. It was determined that the empirical equation used in this research can be applied to microperforated packaging design for fresh-sliced mushrooms. The shelf life of the fresh-sliced mushrooms packaged with microperforated packaging material was 8 days, while it was less than 7 days (4, 5, or 6 days) when packaged with non-microperforated packaging material. This result shows that the use of microperforated packaging material is effective in extending the shelf life of fresh-sliced mushrooms.</p> Özlem Kizilirmak Esmer Erinç Koçak Aslı Şahiner Can Türksever Pinar Akin Aylin Acar Nil Deniz Adman Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 83 94 10.5219/1530 Microbiological, chemical and organoleptic evaluation of fresh fish and its products irradiated by gamma rays https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1505 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">The present study evaluated the microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic aspects of irradiated fresh fish and its products to extend their shelf life. Fresh fish and its products were irradiated at three doses (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy) used for preservation to study the effects of irradiation on their microbiological properties, fatty acid composition, and organoleptic properties. Irradiated fresh bolti fish, smoked herring, and smoked mackerel were evaluated microbiologically, chemically, and organoleptically. Radiation treatment not only reduced the counts of aerobic bacteria, fecal streptococci, molds, and yeasts but also destroyed all the <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> cells, improving the hygienic quality of the fresh and smoked fish samples. Irradiation increased the peroxide, acid, and thiobarbituric acid values, but they remained within acceptable levels. No new fatty acids or other artifacts due to irradiation were observed. Irradiation of 4.5 kGy greatly reduced the organoleptic quality scores of fresh bolti fish, indicating that the optimum radiation dose for this fish was 3.0 kGy. Smoked herring and mackerel could be irradiated with up to 4.5 kGy without adverse effects on their organoleptic properties.</span></p> Amal Nasser Al-Kuraieef Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 95 100 10.5219/1505 The effect of kefir-spirulina on glycemic status and antioxidant activity in hyperglycemia rats https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1445 <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. It is caused by impaired insulin secretion or by insulin receptor insensitivity. DM and its complications are often related to increases in the level of oxidative stress. Spirulina is a nutrient-dense food that contains an abundance of antioxidant compounds. In combination with kefir, it may serve as both a nutrient-rich diet and an antioxidant agent that can prevent complications of diabetes. This study aims to investigate the nutritional content of kefir-spirulina and its effect on glycemic status and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats. A total of 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: normal control (K1), diabetic control (K2), pioglitazone treatment (K3), kefir combined with 1% spirulina treatment (P1), and kefir combined with 2% spirulina treatment (P2). All rats were induced by STZ-NA, except for the normal control. Before and after the 28 days of intervention, blood samples were taken and analyzed for fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose, and SOD activity. The nutritional content, ethanol content, and total antioxidant capacity of kefir-spirulina were also analyzed. The diabetic rats that were fed with kefir-spirulina (P1 and P2) had a significant decrease in both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose (<em>p</em> &lt;0.001) compared to the diabetic control rats. The decrease of plasma glucose in K2 is comparable to the control rats treated with the diabetic drug pioglitazone (K3). The activity of SOD in diabetic rats fed in P1 and P2 were higher (<em>p</em> &lt;0.001) than in untreated diabetic rats (K2). The IC50 of kefir-spirulina was 42 – 43 ppm. It was concluded that kefir combined with spirulina has high nutrition and antioxidant capacity, which is proven to be capable of controlling glycemic status and enhancing antioxidant status in a diabetic rat model.</p> Nur Laela Anang Mohamad Legowo Faizah Fulyani Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 101 110 10.5219/1445 Improvement of the sunflower oil stability by blending with moringa or sesame oils https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1491 <p>Vegetable oils can be adjusted by different methods to enhance their commercial applications and to increase their pure quality nutrition. One of the most leisurely ways of creating new innovative products with desirable textured and oxidative properties is the mixing of vegetable fats/oils of various properties. Pure sunflower (SFO) blended with pure moringa (MOO) and sesame (SEO) oils in the ratio of 95:5 and 90:10 w/w. The outcomes showed that the highest acid value was observed at SFO + SEO 10% (0.782). Sunflower oil stabilized when blended with MOO and the levels of conjugated dienes (CD) and trienes (CT) were depressed compared to control. The TPC value was higher when the sunflower blended with moringa oil. The highest scavenging activity percentage was observed in SFO + MOO 5% and SFO + SEO 10% respectively. Meanwhile, the highest induction period at 100 °C was 11.45 hours in the treatment of SFO + MOO 5%. The master fatty acids in the sunflower and moringa oils are combined (SFO:MOO, 90:10), oleic, and palmitic acids. It seems from the current findings that suitable mixing of high linoleic oils with MOO will result in oil mixtures that can satisfy nutritional wants with expanded balance for home cooking and deep-frying.</p> Amina Aly Hoda Ali Mohamed Abdeldaiem Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 111 120 10.5219/1491 The nutritional characteristics and acceptability of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L) pulp as nutrient concentrate substitute in custard powder https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1500 <p>Micronutrient deficiency in the human diet is of serious concern in developing nations. The utilization potential of Baobab pulp (BP) as a micronutrient source in custard formulation was evaluated. Custard powder was formulated from corn-starch, salt, flavor, colorant, and a commercial nutrient concentrate (NC) using a standard recipe, as a control sample. The nutrient concentrate was substituted by 20 – 50% of Baobab pulp in custard formulation. Custard powder was characterized by chemical, physicochemical, pasting, and sensory properties, using standard procedures. Substitution of Baobab pulp for nutrient concentrate in custard formulation resulted in a significant (<em>p</em> ≤0.05) increase in the crude protein (2.23 – 3.67%), fat (1.49 – 2.40%), fiber (2.95 – 4.85%), and ash (2.21 – 3.63%) contents of custard powder. The vitamins A, C, and <br />Beta-carotene contents of Baobab pulp-fortified custard varied (<em>p</em> ≤0.05) significantly. Substitution of Baobab pulp for nutrient concentrate increased the mineral composition (Calcium (1.16 – 5.75 ppm), Magnesium (1.09 – 1.83 ppm), Potassium (0.81 – 2.68 ppm), and Iron (0.12 – 0.39 ppm)) of custard samples significantly (<em>p</em> ≤0.05). The addition of Baobab pulp in the custard powder formulation enhanced its chemical composition and sensory attributes. The enhancement level increases with an increase in the proportion of baobab pulp.</p> Kazeem Olatoye Oluwatobi Olusanya Abiola Olaniran Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 121 130 10.5219/1500 Сonsumer preferences on the market of plant-based milk analogues https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1485 <p class="PotText" style="text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US">The consumption of plant-based food products instead of animal-based products tends to increase worldwide which can be caused by the global expansion of alternative food products. The article's objective is to investigate the perception of <br />plant-based milk analogues by real and potential consumers and determine the prospects of increasing their assortment. The assortment of plant-based analogues of milk and products made thereof is analyzed. A projection of the almond milk sales was made as one of the most effective product categories. Questioning of consumers conducted to investigate consumer treatment of plant-based milk analogues. The survey covered 436 respondents, of which 37.7% consume plant-based milk regularly and 47.7% of respondents consume this product occasionally. About 15% of respondents have never consumed it. The results show that experimenting with diets and health concerns more often young people (under 30 years of old). Plant-based milk was consumed by men (47.6%) and women (52.4%). Prices for plant-based milk analogues are too high, and its reduction will increase the sales of this product according to respondents. The taste is one of the crucial factors in choosing plant-based milk analogues by respondents. By taste-based preference, the largest shares are with almond milk (20.4%) and oat milk (15.3%). At the same time, 16.2% of the respondents have no preference regarding plant-based milk analogues. It was found that using the titles of traditional milk products for naming plant-based milk analogues is not troublesome for most of the respondents. The derived figures give evidence that consumers, not being sufficiently aware of the origin of plant-based milk analogues, do not understand the differences between traditional products and their plant-based analogues.</span></p> Nataliia Prytulska Iuliia Motuzka Anna Koshelnyk Olena Motuzka Ludmila Yashchenko Malgorzata Jarossová Paulína Krnáčová Joanna Wyka Ewa Malczyk Marta Habánová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 131 142 10.5219/1485 Characterization of Lactobacillus species proposed as probiotics https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1479 <p>An isolated <em>Lactobacillus </em>from several various sources were identified depending on morphological, microscopically and biochemical tests in vitro analysis of probiotic properties that included: an ability to tolerate in different concentration of bile salt, survival in acidic conditions, their antimicrobial activity, and S-layer characterizations were carried out. It was noticed that isolates of <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</em> and <em>L. delbrueckii</em> have a broad activity of antimicrobial and found the isolate <br /><em>L. rhamnosus</em> represented with a survival percentage 6.9% at pH 4.5 and 5.1% at pH 2.0) also <em>L. rhamnosus</em> (5.7% at pH 4.5 and 4.9% at pH 2.0) tolerated acidic media, <em>Lactobacillus </em>spp. has antimicrobial activity against all gram-positive and negative tested isolates. 70 kDa of S-layer protein bands were detected with whole-cell SDS-PAGE analysis, and it's predominant in cells of isolates which grown in MRS broth anaerobically. It was noticed that the collected <em>Lactobacillus </em>isolates could be used as probiotic.</p> Saad Sabah Fakhry Farqad Abdullah Rashid Maha Muhamaed Khudiar Lubna Ayad Ismail Sarah Khattab Ismail Reema Jawad Kazem Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-28 2021-02-28 15 143 150 10.5219/1479 Survey of somatic cell counts and milk composition in bulk milk of ewes in dairy practice https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1325 <p>We evaluated milk quality during the sheep dairy period in the year 2018. The study was performed at fifteen dairy farms with differed breeds and crossbreds under Slovakian usual practical conditions (milking and pasture). At the first and seventh farm purebred Tsigai (TS) ewes were kept, at the eight to twelve farm there were purebred Lacaune ewes (LC) and the thirteen farm were kept crossbred Improved Valachian x Lacaune ewes (IV/LC, with a higher proportion of Improved Valachian), the fourteen farm crossbred Lacaune x East Friesian ewes and the last farm were ewes of the synthetic population of Slovak dairy ewe (SD). The milk yield recording and milk sampling were performed once a month during evening milking as a part of milk recording services. The basic milk composition was determined by MilkoScan FT120 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and somatic cell count was determined using a Fossomatic 90 (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) after heat treatment at 40 °C for 15 min. We found the highest incidence of SCC on farm 14 with crossbred LC/EF 3.940 x 103 cells.mL<sup>-1</sup>. Followed by farms 12 and 9 with purebred LC (SCC value of 3.318 and 2.489 x 103 cells.mL<sup>-1</sup>). Farm 7 with purebred TS reached the lowest value (831 x 103 cells.mL<sup>-1</sup>). The highest fat content was reached by the purebred TS, with gradual growth from March to July. Crossbreds and the synthetic population of Slovak dairy ewe (SD) had the lowest average fat content, which could be affected by feeding. Similar tendencies were found in protein content.</p> Martina Vršková Vladimír Tančin Michal Uhrinčať Lucia Mačuhová Kristína Tvarožková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 151 155 10.5219/1325 The study of rapeseeds ash composition in the conditions of the agroecological experiment https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1356 <p>A comparative analysis of the seeds ash composition of the breed Rif (<em>Brassica napus</em> L.) rapeseeds grown in the Lipetskaya region was held. The plants were grown in the conditions of the agroecological experiment using mineral (NPK and zeolite) and organic (hen droppings) fertilizers. 6 variants of the experiment were studied – the plants are grown without fertilizers application (the control); the mineral fertilizer (N<sub>60</sub>:P<sub>60</sub>:K<sub>60</sub>) separately and together with zeolite (5 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>); the zeolite in pure form (5 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>); hen droppings (5 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>) separately and together with zeolite (5 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>). We studied the accumulation of 9 basic elements (in mass %) contained in Brassica napus. seeds ash using the method of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The accumulation order of the elements was determined: P ≈ K &gt; Mg ≥ Ca &gt; Mo &gt; S &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Fe. The proportion of P fluctuated from 10.852 to 11.855 mass %; the proportion of K – from 9.933 till 12.343 mass %. The rapeseeds contained Mg, Ca, and Mo in similar concentrations within the range of 4.0 -5.8 mass %. The combined application of zeolite with organic fertilizer ensured the accumulation of the minerals in the seeds. Correlations between the elements were established. High correlation between elements K and Mo was found (r = 0.96); P and Mg (0.86); P and Fe (r = 0.94); C and Mo (r = 0.86). The positive effect of the combined organic-mineral fertilizers with poultry farms wastes usage on the mineral elements accumulation in rapeseeds was stated. It is noted that the accumulation of P, Ca, Mo, and S in rape seeds leads to a decrease in Zn.</p> Tatyana Zubkova Svetlana Motyleva Olga Dubrovina Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 156 161 10.5219/1356 The study on the process of dehydrating legumes during high-temperature micronization with infrared rays https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1511 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">Heat treatment is a common operation in grain processing technology. Thermal action on grain is characterized by temperature level and duration. Also, the grain changes all its complex properties. Frequently, the temperature in grain activates the process of change in the moisture content and is accompanied by moisture loss. The processes of change in the heat and moisture are interrelated. Based on the experiments conducted on legumes (different varieties of bean, white lupin), a mathematical model of these processes has been developed and the appropriate non-linear differential equations have been used. The obtained equations cannot be solved either analytically or numerically, because some of the coefficients are unknown. The equations are solved based on certain assumptions. Based on these assumptions, the paper provides the calculation of the change in temperature and moisture content over time in legumes, such as bean and white lupin. The obtained results have been compared with experimental data.</span></p> Otari Sesikashvili Nodari Mardaleishvili Elene Gamkrelidze Shalva Tsagareishvili Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 162 172 10.5219/1511 The effect of tempeh flour from tree bean (Parkia timoriana (dc) Merr.) seeds on lipid profile in protein-energy malnutrition rats https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1525 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">Children with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) need a food product that can be easily absorbed by the body because they have impaired nutrient utilization and lipid profile disorder. The provision of fermented products such as tempeh is an alternative approach. Seeds of tree bean (<em>Parkia timoriana</em> (DC) Merr.) are a good source of various nutrients needed by children with PEM. This study aimed to prove the effectiveness of the administration of tempeh flour from tree bean (<em>Parkia timoriana</em> (DC) Merr.) seeds on the lipid profile in PEM rats. PEM in rats was induced by a zero-protein diet containing granulated sugar (20 g), vegetable oil (1 g), and cornstarch (24 g). The animals were categorized into a normal control group (K+), a PEM group without treatment (K−); a group fed tempeh flour from tree bean (<em>Parkia timoriana</em> (DC) Merr.) seeds 1.5 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> BW (P1); and a group fed tempeh flour from tree bean (<em>Parkia timoriana</em> (DC) Merr.) seeds 3 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> BW (P2). The intervention was administered for 30 days. There was a significant increase in HDL levels (<em>p</em> = 0.001) and significant decreases in cholesterol (<em>p</em> = 0.001), triglyceride (<em>p</em> = 0.001), LDL levels (<em>p</em> = 0.001), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) (<em>p </em>= 0.000) in treatment groups. In conclusion, the administration of tempeh flour from tree bean (<em>Parkia timoriana</em> (DC) Merr.) seeds increases HDL levels and decreases cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL level, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in rats with PEM.</span></p> Nurmasari Widyastuti Nita Hasna Luthfiah Rimadhani Ulfa Mohammad Sulchan Gemala Anjani Nyoman Suci Widyastiti Diana Nur Afifah Vita Gustin Almira Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 173 180 10.5219/1525 The study of the variability of morphobiological indicators of different size and weight groups of hybrid silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) as a promising direction of development of the fish processing industry https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1537 <p>In water reservoirs, the size and characteristics of fish, in the first place, affect – the composition and clarity of food objects, the number of food competitors and predators, their numbers, industry, and others. Besides, the rate of linear and weight growth are the arteries that determine the value of the species as an object of commercial fishing. The hybrid of silver and bighead carp easily adapts to different growing conditions (from the point of view of the formation of fish-biological indicators), protein in different years depending on feeding conditions, in one reservoir indicators of length and body weight of ribs are inadequate. Evaluating the influence of feeding conditions on the linear growth of the rib, the method of generalized evaluation was used. An indicator equal to the sum of potential fish productivity for phyto-zooplankton was used to characterize the foraging status of a particular condition in a certain period. In terms of the quality of growth indicators, the indicator of the absolute weight of nature with differentiation of farms, age groups, and years was used. The results of the research revealed significant variability in the size and weight characteristics of different groups of silver and bighead carp, which were isolated from ponds and reservoirs. According to the results of experimental studies established for the cultivation of hybrid silver and bighead carp in reservoirs, relatively high rates of linear and weight growth are expected, higher than for similar species, which is provided in the conditions of fish ponds.</p> Alina Makarenko Mikhailo Mushtruk Natalia Rudyk-Leuska Iryna Kononenko Petro Shevchenko Melania Khyzhniak Natalia Martseniuk Julia Glebova Alevtina Bazaeva Maksim Khalturin Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 181 191 10.5219/1537 The effect of treatment conditions on color characteristics and measure of cholesterol removal from milk by beta-cyclodextrin application https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1557 <p>Long-term high cholesterol intake is one of the most critical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As milk and dairy products are rich in cholesterol and are consumed on a large scale, the production of low-cholesterol content products could decrease effectively high cholesterol intake what would be one of the crucial steps in CVD prevention. Thus, this study is aimed at optimization of treatment conditions (mixing speed, time, and temperature) and β-cyclodextrin addition affecting the measure of cholesterol removal in milk. As found, the optimal conditions were identified such as mixing speed 840 rpm, mixing time 10 min, and the temperature of mixing 25 °C while the most effectivity in cholesterol decrease content (98.1%) was observed after 2.0% β-cyclodextrin addition. The cholesterol removal process did not affect considerably the lightness values <em>L*</em> of treated milk, slight differences were noticed in terms of <em>a*</em> and <em>b*</em> color values but <em>ΔE</em> values were statistically insignificant, i.e., the process of cholesterol removal did not affect visual characteristics of treated milk. So, these conditions can be applied for the production of milk base functional foods with the decreased cholesterol content.</p> Lukáš Kolarič Peter Šimko Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 192 198 10.5219/1557 A pilot plant scale of Yellow Konjac (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) flour production by a centrifugal mill using response surface methodology https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1455 <p>This study aimed at investigating the effects of polishing conditions on the physicochemical properties of polished yellow konjac flour (PYKF) with a centrifugal mill using Central Composite Design-Response Surface Methodology (CCD-RSM). Micro-mill milled yellow konjac flour (MMYKF) mass and polishing cycles were the independent variables, with four observed responses (calcium oxalate, viscosity, degree of whiteness (DoW), and glucomannan). The lower limit (-1) and upper limit (+1) for MMYKF mass in this study are 10 and 15 kg, respectively, while the -1 and +1 for the polishing cycle are three times, and seven times, respectively. The optimum prediction occurred at 10 kg of MMYKF mass and six times the polishing cycle with the following characteristics: 0.52 ±0.00% w.b. calcium oxalate, 20362.00 ±16.00 cP viscosity, 62.22 ±0.01 DoW, and 69.43 ±0.02% d.b. glucomannan content, which agreed with the verification data with <em>p</em>-value &gt;0.05 for all observed responses using the paired T-test. Polishing using a centrifugal mill is feasible and promises to be scaled up to industrial scale for yellow konjac flour polishing before the wet extraction process. </p> Jatmiko Eko Witoyo Bambang Dwi Argo Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono Simon Bambang Widjanarko Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 199 209 10.5219/1455 Evaluation of vapor-phase antifungal activities of selected plant essential oils against fungal strains growing on bread food model https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1483 <p>The current study aimed to investigate antifungal activities of two commercially available essential oils (EOs), specifically Tea tree oil (<em>Melaleuca alternifolia</em>; TTEO) and St. John's wort oil (<em>Hypericum perforatum</em>; HPEO) against three <em>Penicillium</em> (<em>P.</em>) species: <em>P. citrinum</em>, <em>P. expansum</em>, and <em>P. crustosum</em> in <em>in situ</em> conditions. For this purpose, EOs were applied in the vapor phase to determine the growth inhibition of fungi artificially inoculated on sliced bread. Changes in colony growth rate were evaluated as markers for the mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) effect of the EOs. The antioxidant activities of the EOs were evaluated using the DPPH method. The moisture content (MC) and water activity (a<sub>w</sub>) of bread as a substrate for fungal growth were also measured. From the DPPH assay, we have found that both EOs (TTEO, HPEO) exhibited strong antioxidant activity (64.94 ±7.34%; 70.36 ±1.57%, respectively). The values for bread MC and a<sub>w</sub> were 43.01 ±0.341% and 0.947 ±0.006, respectively. Our results suggest that HPEO is the only weak inhibitor of <em>P. citrinum</em> and <em>P. crustosum</em> colony growths. Also, the highest concentrations of TTEO display only the weak capability of mycelial growth inhibition of <em>P. citrinum</em> and <em>P. crustosum</em>. By contrast, the colony growth of <em>P. expansum</em> was enhanced by both EOs at all levels used. In conclusion, the application of both EOs in the vapor phase against selected <em>Penicillium</em> species seems not to be a promising alternative to chemical inhibitors used for bread preservation.</p> Veronika Valková Hana Ďúranová Lucia Galovičová Eva Ivanišová Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 210 217 10.5219/1483 The potential of red dragon fruit peel yogurt to improve platelet levels in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in Wistar rats https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1497 <p>Patients infected with the dengue virus will develop thrombocytopenia which can cause bleeding and complications. One of the materials that contain antioxidants and have potential as a functional food is red dragon fruit peel. This peel can be processed into yogurt as a way to increase antioxidant function which ultimately supports the immune system of its users. This study analyzed the effect of red dragon fruit peel yogurt on the platelet levels of thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. It used a pre-post-test control group design. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into seven groups: K-; K+; and five treatment groups that received dragon fruit peel yogurt at doses of 5% (K1); 10% (K2); 15% (K3); 20% (K4); and 25% (K5). Thrombocytopenia was induced by 0.1 mL.100g<sup>-1</sup> BW of heparin for 3 days. The intervention was carried out for 28 days. The result showed that all groups had significant differences before and after the intervention (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). Tukey analysis showed that there were significant differences in all groups (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). Yogurt containing 25% red dragon fruit peel provides an effective dose for improving platelet levels in thrombocytopenic rats.</p> Widya Hary Cahyati Nur Siyam Natalia Desy Putriningtyas Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 218 225 10.5219/1497 The impact of consumer personality on purchasing behavior in the dairy market in terms of psychological factors https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1556 <p>Since the 1990s of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the Slovak dairy industry has undergone many significant changes which have been related to the reduction of the herds of cattle and milk cows, the decrease of quantity of milked milk, low purchase prices of milk, the decline of a great number of milk producers and processors. The consumption of cow´s milk and dairy products in Slovakia is very low in comparison with the countries of the European Union (about 320 kg), Europe (293 kg), the Czech Republic (280 kg), and the rest of the world. It varies around 170 kg per capita per year, which is also considerably lower consumption than the dose of 220 – 240 kg per capita per year recommended by doctors. Since 1990 the production and consumption of dairy products and cheeses have decreased significantly. In Slovakia, the consumption is twice even three times less than in the developed countries of Europe. The reason for this situation is the behavior of a consumer and the factors having an impact on the consumption of cow`s milk and dairy products. The objective of the paper is to indicate the impact of the personal consumers` characteristics on the purchasing decisions on the market of the products of cow`s milk origin, based on the processed answers of the respondents participating in the questionnaire survey. The primary data were obtained via the questionnaire survey, which was conducted with 786 respondents. The questionnaire consisted of four parts – Eysenck`s personality test, the questions targeted at the detection of factors influencing the consumers` purchasing behavior and decision making, the questions related to expressing opinions about cow`s milk and dairy products, and the classification questions providing the information about the respondents. The data were processed by the methods of quantitative and qualitative statistics – Chi-square statistic χ2 test of square contingency, Chi-square χ2 goodness of fit test, two proportion test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the test of hypotheses of relative proportion.</p> Ľudmila Nagyová Andrej Géci Alexandra Krivošíková Elena Horská Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 226 234 10.5219/1556 Social demographic factors influencing consumer's preferences on rice attributes in Indonesia: a multinomial logistic approach https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1526 <p>This study assessed factors influencing consumer's preferences on rice attributes in Indonesia using data collected from a sample of 329 consumers in South Sumatra Province in Indonesia. This study used two variables such as independent variables and dependent variables. Independent variables as a predictor of attributes of consumer preferences include social-demographic variables. On another side, dependent variables include attributes of rice-based on the preferences of the consumer. Social demographic factors such as gender, age, number of families, occupation, education, and income are mentioned to influence consumer's preference for rice. Rice attributes such as small broken, chalky grains, higher broken, varieties, family reference, friend reference, suppliers, advertisement, foreign object, residue, packaging, brand, volume expansion, head rice, flavor, aroma soft texture, durability, and whiteness. This study employed the multinomial logistic regression analysis to examine the effects of these variables on rice preference. This study revealed that among household characteristics that influence consumers' preference for rice attributes were household income and the type of occupation of the household head.</p> Julkhaidar Romadhon Muhammad Yazid Andy Mulyana Yunita Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 235 244 10.5219/1526 Comparative characteristics of eggs of chickens of domestic and foreign selection in their diverse age https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1501 <p>At this juncture, more and more attention is drawn to the preservation of the gene pool of local breeds of poultry, which have a set of valuable features, including high-quality eggs. In this study, the quality parameters of eggs (egg weight, weight, and proportion of yolk, weight, and proportion of albumen, yolk-albumen ratio, energy value, lipid and fatty acid content in the yolk) of chickens of Ukrainian selection(such hybrids as Plymouth white, Poltava Clay, Birkivska Barvysta and their interbreed hybrids) and foreign commercial crosses (Tetra SL, Tetra H, Super Harko, Lohmann Brown, Highsex White and Brown, High Line W36), at different ages (26, 34, 44 weeks of age) were studied in the comparative aspect. The average egg weight of Ukrainian breeds and hybrids was 51.9 g, 56.5 g, and 61.2 g at the age of 26, 34, and 44 weeks, respectively, in foreign crosses it was much higher - 59 g, 61.2 g, and 64.5 g, respectively (<em>p </em>&lt;0.01). At the same time, there was a probable advantage of the Ukrainian selection bird over the foreign selection bird in the proportion of yolk (by 4.3%, 2.9%, and 4.1% at the age of 26.34 and 44 weeks, respectively), the yolk-albumen ratio (by 0.12, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively) and the energy value of the egg (76, 48 and 60 kJ, respectively). Higher lipid content was found in the egg yolks of domestic chickens in comparison with the foreign hybrid Tetra SL. The total content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the egg yolks in hens of local breeds is higher than in foreign cross. High-quality characteristics of eggs of local breeds and populations are evidence of the presence of a valuable set of genes that require comprehensive study, preservation, and use in the creation of new selectively significant forms.</p> Lyudmyla Nalyvayko Kateryna Rodionova Svitlana Pankova Natalia Shomina Oleg Katerynych Mariia Khimych Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 245 253 10.5219/1501 Amino acids in enteral formula based on local fermented food for children with protein energy malnutrition https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1480 <p>Protein-energy malnutrition still becomes a problem in the world and Indonesia. The enteral formula is needed in the process of fulfilling overall nutrition in the form of a liquid diet in malnourished patients to digest and absorb nutrients without any difficulties. Amino acid lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, and tryptophan are often deficits in children's food; even, malnourished children (stunting, wasting, or protein-energy malnutrition) have decreased amino acids. <em>Tempeh gembus</em>, fermented local food, is used as the main ingredient for the enteral formula, and the hydrolysate process is carried out and made into flour, resulting in more amino acids due to the process of protein breakdown. The making of enteral formula from local food fermentation aims to enable the community to optimize local food into more nutritious food so that it can be produced at the household scale. Other supplementary ingredients are isolated soy protein, pumpkin flour, maltodextrin, sugar, and soybean oil. The enteral formula is isocaloric and isoprotein; it is divided into two with different compositions of the hydrolysate of <em>Tempeh gembus</em> flour. This study aims to determine the content of protein, amino acids, and limiting amino acids in the enteral formula. The amino acid analysis was performed using the HPLC method. Amino acid glutamate has the highest content in enteral formulas A and B (2,080 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>and 1,950 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>). The total amino acid content of enteral formula A is higher than that of enteral formula B with a difference of 210 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>. Enteral formula A has a higher average amino acid content (1,400 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>) than enteral formula B (1,378 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), and there is no significant difference (<em>p</em> = 0.812) between them. The enteral formula A has a higher amino acid content, but the highest protein content is in enteral formula B. The limiting amino acids in enteral formulas A and B are the methionine amino acids. Enteral formulas A and B can fulfill the needs of amino acids and be an alternative formula for Children with PEM.</p> Yessie Finandita Pratiwi Mohammad Sulchan Diana Nur Afifah Rusdin Rauf Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 15 254 261 10.5219/1480 Research of hop polyphenols impact on malt hopped wort aroma formation model experiments https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1518 <p class="PotText">Currently, a lot of research is being done on the flavoring compounds of hops. However, much less attention has been paid to the aroma formation considering the hop polyphenol different groups by various methods at the wort hopping stage. Therefore, the main goal of the research is an impact of hopping conditions on the polyphenolic compounds, when the hop is extracted variously into both wort and water to better understand extraction conditions, mechanisms, and factors as well as aroma formation considering various groups of polyphenols. As shown the hop variety, boiling time, and treatment type affect the hop polyphenols amount extracted into the wort. Aromatics varied upon a hop variety and wort boiling time accompanying a positive softening effect regarding aroma formated from malt wort compounds comparing to hopped aqueous extracts. The research proved the most noticeable pH (7 and above) impact on aroma formation caused by the polyphenol conversion. As also shown the first time, a temperature and acidic pH doubled the rutin amount, as well as the best extraction of the prenylflavanoid isoxanthohumol, was achieved by boiling at an alkaline medium pH. The results obtained indicate that various hydrophilic amino acids containing in the wort can stabilize polyphenols affecting the quality indicators of beer produced from different grain raw materials.</p> Marina Gernet Irina Gribkova Maxim Zakharov Konstantin Kobelev Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 262 273 10.5219/1518 Bee stimulation to form protein food reserves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1562 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">We have investigated different ways of bees’ stimulation to lay protein food while using artificial honeycombs. It has been proved that the use of artificial combs to get bee-bread upon the condition of the post-treatment processing of its elements by wax and honey syrup does not stimulate bees to lay and process protein food in their cells. It has been identified that upon the condition of the direct involvement of the working bees into the formation of bee-bread supplies the protein food has been mostly consumed. This proves that the working bees use the freshly-gathered pollen pellet for their own needs in the period of its active gathering. It has been determined that the most effective way of bee stimulation to reprocess pollen pellet into bee-bread is it's single densifying in artificial honeycombs with the follow-up processing of the upper layer of the feed by honey. This way encourages bees to form stocks of bee bread and decreases their activity of consuming protein food from cells of artificial honeycombs. The processing of thickened pollen pellet by honey probably oppresses the bees’ need to consume protein food from the packed cells redirecting them to other honeycombs of the bee family’s nest which has areas with bee-bread reserves.</span></p> Serhii Velychko Valeryii Brovarskyi Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 274 284 10.5219/1562 Evaluation of nutritional composition and sensory properties of cheese, cheese spreads and traditional butter from Slovak production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1614 <p>Cheese production is associated with the analysis of its nutritional composition as well as with the sensory evaluation of the acceptance of the products. The paper is aimed at the determination of basic chemical parameters such as the content of proteins, fat, dry matter, salt and, pH and also on the evaluation of sensory properties of hard cheeses by the sensory panel. The GC-MS analysis of cheeses, cheese spreads, and traditional butter was performed to evaluate the aroma profile of the dairy products analyzed. The dry matter in the analyzed cheeses varied between 56.75 and 71.83%, the fat content varied from 18.73 to 30.83%, and the salt from 1.21 to 2.61%. The presence of proteins was found between 27.76 and 32.61% and the pH of the cheeses ranged from 5.21 to 6.01. The results of the sensory analysis were processed using a PCA map. The results showed that sample no. 5 was rated within all attributes as the best. Sample 3, 2, and 1 followed. Sample 4 received the lowest score. The volatile aromatic compounds that contribute to a taste perception were analyzed by GC-MS in dairy products. The aroma profile was built by the volatile compounds that belonged to chemical families of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, amides, amines, imines, and terpenes. In particular, cheeses contained mostly alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol), aldehydes (3-methylbutanal and benzaldehyde), and ketones (acetoin, 2,3,3-trimethylcyclobutanone, 2-heptanone, 2,3-butanedione, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-nonanone, 2- pentanone). &nbsp;The spreads most often contained alcohols (represented by 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and cyclopropane-1,2,3-d3-methanol), aldehydes (2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde) and ketones (acetoin, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and 2,3-butanedione).</p> Silvia Jakabová Lucia Benešová Miroslav Kročko Peter Zajác Jozef Čapla Adam Partika Jozef Golian Jana Štefániková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 285 295 10.5219/1614 Use of aromatic root vegetables in the technology of freshwater fish preserves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1581 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">The expediency of using freshwater fish and aromatic root vegetables in the technology of preserves has been substantiated. Based on the organoleptic analysis, the compatibility of freshwater fish and aromatic vegetables as part of preserves has been determined. The conditions for pretreatment of salted semi-finished products to ensure their maturation as part of preserves have been theoretically substantiated and experimentally determined. It has been found that pretreatment of freshwater fish flesh with 1.0% and 1.5% malic acid for 60 minutes provides soft, tender and juicy consistency, which corresponds to an organoleptic rating of 5 points. Changes in the fatty acid composition of preserves are mainly associated with an increase in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have been introduced with linseed oil, which is a positive factor. It has been found that, in comparison with the control sample, the level of all mineral elements in preserves with aromatic root vegetables is significantly increased, with fiber present, which indicates the expediency of introducing aromatic root vegetables into this product to enrich it with essential mineral and carbohydrate elements to obtain a high-value and healthy food product. Enriching the formulation of preserves made of freshwater fish with a variety of herbal additives increases their nutritional value and allows to get a product of high value enriched with such vital nutrients as carbohydrates, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, magnesium, manganese, and iron. Aromatic root vegetables such as horseradish, parsley, and ginger have been found to exhibit antiseptic properties and delay the activity of microbial enzymes as they content phenol. Therefore, the use of aromatic root vegetables helps to inhibit the oxidation and hydrolysis of fats, which may be due to the presence of phenols in their composition. </span></p> Nataliia Holembovska Liudmyla Tyshchenko Nataliia Slobodyanyuk Valentyna Israelian Yuliya Kryzhova Anastasia Ivaniuta Оksana Pylypchuk Alina Menchynska Oksana Shtonda Dmytro Nosevych Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 296 305 10.5219/1581 Studies on the chemical composition of fruits and seeds of Pseudocydonia sinensis (Thouin) C.K. Schneid https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1583 <p><em>Pseudocydonia sinensis</em> (Thouin) C. K. Schneid. less known plant species in the Ukraine conditions, but the fruits were widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma, colds, sore throat, mastitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and tuberculosis. The content of protein, ash, and lipids in the seeds was found to be greater than in the pulp and peel. Monosaccharide analysis of neutral carbohydrate part showed the presence of two main sugars fructose and sucrose in the seeds, pulp, and peel. There is a higher beta-carotene content in the rind of the fruit than in the seeds and pulp. The total amount of fatty acids varied from sample to sample and contained mainly oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and linoleic acid. Linoleic acid in the seeds was 48.02% of total fatty acids, slightly less in the rind 42.70%. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in the pulp samples were 45.38, 21.32, and 14.93%, respectively. The total amount of amino acids found in the seeds was 105.0 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> DM, including total essential amino acids (32.70 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> DM). Glutamic acid was found in seeds to be the dominant free amino acid followed by aspartic acid and arginine in the seed. In our study, the antioxidant activity carried out by the DPPH method and measured by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power of peel, pulp and seeds were 9.41, 7.08, 6.21, and 158.81, 92.83, 78.58 mg TEAC.g<sup>-1</sup> DM, respectively. Micro and macronutrients and amino acids predominated in the seeds, total fatty acids predominated in the pulp. The highest content of bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, flavonoid, and phenolic acid) and antioxidant activity was found in the peel. <em>P. sinensis</em> can be considered as a nourishing fruit with a copious potential with health-promoting roles and medicinal properties.</p> Olga Grygorieva Svitlana Klymenko Olena Vergun Olga Shelepova Yulia Vinogradova Inna Goncharovska Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková Katarína Fatrcová Šramková Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 306 317 10.5219/1583 The effect of dry demineralized whey (DDW) and coconut oil on the rheological characteristics of the legume butter https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1578 <p>This article reveals the possibility of using legume butter to obtain a new combined product of increased quality. The technology of model compositions of finishing semi-finished products, in particular, confectionery legume butter with DDW, has been developed. The results of a study on optimizing the recipe composition of finishing semi-finished products made it possible to develop this technology of multifunctional confectionery butter with the desired (specified) organoleptic and structural and mechanical properties. The analysis of the formation of the structure of legume butter of oppositely directed processes in the enzymatic destruction of the residual cellular structure and spontaneous aggregation of protein particles into the spatial structure due to gradual dehydration of the system was carried out. It is noted that sugar plays the role of a plasticizer, reducing the rate of gelatinization of starch while reducing the viscosity peak. The use of dry demineralized whey (DDW) in legume butter technologies contributes to the formation of a stronger structure of the protein component and the development of a spatial structure, which gives it certain structural and mechanical properties. Three main directions of technological use of confectionery butter were established, which are based on structural characteristics of consistency: 1 – confectionery butter used to cover confectionery products and as a layer for them (CP – Confectionery Products), where the main indicator of consistency is extensibility; 2 – confectionery butter used for making flowers, as a decorative element for flour confectionery (SC – Sugar Confectionery)), where the main indicator of consistency is an equivalent ratio of extensibility and forming ability; 3 – confectionery butter used for modeling shaped products, as a decorative element for flour confectionery products, where the main indicator of consistency is the forming ability. The results of studies of the rheological characteristics of legume butter with dry demineralized whey (DDW) and coconut oil are presented. It was ascertained that DDW and coconut oil lead to changes in the state of legume butter, changing the values of rheological characteristics. The rational content of DDW and coconut oil in the composition of legume butter while ensuring high functional and technological properties was proved. The optimal ratios of components of the developed legume butter were mathematically grounded.</p> Igor Stadnyk Volodymyr Piddubnyi Mykhail Kravchenko Larysa Rybchuk Stepan Balaban Taisia Veselovska Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 318 329 10.5219/1578 Heavy metals analysis, GCMS-QP quantification of flavonoids, amino acids and saponins, analysis of tannins and organoleptic properties of powder and tincture of Echinacea purpurea (L.) and Rhapónticum carthamoídes https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1476 <p>Medicinal plants are one of the main sources of vitamins, minerals salts, macro-and microelements, and other biologically active substances that have a health and protective effect on the human body. The current study was aimed to appraise the heavy metals contents in the powder materials of two medicinally important plants <em>Echinacea purpurea</em> (L.) and <em>Rhapónticum carthamoídes</em> collected from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Flavonoids, saponins, amino acid contents quantification were done both in raw materials as well as tincture prepared from both plants via GCMS-QP 2010 Ultra chromatomass spectrometer. Further, tannins concentrations and organoleptic properties of the tincture were elucidated using previously reported standard procedures. In the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals were within the permitted range i.e. lead (0.0027 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), cadmium (0.00012 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), arsenic (ND), mercury (ND). In the crude powder, flavonoids were observed to be in the highest concentration in <em>E. purpurea</em> (L.) (5.5 ±0.20 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), whereas, its concentration was 3.1 ±0.346 mg.100g<sup>-1 </sup>in <em>R. carthamoídes </em>powder. Tannin concentration was higher in <em>R. carthamoídes</em> (5.5 ±0.115 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>) and 3.1 ±0.46 mg.100g<sup>-1 </sup>in <em>E. purpurea</em>. Likewise, saponins concentrations were 4.1 ±0.40 mg.100g<sup>-1 </sup>and 5.6 ±0.17 mg.100g<sup>-1 </sup>in <em>E. purpurea </em>and <em>R. carthamoídes</em> powder respectively. Concentrations of these active metabolites in the resultant tincture were flavonoids (7.6 ±0.23), tannins (7.5 ±0.28), and saponins (8.5 ±0.16) mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>. In the current study, we observed highest concentrations of these essential amino acids in the tincture including leucine/isoleucine (78.00 ±1.15 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), histidine (14.00 ±1.44 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), lysine (49.33 ±2.02 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), methionine (18.66 ±2.90 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), cystine (29.00 ±0.57 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>), phenylalanine (24.16 <br />±1.87 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>) and threonine (32.50 ±1.22 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. The resultant tincture has a pleasant agreeable taste coupled with acceptable herbal flavor which are important organoleptic properties for any product.</p> Aitbek Kakimov Alibek Muratbayev Klara Zharykbasova Samat Amanzholov Gulmira Mirasheva Samat Kassymov Asiya Utegenova Madina Jumazhanova Mohammad Ali Shariati Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 330 339 10.5219/1476 The diversity of fungal population from grape harvest to young wine in Small Carpathian wine region https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1609 <p>The study aimed to identify the filamentous fungi and yeast mycobiota found on the surface and in grapes, grape must, and wine obtained from four red grape varieties: Alibernet, Dornfelder, Blue Frankish, Cabernet Sauvignon, and four white grape varieties: Green Veltliner, Rheinriesling, Pinot Blanc, Sauvignon. Grapes from vineyard Vrbové located in southwestern Slovakia were used for the research in 2020. The identification of filamentous fungi was performed using the macroscopic and microscopic observations and yeasts were identified by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometer. A total of 642 isolates were obtained. Grapes were rich in diversity of filamentous fungi (13 genera) and must on yeasts (8 genera). <em>Penicillium, Botrytis, </em>and<em> Hanseniaspora uvarum </em>were identified in both grapes and must. Three of the fungal genera identified by conventional or molecular techniques from the surface of red grape varieties were predominant: <em>Alternaria</em> (26%), <em>Botrytis</em> (21%), and <em>Issatchenkia terricola</em> (13%), two from endogenous mycobiota: <em>Hanseniaspora uvarum</em> (45%) and <em>Botrytis</em> (17%), four from the surface of white grape varieties: <em>Penicillium</em> (25%), <em>Botrytis</em> (21%), <em>Alternaria </em>(16%) and <em>Hanseniaspora uvarum</em> (15%), and three from endogenous mycobiota: <em>Botrytis</em> (44%), <em>Hanseniaspora uvarum</em> (23%) and <em>Alternaria</em> (20%). <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei, C. utilis,</em> and <em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em> were identified only in wine.</p> Soňa Felšöciová Jozef Sabo Lucia Galovičová Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 340 349 10.5219/1609 The study of soluble solids content accumulation dynamics under the influence of weather factors in the fruits of cherries https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1554 <p>High tasting assessment of the fruit of sweet cherry is due to the favorable soluble solids content (SSC). The weather parameters and varietal features during the formation of fruit have the dominant influence on the accumulation of soluble solids. This issue has gained new relevance in the context of global climate change. The research aimed to develop a dependence of the accumulation of soluble solids of the various sorts of sweet cherries on the weather conditions of the South Steppe zone of Ukraine. Statistical analysis of the values of soluble solids in sweet cherry fruit was performed according to the average indicators of three groups of cultivars. To achieve this goal, the laboratory, factor, correlation, and regression analyses were carried out. The mathematical model was built with the application of factor and regression analysis methods, with the principal component analysis being used. The factor and regression analysis methods became the basis for the linear regression model of dependence of SSC fund accumulation on the influence of climatic parameters for the cultivar types of the three ripening terms. Based on the constructed regression models, we analyzed the degree of influence of the weather parameters on the SSC indicator by calculating the coefficients of Δ<sub>i</sub> relative influence. The largest influence was set for the group of temperature and humidity parameters with the maximum share of Δ<sub>i</sub> ≥9.50%. It was mathematically substantiated that the weather parameters of the last month of fruit formation had the greatest influence on the accumulation of SSC in the sweet cherry fruit, regardless of the period of ripening. For early and medium ripening sweet cherries, those were the weather parameters for May, and for those of late-term of ripening June parameters were of the maximum value.</p> Iryna Ivanova Maryna Serdiuk Vira Malkina Iryna Bandura Ihor Kovalenko Tetiana Tymoshchuk Oksana Tonkha Oleksandr Tsyz Mikhailo Mushtruk Alina Omelian Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 350 359 10.5219/1554 Biologically active substances of Camellia sinensis in a humid subtropical climate of Russia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1440 <p>We did a comparative analysis of tea and raw tea materials. There is an increase in the content of carotenoids and flavonoids (thearubigins and theaflavins) in June, a decline in July, and August, and consequently a slight increase again in other months. The increase is due to unfavorable conditions – drought during these periods. In raw new variety forms No. 855 and No. 582, as well as in black tea variety form No. 582 (0.09 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>), we determined the high value of theaflavins (0.10; 0.11 and 0.09 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). The highest content of thearubigins was found in variety forms No. 582 and No. 3823 (1.33 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> and 1.17 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>). Ascorbic acid is significantly disintegrated (on average 96 – 97%) in the production of black tea. In green tea, ascorbic acid disintegrates to a lesser extent, leaving about 13% of its initial amount in the raw material. The dynamics of GPOD activity in a 3-leaf sprout are variety-specific. At the beginning of the growing season (May), the activity of the enzyme was low – in the range of 0.363 to 0.607 g-unit in sec. In June, there is a decrease in activity, which, however, is not significant (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) and is due to the biological characteristics of the tea culture. In green tea, the ruthine is on average 3 times more than in black tea (on average about 38.09 and 12.12 mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). We have identified 11 amino acids; the highest percentage accounted for proline (from 30 to 70%), valine (17 – 30%), and serine (about 10%). We have identified 11 amino acids in Krasnodar tea, a large proportion of these amino acids has proline, valine, and serine. There was a variation in the content of biologically active substances depending on genotype characteristics. Studies have identified some controversial issues that require explanation and further study.</p> Oksana Belous Natalia Platonova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 360 368 10.5219/1440 The attitude of Czech university students to beer consumption from microbreweries https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1397 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">The questionnaire survey was focused on the relation of university students of generation Z in the Czech Republic to beer from microbreweries. The survey involved 1,103 respondents from among Czech university students. 1,004 respondents complied with the survey conditions (they had to belong to university students and consume beer). Although 98% of beer consumed in the Czech Republic is from industrial breweries, it has turned out that the proportion of students who consume beer from industrial breweries and microbreweries is almost the same. As for beer from microbreweries, students prefer classic beers of the Pilsen type. So far, these do not circulate in beer tourism in larger quantities. The respondents agree that beer tourism will compete successfully with wine tourism. For beer tourism to develop successfully, microbreweries must also offer catering, accommodation, and other services; beer baths are in high demand at present. The economic benefits of microbreweries are in several areas – they integrate into tourist destinations, use local raw materials for beer and food preparation, create new jobs, enhance abandoned breweries and contribute to the development of rural areas.</span></p> Vratislav Kozák Vendula Lapčíková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 369 377 10.5219/1397 Influence of eight chosen essential oils in the vapor phase on the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus lyococcus https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1586 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the fungicidal effect of eight essential oils against five strains of the genus <em>Rhizopus</em>. Strains were obtained from various moldy foods, namely <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em> KMi 383 from chestnut, <em>R. stolonifer</em> KMi 510 from strawberry, <em>R. stolonifer</em> KMi 511 from nectarine, <em>R. stolonifer</em> KMi 524 from cherry tomatoes, and <em>R. lyococcus</em> KMi 512 from blackberry. The essential oils (EO) used in this study were jasmine EO (extract from <em>Jasminum officinale</em> L.), bergamot EO (<em>Mentha aquatica</em> L. var. <em>citrata</em> (Her.) Fresen), bitter orange EO (from <em>Citrus aurantium</em> L.), grapefruit EO (<em>Citrus paradisi</em> Macfady), sweet flag EO (East Asian Calamus, from <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. var. <em>angustatus</em> Bes), star anise EO (from <em>Illicium verum</em> J.D.Hook), geranium EO (from <em>Pelargonium graveolens</em>), and lemongrass EO (from <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> DC). The semi-quantitative composition of the essential oil samples was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity of essential oils against the strains of <em>R. stolonifer</em> and <em>R. lyococcus</em> was determined during 7 days, using the micro-atmosphere method (0.625 μL.mL<sup>-1</sup> of air). Two essential oils, geranium and lemongrass, completely inhibited the growth of all isolates. Bitter orange essential oil inhibited the growth of all isolates of <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em>, but isolate of <em>Rhizopus lyococcus</em> began to grow after four days of cultivation. In conclusion, certain essential oils are highly effective in the vapor phase. These could be used in further tests of their antifungal activity and could be used in the control of <em>Rhizopus</em> spp. or other fungal pathogens.</p> Dana Tančinová Miroslava Hlebová Denisa Folitinova Zuzana Mašková Zuzana Barboráková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 378 386 10.5219/1586 The effect of single clove Black garlic on the hemostasis status and lipid profile in male Sprague Dawley rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1516 <p>Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients have alteration in hemostasis components. Thus, including excess expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), causing fibrinolysis disorders; the majority of these patients are hypercoagulable state prone to thrombosis. Some evidence suggests that garlic and garlic supplements have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, garlic stimulates fibrinolytic activity and normalizes plasma lipid imbalances. Black garlic is processed garlic that is produced through natural aging at a controlled temperature (70 °C) and high humidity (90%) for several days, without other additives. This study aimed to prove the effect of single clove black garlic (SCBG) (<em>Allium sativum</em> <em>Linn</em>) on PAI-1 levels and lipid profiles of NAFLD rats induced by a <em>high-fat fructose diet </em>(HFFD) containing 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid.The rats were then divided into healthy control group (K<sub>1</sub><sup>+</sup>); NAFLD control group without treatment (K<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>); 0.9 mg simvastatin treatment group (K<sub>1</sub><sup>-</sup>); 45 mg metformin treatment group (K<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup>); SCBG 450 mg per 200g BW (X1); 900 mg per 200 g BW (X2); and 1350 mg per 200 g BW (X3). All treatments were administered for 4 weeks via oral gavage. As a result, significant differences in PAI-1 levels and lipid profiles between groups after the administration (<em>p</em> = 0.001) were noted and also by simvastatin and metformin, respectively. There was a correlation between PAI-1 and lipid profile of SCBG treatment. In conclusion, the administration of SCBG (1350 mg per 200 g BB per day) for 4 weeks had a significant effect on PAI-1 levels, and the lipid profiles in <em>Sprague Dawley </em>rats modeled NAFLD (<em>p</em> = 0.001). SCBG has provided benefits that can be useful in the management of NAFLD but it’s not equivalent to medicine.</p> Lili Nurmawati Mohammad Sulchan Siti Fatimah-Muis Hery Djagat Purnomo Kis Djamiatun Martha Ardiaria Vega Karlowee Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 15 387 395 10.5219/1516 Hygiene measures in supermarkets, retail food stores, and grocery shops during the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1592 <p>The article presents the hygiene measures that are applied in the Slovak Republic in supermarkets, food stores, grocery stores as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic situation in Slovakia. These measures have been published by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in the relevant legal regulations and are based on the decisions of the Government of the Slovak Republic, which took into account the opinions of the experts of the Pandemic Commission of the Government of the Slovak Republic. In general, these measures are based on the mask-distance-hand principle. In public areas outside and inside, it was ordered to wear masks and later wear a respirator of FFP2 class in exterior and interior, gloves on hands or disinfection of customers' hands before entering the store, observance of 2 m distance of people standing in a row at the cash registers, maximum capacity of persons in stores was determined one person per 25 m<sup>2</sup> of sales area and later, this measure was tightened to 15 m<sup>2</sup> of sales area. Also, to perform regular ventilation of the premises and to have as many cash registers as possible so as not to create long lines of customers. All shops were closed at 8:00 PM. In the case of shopping centers, entry is prohibited for people with a body temperature higher than 37 °C, and disinfection of hands is mandatory, wearing a mask and later wear respirators of FFP2 class is necessary. In a stricter regime, during the peak of the pandemic, there was a restriction for persons to shop food only in the nearest retail/grocery or similar place from the place of residence to the extent necessary to procure the essential needs of life.</p> Peter Zajác Jozef Čurlej Lucia Benešová Jozef Čapla Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 396 422 10.5219/1592 Ascorbic acid supplementation suppresses cadmium-derived alterations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1618 <p>Cadmium (Cd) a highly toxic environmental pollutant, that does not have any physiological function in the organism, represents a great concern for human health as it can be easily transported from its environmental sources to the food chain. Food, water, and air are the major sources of Cd exposure to the population. Cd-mediated impairments of the basic cellular properties largely depend on its ability to enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus triggers oxidative stress to the cell. With the use of fission yeast <em>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</em> (<em>S. pombe</em>) as the model organism, we have analyzed the impact of Cd on the cell growth intensity, as it represents the fundamental feature of all living organisms. Cells were incubated with different Cd concentrations for 3, 6, and 9 hours to investigate the effect of Cd on cell growth in a time and dose-dependent manner. Further possible Cd-derived alterations, as the peroxidation of membrane lipids or the functional impairment of the enzymatic antioxidant protection mechanisms, were investigated by determination of the MDA content and via catalase (CAT) activity detection. Moreover, ascorbic acid (AsA) pre-treatment was subjected to investigate the assumed positive effect of AsA against Cd toxicity. We show here on one hand that cells suffer under the influence of Cd, but on the other hand, they substantially profit from AsA supplementation. Because <em>S. pombe</em> is known to shares many molecular, and biochemical similarities with higher organisms, the effect of AsA in cadmium toxicity elimination might be expected to a similar extent also in other cell types.</p> Marek Kovár Alica Navrátilová Anna Trakovická Miroslava Požgajová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 423 432 10.5219/1618 The chemical composition of pollen, staminate catkins, and honey of Castanea sativa Mill. https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1627 <p>The chemical composition of pollen and honey primarily depends on the botanical and geographical origin of the species, as well as other factors – climatic conditions, soil type, plant species, etc. The present study was to knowledge the biochemical profile of pollen, staminate catkins, and honey samples of <em>Castanea sativa</em> Mill. which were examined under conditions of Ukraine. Proteins are the major components of pollen and staminate catkins (169.0 ±1.60 g.kg<sup>-1 </sup>and 69.8 ±1.67 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), while saccharides are predominant in honey samples (38.0 ±1.32 g.kg<sup>-1 </sup>fructose, 32.5 ±0.68 glucose g.kg<sup>−1 </sup>and 6.1 ±0.06 g.kg<sup>-1 </sup>sucrose). Glutamic acid (13.30 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>), aspartic acid (13.05 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>), and proline (12.45 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>) were predominant nonessential amino acids in the chestnut pollen. The content of macro and microelements was found in the pollen and staminate catkins much higher than in the honey. All <em>Castanea sativa</em> samples are a very valuable source of potassium as the main mineral element contained in pollen (7400 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>), staminate catkins (7760 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>), and honey (981 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>). Microelements such as manganese and iron prevailed in pollen (478 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> Mn and 461 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> Fe), and staminate catkins (247 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> Mn and 109 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> Fe), and heavy metals (Hg, Sr, Sn, Sb, Li) are present only in the pollen samples with the most abundant Sr (12.8 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Sn (1.9 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>) content and can be used as indicator suggesting the environmental pollution status in the region. Regarding the vitamin content, vitamin C was the most represented in all samples. Obtained results indicate that chestnut is species with important constituents such as amino acids and vitamins, with low content of heavy metals and high content of biogenic elements that may be used in phytotherapy and phytopharmacology.</p> Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková Olga Grygorieva Katarína Fatrcová Šramková Olga Shelepova Inna Goncharovska Erika Mňahončáková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 433 444 10.5219/1627 Basil – a comparison of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in selected cultivars https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1623 <p>During the lifetime, the human body forms a considerable amount of free radicals damaging DNA, cell membranes, and their components. A wider application of basil (<em>Ocimum basilicum</em>), an aromatic plant and one of the common gastronomic commodities in the human diet could help to prevent the formation of free radicals and to remove them from the human body. Therefore, determination of antioxidant activity and total content of phenolic substances in selected cultivars of basil (Ohře, Sweet green, Salad leaf, Purple opal, Thai) in a fresh and frozen state and the mixture with another plant (garlic, mint, rocket, spinach) in the fresh and refrigerated state was performed. The total content of phenolic substances in basil was established by the spectrophotometric Folin-Ciocalteu method. DPPH spectrophotometric method was used to analyze the antioxidant activity. The results have shown statistically significant differences between basil cultivars under the same growing conditions. The values of antioxidant activity in frozen samples ranged from 5.1 ±0.4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> AA FW to 11.71 ±0.18 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> AA FW and the total phenolic content varied between 2.77 ±0.16 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> GAE FW in TH and 8.93 ±0.13 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> GAE FW. A statistically significant difference between fresh and frozen samples was established only in the “Ohře” cultivar. After the storage in cold temperatures, all mixtures showed a reduction in the antioxidant activity and total content of phenolic substances. The mixture of basil and mint performed the highest values of antioxidant activity and total content of phenolic substances and significantly differed from the other mixtures most often. The addition of basil and its mixtures to food and beverages can substantially increase their biological value and subsequently also the quality of human nutrition.</p> Martin Adámek Jiří Mlček Anna Adámková Vít Guiglielmo Mišurec Jana Orsavová Martina Bučková Martin Búran Anna Plášková Lenka Kouřimská Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 445 452 10.5219/1623 The microbiological quality of minced pork treated with garlic in combination with vacuum packaging https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1585 <p>The present study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality of minced pork treated with fresh garlic, dried garlic, and garlic oil in combination with vacuum packing. The growth of Total Viable Counts (TVC), Coliform Bacteria (CB), and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. were evaluated. The microbiological analyses were performed by the plate dilution method. The average value of TVC was 8.45 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in aerobically packed samples, 5.59 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in samples treated with garlic oil, 5.36 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in vacuum packed samples, and samples treated with dried garlic, and 4.98 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in samples treated with fresh garlic on 8<sup>th</sup> day of storage. The number of TVC was significantly lower in samples treated with fresh garlic compared to samples treated with dried garlic and garlic oil on the 8<sup>th</sup> day of storage (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). The average value of CB was 4.13 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in aerobically packed samples, 1.82 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in samples treated with garlic oil, the value of CB in vacuum packed samples, in samples treated with fresh garlic and also with dried garlic was lower than 1.00 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> on 8<sup>th</sup> day of storage. The number of CB was significantly higher in aerobically packed samples and samples treated with garlic oil compared to vacuum-packed samples, samples treated with fresh garlic and dried garlic on the 8<sup>th</sup> day of storage (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). The average number of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. was 2.45 in aerobically packed samples, count of <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. was lower than 1.00 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> in vacuum packed samples and in the sample with garlic on the 8<sup>th</sup> day of storage. The number of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. was significantly higher in aerobically packed samples in comparison with vacuum-packed samples, samples with fresh garlic, dried garlic, and garlic oil (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05).</p> Simona Kunová Peter Haščík Ľubomír Lopašovský Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 453 459 10.5219/1585 Potential probiotic yeast isolated from an Indonesian indigenous fermented fish (Ikan Budu) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1544 <p>Budu is a fermented food resulting from the activities of microorganisms like lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Budu, therefore, serves as a source of probiotics that can have beneficial effects on livestock and humans. Nonetheless, their selection has to be done with caution. The current study purposed to find out whether budu has desirable probiotic properties. This was done by determining its pH, bile acid tolerance, hydrophobicity, and inhibition of pathogens such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Salmonella</em> <em>enteritidis</em>, and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. An <em>in vitro</em> experiment was conducted using three <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>(coded as SC 11, SC 12, and SC 21) in the preparation of budu. The whole experiment was repeated four times. The budus were tested for their probiotic properties (low pH, bile salts, hydrophobicity, and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria). The results showed that the three <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>survived in gastric juice and bile acid, exhibited good hydrophobicity, and could inhibit pathogenic bacteria, both gram-positive and negative pathogens. They were able to survive at pH 2 for 3 h (40.70 to 55.1%), at pH 2 for 5 h (35.25 to 46.88%), in 0.3% bile acid incubated for 3 h (69.69 to 86.56%), in 0.3% bile acid incubated for 5 h (82.22 to 88.18%) and hydrophobicity ability of 97.0 to 98.1%. The inhibition activity against pathogenic bacteria, that is, <em>Escherichia coli</em> was 2.50 to 3.81 mm, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was 1.66 to 3.71 mm, and <em>Salmonella enteritidis</em> was 1.20 to 2.64 mm.</p> Yetti Marlida Nurul Huda Harnentis Yuliaty Shafan Nur Nuri Mekar Lestari Frederick Adzitey Mohd Rosni Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 460 466 10.5219/1544 The antimicrobial activity of polyfloral honey and its awareness among urban consumers in Slovakia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1621 <p>The current interdisciplinary research studies the antimicrobial activity of selected polyfloral kinds of honey (n = 30) against three microorganisms (gram-positive bacteria <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, gram-negative bacteria <em>Salmonella enterica,</em> and one yeast <em>Candida krusei</em>) as well as investigates consumer behavior and awareness towards honey healing properties. Consumer research involved 617 honey consumers living in urban areas. T-test for Equality of means, non-parametric tests, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that antimicrobial activity was found in all honey samples with a concentration of 50%. Nevertheless, better activity was obtained in honey samples from urban beekeepers compared to samples from retail stores. Results of consumer research showed that honey is mostly used as food (sweetener in beverages, ingredient in the recipe, or direct consumption) and as medicine mainly during the winter period. The consumer awareness towards honey healing effects was very high (97%), however, 1/3 of respondents were not able to list any specific examples, and only 11 % mentioned antibacterial activity. Furthermore, more than 70% of respondents did not know to explain the term “medical honey” and more than 50% of respondents are not aware of the maximum temperature used for heating honey without decreasing its biologically active compounds.</p> Peter Šedí­k Kristína Predanócyová Elena Horská Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 467 474 10.5219/1621 Microbial, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of salami produced from Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1551 <p>The wild boar (<em>Sus scrofa</em>) population in central Italy has strongly increased in the last decades. The meat of the game is characterized by high-quality value and the manufacture of food products from game meat could represent a remarkable added value for the local market promoting local gastronomic specialties and traditions. Adult animals were hunted with the waiting method and the carcasses were processed into the game processing center. Five batches of salami were produced with different amounts of wild boar meat and pork meat. The microbiological, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory evaluations were performed. The microbiological analyses indicated that the salami is safe to consume as <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> and <em>Salmonella</em> spp. were undetectable in the end products. The <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> count was below 3 log CFU.g<sup>-1</sup> attesting to the adequacy of hygienic characteristics of the process. The chemical composition analyses showed lower lipid content in comparison to pork salami, while the rheological characteristics were equivalent among products. The sensory evaluation highlighted that the consumers’ appreciation of wild boar salami is comparable to that of traditional pork salami.</p> Rossana Roila Raffaella Branciari Sara Primavilla Dino Miraglia Francesca Vercillo David Ranucci Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 475 483 10.5219/1551 A policy construction for sustainable rice food sovereignty in Indonesia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1533 <p>As an agricultural country with large natural resources, Indonesia still has considerable problems in managing food security. This is evidenced by the lack of agricultural land and human resources that can support people's food needs so that the government still imports food from other countries. These issues as; it are feared that population growth and high food consumption power, social exclusion (marginalization of agricultural laborers and agricultural land) will cause food security vulnerability in the future. This Mixed method quantitative and qualitative method by statistical and in-depth interview study involving 169 respondents from many stakeholders such as politicians, academicians, farmers, and students to determine policy construction for sustainable rice food sovereignty in Indonesia. The statistical study shows the rice consumption in Indonesia is correlated to education than the age and gender of the respondents. The study indicating problems such as; the welfare of farmers, the application of price limits for staple goods, and improving the quality of agriculture both natural resources, human resources and the provision of agricultural equipment assistance have not been resolved properly. To build food security, it should be balanced with the application of the concept of food sovereignty which is realized by aligning and maximizing competence between political resources, environmental resources capacity, and environmental diplomacy.</p> Adriani Kusumawardani Bambang Shergi Laksmono Lugina Setyawati Tri Edhi Budhi Soesilo Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 484 496 10.5219/1533 Investigation of dependences of the morphological composition of body and amino acid composition of trout meat proteins (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on levels of the energy value of feeds https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1601 <p>The article studies the effect of using complete compound feeds with different energy levels on the morphological composition of the body and the amino acid composition of trout meat proteins. The experiment aimed to establish the influence of different levels of energy nutrition of commercial rainbow trout on the morphological composition of their body and the amino acid composition of meat proteins. For this purpose, five experimental groups were formed using the analog method. The study lasted 210 days and was divided into two periods: comparative (10 days) and main (200 days). During the comparative period, the study fish consumed compound feed of the control group. During the main period, the energy level in experimental compound feeds for different experimental trout groups ranged from 16 to 20 mJ per 1 kg. It was found that with an increase in the mass of two-year-old trout, the mass of muscle tissue and the yield of edible parts probably increases. Feeding fish with an increased amount of metabolic energy (20 mJ.kg<sup>-1</sup>) resulted in a significant change in the weight of internal organs, including the heart, liver, and kidneys. Increasing the metabolic energy in the compound feeds of fish from 18 mJ.kg<sup>-1 </sup>to 19 – 20 mJ.kg<sup>-1</sup> leads to a significant increase in bowel mass by 13.3 – 5.0%. An increase in the level of metabolic energy in rainbow trout diets from 18 mJ.kg<sup>-1</sup> to 19 – 20 mJ.kg<sup>-1 </sup>contributed to a likely increase in the methionine content in meat. A similar pattern was observed for the tryptophan content. It was found that the content of most essential amino acids in the protein of rainbow trout meat exceeds the corresponding values in the "ideal" protein, except for the content of isoleucine and leucine, which refers them to limiting amino acids.</p> Vadym Kondratiuk Volodymyr Otchenashko Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 497 505 10.5219/1601 The use of mutton in sausage production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1602 <p>The work analyzes the quality of sausage with mutton. The proportion of individual commodities was as follows 40% sheep thigh, 40% pork shoulder, and belly 20%. The protein content in pork shoulder was 20.11 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> in sheep thigh <br />23.65 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> and sausage 19.89 g.100g<sup>-1</sup>. Of the monitored amino acids, the highest content was in lysine, in the sausage was 1.9 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> and of the raw materials in the belly 2.1 g.100g<sup>-1</sup>. We also found a higher proportion of leucine <br />1.7 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> in both sausage and sheep thighs. The arginine content in the sausage was also high 1.39 g.100g<sup>-1</sup>. We found a high content of palmitic acid in the pork shoulder of 24.38 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME. The content of palmitic acid in sheep meat was 24.32 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME and in sausage 24.16 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME. The content of stearic acid in the pork shoulder was <br />10.89g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME, in the sheep thigh 10.64g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME, in the belly 11.07 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME, and the sausage <br />10.92 g.100g<sup>-1</sup> FAME. The MDA content in sheep meat was 0.185 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, in pork shoulder 0.141 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>, in pork belly 0.22 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup> and in sausage on the day of production 0.45 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>. On the 30<sup>th</sup> day, the MDA content was in the sausage 0.78 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>. The high MDA content of the sausage was probably most influenced by the technological process, as all raw materials, because there was a lower MDA content.</p> Juraj Čuboň Peter Haščík Peter Herc Lukáš Hleba Miroslava Hlebová Nikoleta Šimonová Ondřej Bučko Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 15 506 512 10.5219/1602 Aspects of the influence of vegetable-oil-based marinade on organoleptic and physicochemical indicators of the quality of semi-finished natural marinated meat products https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1527 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">This work evidences the expediency of marinade application based on blends of refined vegetable oils in the technology of natural marinated semi-finished meat products. Formulations of natural marinated semi-finished meat products using blends of refined vegetable oils (rapeseed, olive, and sunflower) enriched with the enzyme bromelain were developed in this work. Such formulations can provide the human body with the necessary amount of protein, released by enzymatic hydrolysis of the connective tissue proteins collagen and elastin catalyzed by the plant-based enzyme bromelain, as well as the necessary ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not synthesized in the human body but sourced from food and are one of the main structural units for many vital processes. The article presents the results of a study of organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of natural marinated semi-finished meat products from beef and pork. It is confirmed that the use of rapeseed oil and rapeseed:sunflower oil blend in a ratio of 70:30 produce the best organoleptic characteristics in both semi-finished beef and semi-finished pork: a tender, juicy texture, a pleasant taste and aroma, and an attractive appearance. It has been proven that the use of marinades based on blends of refined vegetable oils reduces the free moisture content and moisture-retaining capacity of the product, due to the presence of refined vegetable oils in the marinade, which contributes to the binding of moisture. The use of marinades based on refined vegetable oils can increase product yield. Vegetable oil, when used in meat marinade, mitigates the ill effects of acid inclusion. It dissolves well the aromas of added spices, and as it seeps through the structure of the meat, the oil gently envelops it, sealing in moisture and preventing drying out during cooking.</span></p> Oksana Shtonda Kateryna Semeniuk Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 513 520 10.5219/1527 The carcass and meat quality characteristics of Japanese quail fed a diet supplemented with powdered Lactuca seriola leaves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1534 <p>The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and its antioxidant stability of Japanese quails. A total of eighty growing quails (1-week old) were distributed into 2 equal groups consisting of 40 birds (5 replicates of 8 birds each). The first group was fed a basal diet without <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves (0 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> diet) and the second group received diets containing 20 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves. At age of 6 weeks, quails were slaughtered for meat and carcass examinations. The growth performance for the quails fed with <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves diet was similar to that of a control group. Carcass measurements, physical properties, and chemical composition of quail breast meat did not differ between the control and experimental group. However, the inclusion of <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves significantly increased the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content and improved breast meat lipid stability during postmortem refrigerated storage compared to the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of <em>Lactuca serriola</em> leaves can improve the performance of Japanese quail enrich its meat with an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and reduce lipid oxidation during storage.</p> Azad Sabow Nazim Abdulla Bestoon Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 521 527 10.5219/1534 The micronutrient profile of medicinal plant extracts https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1553 <p>Medicinal plants contain biologically active substances that have a physiological effect on the human body. In the territory of Ukraine, 15 of the most important medicinal plants grow from a medical point of view, among which are <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L and <em>Сalendula officinalis</em>. Micronutrients are necessary for the body in small quantities, not being a source of energy, they take part in their assimilation, as well as in the regulation of various functions and the implementation of the processes <br />of growth and development of the human body. The study aims to establish the micronutrient profile of extracts and infusions from medicinal raw materials – <em>Сalendula officinalis</em> and <em>Melissa officinalis</em>. The established micronutrient profile includes data on the content of such macro- and microelements as calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, and copper in extracts and infusions from <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L officinalis L and <em>Сalendula officinalis</em>. Sodium predominates from certain macronutrients, the superiority of which is manifested in <em>Сalendula officinalis</em> when infused. A large amount of calcium also passes into the aqueous-alcoholic infusion from <em>Сalendula officinalis</em>. Copper and zinc prevail among the determined microelements in water extracts of <em>Сalendula officinalis</em>. Comparing the results obtained, we can say in the affirmative about the micro- and macro elements that have passed into extracts that <em>Сalendula officinalis</em> is richer in these substances. Because infusions and extracts are recommended to be added as an additional ingredient to vegetable and fruit juices, their positive infusion on the human body will increase the recommended daily requirement of potassium and sodium. Based on the results of this study, extracts and infusions of <em>Melissa officinalis</em> L and <em>Сalendula officinalis</em> can be considered as an essential source of micronutrients for enriching fruit and vegetable juices in canned food for health purposes</p> Marija Zheplinska Mikhailo Mushtruk Volodymyr Vasyliv Anatolii Kuts Natalia Slobodyanyuk Larysa Bal-Prylypko Mykola Nikolaenko Olena Kokhan Yuriy Reznichenko Oksana Salavor Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 528 535 10.5219/1553 Increasing the return on equity by financial leverage in sugar beet farms in Slovakia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1619 <p>The paper evaluates and analyses selected financial ratios of a set of farms in Slovakia in 2017. The farms are divided into two groups (sugar beet producers and sugar beet non-producers). The data used for the analysis were obtained from the National Bank of Slovakia (NBS) over the period 2009 – 2017 and the database of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic (MARD SR). Farmers generally achieve a low level of return on equity. In the paper, we analyze the development of interest rates and measure the potential effect of financial leverage, which can increase the profitability (return on equity) of the farms. Moreover, we test the statistically significant difference of selected ratios between the group of producers and non-producers of sugar beet in Slovakia. In 2017, the return on equity of sugar beet producers in Slovakia reached lower results in comparison to sugar beet non-producers. The differences in return on equity are explained by the lower level of equity per ha and thus higher indebtedness of non-producers of sugar beet.</p> Tomáš Rábek Andrea Boháčiková Ivan Holúbek Zuzana Strápeková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 536 545 10.5219/1619 The use of secondary fish raw materials from silver carp in the technology of structuring agents https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1626 <p>The expediency and prospects of using secondary fish raw materials from silver carp in the structuring agents technology have been substantiated. The combination of secondary fish raw materials and seaweed with different mechanisms of gelation has a targeted effect on the organoleptic, structural-mechanical, and physicochemical properties of food products. Accordingly, the expediency of adding the Black Sea alga cystoseira (2%) to optimize the mineral composition of the structuring agents and increase their jelly-making properties was established. Using experimental studies and multicriteria optimization, the optimal ratio of secondary fish raw materials – 40%; water – 60% and rational heat treatment – 150 min, at a temperature of 85 – 100 °C has been determined. An analysis and comparison of various preservation methods have confirmed the expediency of using the freeze-drying method of drying fish broths for the production of structuring agents, which allows to preserve of the original properties of the product, biologically active substances, reduce the mass of the dried product and increase the shelf life of the structuring agents. The optimal storage conditions have been determined – the ready-made structuring agents were packed in three-layer paper kraft bags and stored in a cool dry place at a temperature of 22 ±2 °C and relative humidity of no more than 70% for 12 months. It was found that the physical and chemical indicators of the structuring agents depend on the features of the structure, amino acid composition of fish collagen. The presence of the overwhelming number of high-molecular-weight molecules in the composition of the structuring agents and the preservation of the native structure determine high indicators of dynamic viscosity, dissolution time, and strength. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the high protein content largely depends on the amount of collagen in the secondary fish raw material, which has a positive effect on the gelling properties of the product being created.</p> Anastasiia Ivaniuta Alina Menchynska Natalia Nesterenko Nataliia Holembovska Viktor Yemtcev Yevheniia Marchyshyna Yuliya Kryzhova Elena Ochkolyas Оksana Pylypchuk Valentyna Israelian Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 546 554 10.5219/1626 The biochemical changes in legumes during high-temperature micronization https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1629 <p>The article considers the change in chemical and biological characteristics in some legumes grains, under conditions of high-temperature micronization with different moisture contents during heat treatment with infrared rays. The heat treatment of grains was carried out on a laboratory apparatus with a quartz radiant infrared panel. The temperature variation in the heat treatment zone occurred due to changing the distance between the panel and the surface of grains. The grain temperature was determined using a laser thermometer, and with a timer. To determine chemical and biological characteristics, we used a special optical density metering device. We have studied: 1. The dependence of starch content on the temperature in the changing initial moisture content. We found that after 30 seconds of high-temperature micronization of, “Tsanava“ beans at a grain moisture content of 12.7%, the starch content in the grain increases from 39.65% to 40.12%, then gradually decreases, and at 18.3% moisture content, it increases from 38.71% to 41.2%, with a moisture content of 28.6% it increases from 37.36% to 42.42%. Similar processes are also observed for the beans “field red“ and “white lupine“; 2. The dependence of glucose content on the temperature in the changing initial moisture content. As the mass fraction of starch decreases, the percentage of sugar (in terms of the equivalent amount of glucose) at a moisture content of 12.7% at the initial stage increases from 1.36% to 1.46%, and then the percentage of sugar increases relatively quickly to 1.64%, at a moisture content of 18.3% it increases from 1.3% to 1.38%, and then increases to 1.51, with a moisture content of 28.6%, it increases from 1.28% to 1.35% and then increases to 1.54. Similar processes are also observed for the beans “field red“ and “white lupine“.</p> Otari Sesikashvili Elene Gamkrelidze Nodari Mardaleishvili Gia Dadunashvili Shalva Tsagareishvili George Pkhakadze Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 555 565 10.5219/1629 The nutritional profile of indonesian salmon van Java mahseer T. soro species https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1552 <p><em>T. soro, </em>in Indonesia called salmon van Java is of high economic value, and due to high demand, its culture has been intensively studied and developed. This study aimed to assess the nutritional value of wild and cultured <em>T. soro</em>. The fish’s proximate compositions, minerals, as well as amino and fatty acid profiles were analyzed. A t-test analysis was used to identify differences between treatments. Results showed that the fat content of wild <em>T. soro</em> was higher than that of cultured fish, but the protein, water, and ash contents between the two groups were not significantly different (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05). <em>T. soro</em> was considered a lean fish with higher concentrations of PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) than MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids). The amino acid profile was dominated by lysine, phenylalanine, and allo-isoleucine. Both groups of fish were a good source of macro- (Na, K, Ca) and microminerals (Zn, Fe), except for selenium (Se). The two groups were not significantly different (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05) in ω3, ω6, and PUFAs, indicating that culturing <em>T. soro</em> in proper ways could substitute for wild <em>T. soro</em>.</p> Ekowati Chasanah Diini Fithriani Achmad Poernomo Mohammad Halim Jeinie Nurul Huda Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 566 574 10.5219/1552 The antimicrobial effect of thyme and rosemary essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in sous vide turkey meat during storage https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1655 <p>The research was aimed to study the impact of sous vide thermal treatment on the microbiological quality of fresh turkey breast meat after treatment with thyme and rosemary EOs and the survival of <em>Listeria monocytogenes </em>on the turkey meat samples. The samples were vacuum-packed and cooked at 55 °C, 60 °C, and 65 °C for 5, 15, 30 and, 60 min. There was an amount of 5 g (5 ±0.2 g) of the sample placed in PA/PE film bags and inoculated with 100 μL of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> inoculum. The sample was incubated at 37 °C for 18 h after bag sealing. The samples were tested on the 1<sup>st</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> days of experiments. The microbiological quality of fresh turkey breast meat was assessed by the detection of total microbial counts and meat microbiota was identified by mass spectrometry using MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Microbial counts differed significantly depending on temperature and time and the microbial counts ranged from 2.21 log cfu.g<sup>-1</sup> to 8.26 log cfu.g<sup>-1 </sup>on the 1<sup>st</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> day of the experiment. The study shows that the sous vide method with essential oils combination is an effective method and it can be used to protect the microbiota of turkey meat and <em>L. monocytogens</em> survival, however, the quality of raw material is crucial.</p> Miroslava Kačániová Simona Kunová Peter Haščík Karol Pietrzyk Maciej Kluz Margarita Terentjeva Tatsiana Savistkaya Dzmitry Grinshpan Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 575 584 10.5219/1655 The state and the share of rural women on the agricultural entrepreneurship activities in the Slovak republic https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1484 <p>The economic empowerment of rural women in the recent development of agriculture through entrepreneurship is considered an important challenge. Rural women often manage complex households and pursue multiple livelihood strategies. Their activities typically include cultivation of crops, farming animals, processing and preparing food, working for wages in agricultural or other rural enterprises, collecting fuel and water, engaging in trade and marketing, caring for family members, and maintaining their homes. The research aimed to collect up-to-date data on Slovak rural women dealing with business in the field of agriculture, women's role and status in society in rural areas, on the farm, women's participation in education, training, and agricultural services. The main focus is dedicated to their share on the management of agricultural entities, land cultivation, employment of rural women and men, and their deal on the selected entrepreneurial activities of Slovak agriculture. Women doing business in agriculture dispose of with considerable knowledge and experience in the agricultural and food sectors. The realized research showed that the scale of farms managed by women is 325 hectares. Rural women in the surveyed group are taking care of about 2.5% of the total area of agricultural land in Slovakia and they are employing 2.40% of the working forces in the agricultural sector in Slovakia. According to our survey, rural women are under-represented in managerial and ownership positions of agricultural entities. </p> Zuzana Kapsdorferová Silvia Jacková Petronela Švikruhová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 585 591 10.5219/1484 Evaluation of the basic saccharides content in tomatoes https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1543 <p>Saccharides are the basic dry matter components of all fruits and vegetables. The dominant tomatoes saccharides are fructose and glucose, minor ones are sucrose but also arabinose, xylose, and galactose. The objective of this paper is to analyze carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose and sucrose in the selected tomatoes varieties intended for the direct consumption and industrial processing. We used 14 varieties and 3 newly selected tomatoes varieties. The glucose content in the studied varieties was in the range of 4.87 – 15.9 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>, the fructose content was 11.1 – 22.27 g.kg<sup>-1</sup> and sucrose content was <br />0.07 – 1.73 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>. The highest fructose and sucrose content was detected in the Tomanova variety, the highest sucrose content was found out in the Bovita variety. When comparing the glucose content it was found out that the higher content on average was achieved in the varieties intended for the industrial processing (10.10 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>) than in the varieties for the direct consumption (7.96 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>). The varieties intended for industrial processing were generally characterized by higher glucose and fructose content than the varieties intended for the direct consumption. When comparing the fructose content, we found a higher average content in the varieties intended for industrial processing (15.70 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>) than in the varieties for the direct consumption (14.40 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>). In most of the studied varieties sucrose was present in low content (&lt;1.0 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>), only in the Tomanova variety sucrose content represented more than 1 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Andrea Mendelova Ľubomír Mendel Miriam Solgajová Ján Mareček Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 15 592 598 10.5219/1543 The effect of antioxidants on xanthine oxidase activity in fresh ovine milk https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1662 <p>In the present, the consequences of nitrate pollution of the environment are very pronounced. In humans and animals, microorganisms can reduce nitrates to nitrites, which cause cancer. Purified and homogeneous xanthine oxidase (XO) of cow's milk can restore these compounds, which makes the article extremely relevant. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of antioxidants on the activity of xanthine oxidase in fresh ovine milk. Various natural and artificial antioxidants were examined for the detection of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in ovine milk. Among the natural antioxidants, L-cysteine was more effective in the stabilization of XO in heated milk. XO of sheep milk activated by heat treatment in the presence of cysteine and molybdenum became able to convert nitrate and nitrite to nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, L-cysteine was used for double purposes: as the protector of enzyme active center against the oxidation during heat treatment of milk and as a reagent for S-nitrosothiol formation. Hypoxanthine, as a natural substrate of XO, is an effective electron donor for nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activities. Heat treatment of the milk in the presence of exogenous lecithin increased the activity of NR and NiR of XO and CysNO formation. Thus, during the heat treatment: a) excess of exogenous phospholipids disintegrates the structure of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and b) enzyme molecules denatured partially and their active center became available for exogenous cysteine, molybdenum, hypoxanthine, and nitrate or nitrite.</p> Akmaral Mukhamejanova Zerekbay Alikulov Nelya Shapekova Karlygash Aubakirova Abilkhas Mukhtarov Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 15 599 607 10.5219/1662 Incidence of hormonal growth stimulant and antibiotics residues in chicken meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1663 <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the level of antibiotic residues in poultry meat sold in the city of Almaty, which is a megacity of Kazakhstan, and compare it with the Minimum Residue Level set by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization. Determination of hormonal growth stimulators (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol-17β) and antibiotics (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin) in poultry was carried out using immunoassay according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The results of monitoring showed that in the Almaty region annually wholesale deliveries of meat products from the USA, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia are carried out regularly. On average in the region from 2016 to 2019, the specific weight meat imports averaged 47.9% of total consumption. A total of 105 samples were examined by us between 2019 and 2020, including 63-import meat and 42 samples of the meat of local production. Due to the particular importance of this problem, the main focus of the article`s goal is to conduct monitoring studies on imported and domestic meat for the residual content of hormones and antibiotics in poultry meat. As a result of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of poultry meat, an excess level of maximum residue was detected in eight brands of imported meat.</p> Zhanar Akhmet Gulshat Zhaxylykova Rashidah Sukor Assiya Serikbayeva Karima Myrzabek Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 15 608 615 10.5219/1663 Veterinary and sanitary assessment and disinfection of refrigerator chambers of meat processing enterprises https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1628 <p>The results of microbiological studies of air samples of refrigerating chambers of meat processing enterprises are presented. The quantitative composition of the air microbiota of the chambers of the refrigerating shop was studied. It has been established that the technological regimes for cooling meat in cooled chambers (t = +4 °C) and deep freezing chambers (t = -18 °C and -22 °C) have no bacteriostatic effect on the life activity of mold fungi. The developed disinfecting preparation (hydrogen peroxide (8.0 - 10%), acetic acid (10%), peracetic acid (5.0 - 7.0%), stabilizing additives, water) ensures the destruction of sanitary-indicative microorganisms in cold rooms meat processing plants when applied at a concentration of 0.05% - 60 minutes, 0.1% - 30 minutes, 0.15% - 10 minutes and does not have a toxic effect on meat raw materials that are stored in chambers of the refrigeration shop after disinfection.</p> Kateryna Rodionova Mariia Кhimych Anatoliy Paliy Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 15 616 626 10.5219/1628 Genetic identification of the causative agent of Brucellosis https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1664 <p>The development of animal husbandry suffers various kinds of losses due to the spread of infectious diseases among animals, in particular Brucellosis. A challenge faced by <em>Brucella</em> researchers has been the accurate identification of new isolates within the genus while preserving sufficient, and not excessive, biosafety and biosecurity requirements. The availability of discriminatory molecular typing tools to inform and assist conventional epidemiological approaches would be invaluable in controlling these infections, but efforts have been hampered by the genetic homogeneity of the genus. In this work, for better identification of infection, for control and monitor the source of outbreaks in prosperous areas was carried out identification of <em>Brucella</em> spp. strains which circulating in the Kostanay region. For this was used using multilocus analysis of a variable number of tandem repeats sequenced by 16 s – PNK on a genetic analyzer (sequencer). According to the results of a study of cattle, cultures of microorganisms were infected: No. 4, 5, 7, 8. Comparison of the obtained results with similar results of domestic and foreign works by A. Shevtsov, G. Borrello, P. Le Fleche, G. Garofolo suggest that the genotyping of local strains has an importance in the molecular epizootology of the Republic of Kazakhstan.</p> Yerkebulan Jakipov Muafik Mustafin Anda Valdovska Sayat Baiseitov Ayauly Aitkulova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 15 627 631 10.5219/1664 The xanthine oxidase and its associated activities in the ovine milk and liver: distinctive in impact of in vivo molybdenum https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1665 <p>Xanthine oxidase is molybdenum and iron-containing flavoprotein, catalyzing the final oxidation stage of purines and oxidative transformation of pterins and some aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Despite the importance of this enzyme, the distribution of xanthine oxidase in traditional household animal’s milk and tissues is unknown. Formerly, we have found most of the xanthine oxidase molecules in animal milk are inactive because of a lack of molybdenum. Ovine milk was processed by inserting <em>in vivo</em> molybdenum (tungsten) into drinking water. We gave opposite dates in the presence of tungsten too. Heating the milk of animals at 80 °C for 5 minutes in the presence of molybdenum and cysteine led to a sharp increase of xanthine oxidase and its associated – nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities. The change of xanthine oxidase and its associated activities were examined by spectrophotometry after treatment. It was established that metal ions added in drinking water for animals have an impact on enzyme activities. The activity is formed in the ovine liver even in the absence of exogenous molybdenum in drinking water. The associated activities of liver enzymes in the presence of molybdenum in drinking water had slightly increased. Tungsten-containing water led to the loss of all activities of liver xanthine oxidase. It is proposed that the liver contains a special protein involving in the incorporation of molybdenum (or tungsten) into xanthine oxidase molecule, however, the milk or mammary gland compounds lack this protein.</p> Akmaral Mukhamejanova Zerekbay Alikulov Bakyt Tuganova Zhanna Adamzhanova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 15 632 638 10.5219/1665 The study of the productivity potential of grape varieties according to the indicators of functional activity of leaves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1638 <p>Photosynthetic activity in the leaf of ten grape varieties was studied in the conditions of the northern part of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. From 2019 to 2020 meteorological data were recorded by the ‟Meteotrekˮ meteorological station. The influence of weather conditions of the spring-summer period at the beginning of the vegetation phases, which in 2019 took place on average 12 days earlier than in 2020, was noted. Analysis of changes in the induction of chlorophyll fluorescence (ICF) in leaves revealed the more efficient use of quantum energy of absorbed light by <em>F<sub>0</sub></em> in the leaves of most varieties was noted in the phase “the beginning of berry ripening”. During the three periods of the study, the varieties Aromatnyj, Zagadka, Ilichevskij rannij, and Kardishah showed a lower content of chlorophyll molecules, which do not have a functional connection with the reaction centers (RC). According to the <em>Fp</em> index the highest intensity of photosynthesis on average for all varieties was observed in the phase “the beginning of ovary growth”, the lowest – “the inflorescence is visible”. The potential productivity of grape plants determined by the ICF coefficient for all varieties was at a very high level and had a weak or moderate correlation with weather conditions during the growing season. The hydrothermal coefficient and Σ act t ≥10 °С had a weak effect on the efficiency of the light phase of photosynthesis (<em>Ki</em>) and a noticeable one (correlation coefficient r = 0.50 – 0.69) on the efficiency of dark photochemical processes (<em>Rfd</em>) in the leaves of most grape varieties.</p> Olena Vasylenko Tetiana Kondratenko Oleksandr Havryliuk Yurii Andrusyk Vira Kutovenko Yuliia Dmytrenko Natalia Grevtseva Yevheniia Marchyshyna Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 15 639 647 10.5219/1638 Characteristics of gelatin from skin and bone of snakehead (Channa striata) extracted with different temperature and time https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1639 <p>This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties of the skin and bone of snakehead fish as a potential source of gelatin through extraction at different temperatures and times compared to commercial gelatin. Extraction of skin and bones of wild snakehead fish (<em>Channa striata</em>) at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 ºC) and time (12,18, 24 hours). The pre-treatment process used a 0.1 M Ca (OH) 2 (1:6 w/v) immersion solution for 1 h and continued with 0.05 M citric acid (1:6 b/v) for 5 h. Before pre-treatment, the minerals of bones were degreased with 3% HCL solution for 24 hours. The results of the analysis showed that the differences in raw materials, temperature, and extraction time had a significant effect <br />(<em>p</em> &lt;0.05), as well as interactions among treatments (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) on the yield and gel strength. The yield of skin and bone tended to increase with extending extraction temperature and time, while the highest gelatin strength was found at 60 °C for 12 hours on the skin and 24 hours for the bone. The best gelatin was accomplished based on the highest performance of gel strength on skin and bones and compared to bovine commercial gelatin. The amino acids of the three types of gelatin showed higher levels of glycine and proline than other types of amino acids. Based on the total residues of each amino acid, skin gelatin and bone gelatin showed more dominant hydrophobic properties than hydrophilic properties, in contrast to bovine commercial gelatin. The three types of gelatin showed diverse chemical compositions, emulsion activity index, emulsion stability, water resistance, and fat binding capacity, which was reflected to be closely related to the source of the raw material and its amino acid content. The FTIR results showed that the extracted snakehead fish skin and bones have the potentiality to be used as gelatin equivalent to a commercial one</p> Rosmawati Abu Bakar Tawali Muhammmad Irfan Said Wahidu Zzaman Rovina Kobun Nurul Huda Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 15 648 661 10.5219/1639 The effect of Sorghum Tempeh (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in atherogenic diet-induced rats https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1589 <p>An atherogenic diet induces oxidative stress leading to hypercholesterolemia. This condition causes atherosclerosis followed by increased LDL and MDA. Sorghum tempeh contains fiber and antioxidants that can protectively improve LDL and MDA levels. Therefore, this research aims to determine the effect of sorghum tempeh on LDL and MDA levels in atherogenic diet-induced rats compared to sorghum flour. It used a randomized pre-post test with a control group design. The test subjects were 30 male<em> Sprague Dawley </em>rats<em>, </em>consisting of 6 normal conditioned rats (C1), and 24 that were induced by an atherogenic diet (C2, T1, T2, T3) for 2 weeks. Sorghum flour was administered at a dose of 4.095 g (T1) and the sorghum tempeh at 3.041 g (T2) and 6.081 g (T3) for 4 weeks. Furthermore, C2 was constantly induced through an atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol and LDL levels were then analyzed using the CHOD-PAP method, and MDA levels, using the ELISA method. Meanwhile, statistical analysis for these variables was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. The results showed that the administration of sorghum flour and tempeh significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL, MDA levels in each group (<em>p </em>= 0.001). Furthermore, it showed that there was a significantly strong correlation between LDL and MDA levels before and after treatment (<em>r</em> = 0.610, <em>r</em> = 0.805, and <em>p</em> = 0.001). The administration of sorghum tempeh at a dose of 6.081 g caused the greatest reduction (∆) in LDL levels at -44.19 ±2.58 mg.dL<sup>-1</sup>, although, it was not the same as normal control. Meanwhile, sorghum flour at a dose of 4.095 g was the most influential in reducing MDA levels to the same as normal control with delta (∆) at -7.67 ±0.37 ng.mL<sup>-1</sup>. In conclusion, sorghum tempeh and flour were the most effective at reducing LDL and MDA levels, respectively.</p> Ana Khoirun Nisa Diana Nur Afifah Kis Djamiatun Ahmad Syauqy Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 662 671 10.5219/1589 Monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult men https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1641 <p>The study aims to evaluate the monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the young population, which significantly contribute to the origin and development of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral artery diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and others. We focused on a group of young adult men (n = 110) in the age range of 30 to 50 years, which we selected from the database of 800 patients hospitalized in the Cardio Center in Nitra during 2010 – 2020. When evaluating the influence of meat products consumption frequency on biochemical parameters and BMI, we recorded a statistically significant effect at the level of <em>p </em>&lt;0.05 in the evaluation of meat products such as salami, brawn, and sausages. When consuming sausages, BMI values also increased with increasing frequency of consumption. The effect on BMI was also observed when eating salami, between consuming 1 – 2 times a week and not at all. We recorded a statistically significant effect (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) in frequent consumption of brawn (1 – 2 weeks) on the level of HDL cholesterol. The most frequent fish consumption was 1 – 2 times a month for freshwater (51.8%) and marine fish (56.3%). Daily consumption of fruit was reported in 64.6% of men, while daily consumption of vegetables was recorded in only 44.6% of men. In the lifestyle assessment, we focused on probands' time spent on physical activity. Only 35.5% of men stated that they spend more than an hour a day on physical activity. 40% of men from the surveyed respondents were active smokers. Another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases is stress, which significantly affected up to 42.7% of respondents. Nutrition and lifestyle play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, which significantly affect blood lipid parameters, vascular endothelial elasticity, and factors determining the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.</p> Jana Mrázová Soňa Bӧtӧšová Jana Kopčeková Petra Lenártová Martina Gažarová Marta Habánová Kristína Jančichová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 672 679 10.5219/1641 Justification of thermodynamic efficiency of the new air heat pump in the system of redistribution of energy resources at the enterprise https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1666 <p>The article evaluates the energy resources of the components of the environment and the prospects for their use on the redistribution with the creation of local zones of cooling and heating. The physical basis of the principle and systems of redistribution and transformations of energy resources of environments with coverage of the role of compensation processes is given. The use of closed energy circuits with intermediate energy sources, which are subject to phase transitions of evaporation and condensation, and data of energy potentials of ambient air, which are practically achievable for use on this basis, is proposed. The article shows the advantages of arranging systems for redistribution of thermal potentials based on the use of phase transitions of material media. Determination of energy balances of energy redistribution systems is carried out with the indication that in the end, such a method is the most energy-efficient. Upon completion of technological tasks, local areas with different energy potentials and temperatures degrade in dissipation processes and transform to the level of environmental indicators. This means interfering with the environment only at the level of energy costs in compensation processes. The article shows the transition to secondary recovery systems of energy resources based on the use of primary energy sources in environmental transformations at the levels of increasing their energy potentials and providing phase transitions with appropriate mathematical formalizations. A regression analysis of the feasibility of using primary energy potentials is given. It is proved that in the heat pump due to the generated mechanical energy the heat return at the level of the lost one. The estimation of the general condition of processes at power effects is given. The offered air pump and system of realization of a refrigerating cycle are considered. The redistribution of energy potentials of natural, forcibly created environments or systems and the synthesis on this basis of powerful heat fluxes in combination with advanced control methods, allows you to control their values of thermodynamic parameters.</p> Igor Stadnyk Anatoly Sokolenko Volodymyr Piddubnuy Kostiantyn Vasylkivsky Andrii Chahaida Viktor Fedoriv Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 680 693 10.5219/1666 Competitiveness of agri-food foreign trade in conditions of the Slovak Republic https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1686 <p>The presented paper aims to evaluate the development and competitiveness of agri-food foreign trade of the Slovak Republic for the period 2016 – 2020. In the article, we present the priorities of Slovakia within the commodity structure. We use the RCA indicator to identify comparative advantages. In this paper, we also compare the actual and estimated development of agri-food foreign trade of the Slovak Republic in the years 2018 – 2020. Based on the reached results, we can state that we achieve an ever-increasing trade balance deficit in agri-food foreign trade. Produced results confirmed all the research assumptions presented in the paper. Despite the increase in export and import of agri-food products, the negative trade balance is still deeper. A significant deviation of real development from the predicted values can be explained by the influence of the worldwide pandemic of the coronavirus COVID-19, which slowed down the possible further development of agricultural trade.</p> Anna Látečková Michaela Trnková Jozef Palkovič Ivan Holúbek Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 694 702 10.5219/1686 The improvement of insulin resistance and the antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with whiteleg shrimp shell powder (Litopenaeus vannamei) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1684 <p>As estimated having an increased incidence of about 50% until 2040, the diabetic condition could be augmented primarily from astaxanthin contained in carotenoids. This research examines and compares the influence of WSSP and AST complement on Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) level and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) induced high-fat diet streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) in T2DM rats. WSSP 0.89gr/200gr/d (X1) and 1.77gr/200gr/d (X2) groups; and AST supplement 0.09mg/200gr/d (X3) groups were compared with both of positive (K1) and negative (K2) groups. The treatments were administered orally for 21 days to 25 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 5 rats. HOMA-IR and TAC levels were measured by ELISA and ABTs method respectively. TAC levels significantly increased in treatment groups than K1 group (<em>p</em> = 0.008). The increase in the TAC level of the X2 group was greater than the X1 group (<em>p</em> = 0.017). HOMA IR levels were significantly lower in treatment groups than K1 group (<em>p</em> = 0.009). X2 group had a greater decrease in HOMA IR levels compared to X1 (<em>p</em> = 0.016). In consequence, the research findings show a utilitarian effect of WSSP in increasing TAC and decreasing the HOMA-IR index.</p> Risya Ahriyasna Tri Winarni Agustini Kis Djamiatun Def Primal Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 703 711 10.5219/1684 The effect of extraction time on the physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium powder from chicken and duck eggshells https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1675 <p>Calcium deficiency is associated with the risks of bone fracture and osteoporosis. This type of malnutrition has been a concern of governments and the World Health Organization for decades, and extensive efforts have been made to address it. There are several solutions to increase calcium intake. One is to take calcium in the form of nanocalcium. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of extraction time on the physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium powder extracted from chicken and duck eggshells through precipitation. This research was conducted by using a completely randomized factorial design with two factors, and each treatment analysis was repeated three times. The first factor was the type of eggshell (chicken and duck), and the second was the extraction time (1, 1.5, and 2 hours). The observed parameters were physical (yield and color) and chemical characteristics (moisture, ash, calcium content, and crystalline structure). The results showed that the type of eggshell had a significant effect (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05) on yield, color (lightness), and moisture content and that extraction time had a significant effect (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05) on yield, color (chroma and hue), moisture, and ash content. The highest content of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium formation (100%) was nanocalcium powder from chicken and duck eggshells, with 1 hour of extraction time. The particle size of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium from chicken and duck eggshells were 41.54 nm and 24.90 nm, respectively.</p> Nura Malahayati Tri Wardhani Widowati Nurul Saniah Alsoyuna Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 712 722 10.5219/1675 The comparison of biochemical composition of Actinidia kolomikta and Actinidia polygama fruits https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1682 <p>The demand for natural products, which are rich in biologically active compositions, grows constantly. The choice and production of such products can minimize the deficit of importance for human organism components, which are contained only in plant food. The paper contains the laboratory studying results of the chemical composition of the fruits of two <em>Actinidia</em> Lindl. cultivars of Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology, and Nursery (FSBSI FSC for Horticulture) genetic collection: <em>Actinidia kolomikta</em> (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim. and <em>Actinidia polygama</em> (Siebold et Zucc.) Maxim. All the presented samples are grown in field conditions. The fruits were picked up in the phase of harvest maturity while ripening. The data on antioxidant activity of water and methanol extracts, the content of phenolic compounds sum, soluble solids, and titratable acids in the fruits, and on qualitative composition of secondary metabolites (organic acids, fatty acids, mono-, di- and polysaccharides) are given in the paper. The variation limits of the parameters under study depending on the sample are presented. As a result of the laboratory studies, it was stated that <em>A. kolomikta</em> fruits 10 times exceed <em>A. polygama</em> fruits on all the stated parameters. Only the results on the soluble solids content in the fruits of both cultivars are approximately at the same level (<em>A. kolomikta &gt; A. polygama </em>on 1.16%). The positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the general content of polyphenols is confirmed at both cultivars. <em>Actinidia kolomikta</em> genotypes Chempion and Lakomka and <em>Actinidia polygama</em> ones Tselebnaya and Uzorchataya showed the best results. The correct individual choice of actinidia fruits that are the best ones at the biochemical composition and the content of micronutrients allows supplying the consumers with food products.</p> Darya Panishcheva Svetlana Motyleva Natalia Kozak Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 723 731 10.5219/1682 Changes in organoleptic, microbiological and biochemical properties of kefir with iodine addition during the storage https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1679 <p>Iodine is a vital trace element that must be constantly and daily supplied with food to the organism. Currently, the amount of food that can provide the organism with the required amount of iodine is insufficient. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in organoleptic, microbiological, and biochemical parameters of kefir made with the addition of iodine during its refrigeration storage. It was found that during the storage of samples of kefir with iodine there is a slowdown in the reproduction of lactic acid bacteria, compared with the control sample. In particular, the number of lactic acid bacteria during the first two days of storage increased 1.3 times in the experimental sample and 1.5 times in the control sample of kefir. After 12 days of storage, the number of lactobacilli in the test sample of kefir increased 2.5 times, and in the control 3.2 times, compared with the amount in fresh kefir. Similar patterns were observed in determining the development of yeast. In particular, the reproduction rate of yeast in the control sample of kefir was, on average, 1.3 times faster (8 – 12 days), compared with yeast in the experimental sample. It was also found that during the 12-day storage period at a temperature of +6 °C, the titrated acidity in kefir with iodine increased 1.4 times, and in the control 1.6 times and was 130.5 °T and 154.1 °T, respectively. At such acidity values, the test sample of kefir still met the requirements of the standard, and the control was 24.1 °T higher. In this case, kefir containing iodide had better organoleptic characteristics during 12 days of storage. Produced kefir with the addition of iodine can be considered a functional product to provide the population with sufficient iodine.</p> Diana Dalevska Oleg Pokotylo Mykola Kukhtyn Nataliia Kopchak Volodymyr Salata Yulia Horiuk Tetyana Uglyar Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 732 740 10.5219/1679 Modification of the properties of milk-fat emulsions with the phase structure of "oil in water" in the dependence on the mass part of the lipoid and the stabilizing systems https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1389 <p>The composition and properties of cream with fat levels from 30% to 70% were investigated. It has been established that the decrease of fat level and, accordingly, the increase of plasma level in the cream leads to significant changes in the physicochemical parameters of the fat emulsion. Accordingly, the production of low-fat dairy products requires adjustment of the cream properties. It has been shown that using different doses of structure stabilizers: QNA colloid as a consistency stabilizer in the amount of from 1 to 2% and the Dimodan emulsifier U/G – from 0 to 1 % (Danisco, Denmark) changes the physicochemical properties (effective viscosity, sedimentation stability) and organoleptic properties (consistency, taste) of cream with fat level 40%. It has been conducted mathematical modeling, aimed to calculate dosing for improving the properties of milk-fat emulsions, structure formation and further ensuring of the necessary consistency of cream pastes. Optimal doses of colloid QNA as a consistency stabilizer and a U/G Dimodan emulsifier have been determined. It has been established that their content should be 1,0% and 0,5%, relatively, for pastes with a fat level of 40%. The effectiveness of the joint action of consistency stabilizers and emulsifiers in obtaining milk-fat emulsions were defined by the level of effective viscosity. Moreover, the use of the emulsifier had less effect on the effective viscosity of the milk-fat emulsions. It has been found that using the structure stabilizers could improve the formation of low-fat products and the formation of the desired paste-like consistency of high-fat cream with a fat level of 70%. Thus, it is possible to adjust the composition and properties of raw material as a basis for milk-fat emulsions by optimizing the ratio of structure stabilizers. Comparative evaluation of the physicochemical properties of milk-fat emulsions and high-fat cream makes it possible to predict their potential for conversion into a creamy paste with a given consistency.</p> Igor Stadnyk Oksana Bodnarchuk Kateryna Kopylova Pylyp Petrov Larysa Bal-Prylypko Sergiy Narizhnyy Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 741 748 10.5219/1389 Assessment of the effect of bioactive nutrients and probiotic microorganisms on the parameters of lipid metabolism in the body https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1685 <p>The aim of the work is a comparative study of the effect of vegetable nutrients - wheat germ oil (WGO), flour from wheat germ cake (WGC), and animal - concentrated tissue fish oil, origin on lipid metabolism indicators of students and university teachers, as well as an assessment of the probiotic factor in increasing the effectiveness of the target biologically active substances. The data obtained confirm the relation between the nutritional sufficiency of the body and the increase in lipid metabolism effectiveness and atherosclerosis risk reduction in students and teachers of an engineering university with the daily use of bioactive nutrients: WGO, WGCF, CTFO and their combinations with the biomass of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria consortium. The lipid metabolism was evaluated based on the analysis of indicators of the total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides (TG), atherogenic index (AI). The values of these indicators were recorded before and after daily consuming the study foods for 30 days. The data obtained were analyzed for 3 age groups: 16 – 24, 25 – 44, and 45 – 65. It was found that WGO has the most effective antiatherosclerotic effect; the decrease in the TC level was 6.4%, the increase in the HDL concentration was 13.7%, the decrease in the LDL concentration was 11.3%, the decrease in the TG concentration was 17.1%, and the AI decreased by 22.6%, respectively. With WGCF, the changes in the studied parameters were 6.0, 12.3, 13.1, 13.1, and 22.1%, respectively. Together with probiotics WGO effectiveness increased in terms of the reduced TC level (1.9%), increased HDL concentration (8.2%), decreased LDL concentration (2.5%), reduced TG concentration (5.7%), and decreased AI (6.3%) for CTFO by 9.1, 26.1, 14.7, 24.1 and 31.2%, respectively. Thus, the dynamics of lipid metabolism indices objectively testifies to the positive effect of bioactive nutrients on human health indicators.</p> Natalia Rodionova Evgeny Popov Natalia Zakharova Ekaterina Pozhidaeva Anna Derkanosova Nikolay Tychinin Anatoly Khitrov Mikhail Syromyatnikov Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 749 757 10.5219/1685 The content of silver, aluminum, and zinc in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1673 <p>The content of selected elements (Ag, Al, and Zn) in wild edible Parasol mushroom (<em>Macrolepiota procera</em> Scop. Singer) collected from five sites in Slovakia – Lazy pod Makytou, Lozorno, Nemečky, Tesáre, and Zbyňov was investigated. The element analysis was determined using the ICP-OES method. The average concentrations of Ag, Al, and Zn in <em>M. procera</em> caps ranged as follows: 0.41 – 3.23, 16.6 – 113, and 73.4 – 111 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> dry weight, respectively. Also, Spearman’s correlation test was used to determine the correlations between Parasol mushroom caps and stems in the content of Ag, Al, and Zn. Subsequently, the obtained data on the content of the monitored elements in <em>M. procera</em> caps were used for the evaluation of health risks arising from the consumption of <em>M. procera</em>. Although mushrooms are an important part of the diet, they are consumed mainly as a seasonal delicacy therefore, the intake of the monitored elements from the consumption of <em>M. procera</em> may be limited. Regular and long-term consumption of <em>M. procera</em> caps from investigated sites does not pose any health risks to the consumers.</p> Hana Franková Ivona Jančo Natália Čeryová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 758 767 10.5219/1673 Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices by citrus farmers and its determinants in the Jordan valley: the case of Northern Ghor https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1676 <p>The agricultural sector in the Jordan Valley plays an important role in the economic system and that the region is essentially Jordan's food basket. The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is widely recognized as essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. This study analyzed factors influencing citrus farmer's adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) in the Northern Ghor of Jordan valley. The study used a quantitative approach. Simple random sampling was adopted to select 115 farmers in the study area. A multiple regression analysis was applied to identify factors influencing the sustainability of citrus farming practices. The study found that the largest proportion 44.4% of the citrus farmers had a fairly high adoption rate of SAPs while 13.0% of ones had high adoption of SAPs. In addition, the study revealed that age of farmer, Farm experience, primary education, and tertiary education were factors that affected farmers SAPs adoption. Policy recommendations are proposed to enhance the implementation of sustainable agriculture practices by the citrus farmers in the Northern Ghor of Jordan valley.</p> Safaa Alwedyan Aymen Taani Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 768 775 10.5219/1676 Development of nutritional meals and gruels from blends of pro-vitamin a cassava grits and African yam https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1677 <p>The potentials of underutilized African yam bean (AYB) and pro-vitamin A cassava in the development of nutritious food products with acceptable sensory properties were studied. Grits were produced from freshly harvested yellow root pro-vitamin A cassava by peeling, washing, cutting, soaking, dewatering, roasting, sieving, and milling to obtain yellow root cassava grits while AYB flour was obtained by cleaning, roasting, dehulling, milling, and sieving (425 µm). A simple lattice design was used to obtain formulations of blends (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 0:100) of yellow root cassava grits and AYB flour. Gruels were prepared from these formulations using 4:5 w/v in boiling water while meals were prepared using 1:1 w/v of blend in boiling water for 5 min. Moisture, fat, ash, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, β-carotene and calorific content of the blends were in the ranges of 4.66 – 7.92%, 2.20 – 2.82%, 2.16 – 2.66%, 2.72 – 20.43%, 1.15 – 1.40%, 68.65 – 83.23%, 1.33 to 3.97 μg/g and 348.37 – 358.96 kcal/100 g, respectively. Saponin, tannin, trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin, starchyose, raffinose, phytate and Hydrogen Cyanide ranged from 0.039 – 0.087%, 0.11 – 0.15%, 1.24 – 3.15 mg/g, 1.47 – 3.49 mg/100 g, 1.51 – 1.81%, 0.38 – 0.45%, 0.82 – 2.69 mg/g, 0.07 – 4.47 mg/kg, respectively. The sensory evaluation revealed that the meal and the gruel samples had acceptable sensory attributes. The developed products have the potentials in alleviating the problem of protein malnutrition in developing countries.</p> Ololade Abosede Olodude Victoria Funmilayo Abioye Yetunde Mary Iranloye Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-28 2021-09-28 15 776 783 10.5219/1677 Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Echinocystis lobata (Mich.) Torr. ET Gray (Cucurbitaceae) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1579 <p><em>Echinocystis lobata</em> <em>(Mich.) Torr. et Gray</em> extracts were investigated for their bioactive compounds and their potential for natural antioxidant properties. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts were evaluated by <br />1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruits and seeds were determined. TPC is a fairly constant value and varies weakly both among the different organs of <em>Echinocystis lobata</em> and among the geographical locations of the populations studied. Like other invasive species, <em>Echinocystis lobata</em> is superior to many other plants in terms of the total amount of flavonoids contained in its fruits and seeds. The dried fruits contain more flavonoids than the seeds. Seeds from Slovak populations have higher flavonoid content than those from Russian populations. The results demonstrated that <em>Echinocystis lobata</em> can be a good source of natural antioxidants and have a great potential for commercialization, especially in the pharmaceutical industry.</p> Yulia Vinogradova Olga Shelepova Olena Vergun Olga Grygorieva Jan Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 15 784 791 10.5219/1579 Determining the effect of replacing composite flour mixture with cassava starch on nutritional and physical properties of chicken sausages https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1611 <p>Cassava starch extracted from cassava roots (<em>Manihot esculanta</em>) is a highly used ingredient for most commercial food products and has a high viscosity, water holding capacity, and binding abilities. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing composite flour mixture with cassava starch on the nutritional and physical properties of chicken sausages. A scientific experiment was designed for the sausage formulation to incorporate 50% to 100% with cassava modified and native starch compared to the control sample. These samples were evaluated for sensory and textural properties. Nonparametric data obtained through sensory evaluation were analyzed using the Friedman ranking test. According to the test results, the best sample was analyzed for the nutritional toxicological composition and storage stability. According to the statistical analysis, the sample which was 50% replaced with native cassava starch showed the best sensory profile. The best sample showed average moisture, crude fat, crude protein, total solids, ash, and acid-insoluble ash content of 65.98, 7.19, 8.79, 34.02, 2.36, and 0.32 percent respectively. The starch content of the best-ranked sample was 3.12 and the cyanide content of that sample was 1.54 ppm on a dry basis. According to the microbial analysis results, the sausage sample was coliform negative and zero initial plate count was obtained. Besides, the best-ranked fresh chicken sausage was nutritionally acceptable and could keep for 14 days without adding preservatives. </p> Rakinahewage Kalpani Lakma Weerasinghe Indira Wickramasinghe Madame Arachchige Dulani Somendrika Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 792 798 10.5219/1611 Satureja montana L. essential oil various dosages effect on the main rats’ biological features https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1643 <p>An application of natural antioxidants remains the focus of research groups. The effect of <em>Satureja montana</em> L. essential oil in various doses on the main biological characteristics of Wistar rats was the main aim of the study. The intensification of protein metabolism in the blood plasma of rats on the background of the use of <em>Satureja montana </em>L. essential oil was noted. Total protein increases by 17.9 – 19.7%, and albumin by 27.6% in rats of the experimental group received the essential oil at a dose of 0.6 ml per kg of feed. A significant increase in the AST level in control group rats to 207.3 U.L<sup>-1</sup> was revealed. Its one to a certain extent indicates the hepatoprotective effect of mountain savory oil and a decrease in inflammatory processes in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract in the conditions of cell maintenance of rats of the experimental groups. Gastric epithelium thickness of rats of both experimental groups was lower than the control animals. But it did not bear any signs of atrophy. The difference of this indicator in comparison with control was 12.75 μm (<em>p </em>≤0.05) in the second group and it was reliable. The number of chief stomach cells increases in animals of the experimental groups, which may indicate a greater enzymatic activity. An increased dose of mountain savory oil contributes to the formation of more damage to hepatocytes on the periphery of the liver lobule. Thus, the relationship between liver enzymes and the state of peripheral hepatocytes was noted.</p> Vladimir Pashtetsky Pavel Ostapchuk Elena Usmanova Eugenia Zyablitskaya Tatiana Makalish Irina Danilova Tatiana Kuevda Denis Zubochenko Veronica Uppe Aleksandra Pashtetskaia Anna Pikhtereva Viktor Abalduev Vitalii Delov Alina Posobilova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 799 809 10.5219/1643 Formation of heat and mass transfer bonds when mixing components in a suspended state https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1645 <p>The method of preparation of wheat paste based on discrete and impulse influence on components is revealed. The basis of the research of the vapors preparation method is the formation of a liquid mixture of interacting dosing components in a suspended state. The interaction occurs due to the humidification of the pulverulent suspended state of the layer of flour particles by a scattered jet of liquid under pressure. The development of this technological process and equipment is considered. A thorough analysis of the mixing of components in a suspended state. The influence of a set of experimental and theoretical researches is noted, where the results of the theoretical direction are aimed at the creation of mathematical models, simulation of the process with the use of the possibility of computer engineering. The characteristics of thermal processes for the transition region from the surface of the flour to the massive formed medium are given, taking into account the effective thermophysical characteristics of the medium in the form of dependences obtained theoretically and experimentally. Dependencies are taken into account as well as heat and mass transfer processes when the liquid phase interacts with flour: external heat and mass transfer processes when interacting in a suspended state on the flour surface and change of working environment with the formation of bonds, and internal mass transfer processes when moving moisture and heat inside the flour particle. </p> Igor Stadnyk Volodymyr Piddubnyi Liudmila Beyko Igor Dobrotvor Ganna Sabadosh Tetiana Hushtan Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 810 823 10.5219/1645 The effect of heat-moisture treatment conditions on the structure properties and functionalities of potato starch https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1647 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">Potato starch was modified via heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions. The effect of HMT on structural, physicochemical, and in vitro digestibility were investigated. HMT led to the rupture, adhesion and partial gelatinization, and agglomeration of the granules which surface became rougher, thereby increasing the particle size and resulting in the hollow structure located at the hilum of potato starch granules. XRD results showed an increased relative crystallinity and transformed crystalline structure from B-type to C-type with the extension of heat moisture treatment. FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that HMT might cause additional interactions between amylose-amylose, and/or amylose-amylopectin and/or amylopectin-amylopectin chains, which eventually leads to the increase of the mass of the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group. HMT significantly decreased the peak viscosity, hold viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of starch, while the gelatinization temperature increased. The tHMT1, THMT100, and CHMT15 had the lowest content of RDS and there was no significant difference between the three samples, that is these three samples had the highest total content of SDS and RS.</span></p> Chunli Deng Oksana Melnyk Yanghe Luo Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 824 834 10.5219/1647 The Remnant photosynthetic pigments in tea dregs: identification, composition, and potential use as antibacterial photosensitizer https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1651 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">The production of tea dregs is continually increasing along with the growth of people's interest in ready-to-drink beverages. However,<span style="letter-spacing: -.45pt;"> the </span>recent development of research on the use of tea dregs is still very limited. The present study was aimed to identify the remnant photosynthetic pigments in tea dregs, determine their composition, and evaluate their potential use as natural antibacterial agents based on light-induced reaction (photosensitization). The tea dregs from six commercial teas, consisting of green and black teas, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector, and the spectroscopic data were analyzed from 350 to 700 nm. Pigment identification was performed based on spectral characteristics, and pigment composition in the extracts from the dregs was determined by a three-dimensional multi-chromatogram analysis method. The dominant pigment fractions in both tea types were pheophytin <em>a </em>and its isomers, as well as pheophytin <em>b</em>. Although the dregs of black teas generally contain fewer remnant pigments, they possess residual chlorophyll <em>b</em>, which is not found in the dregs of green teas. In thirty-minutes illumination under 50 W red light-emitting diode, the presence of pigments from tea dregs caused up to 0.87 and 0.35 log reduction of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>, respectively. The disparity of pigments composition among tea types does not strongly influence their photosensitization activity against both bacteria. Hence, upon further application, the amount of total remnant pigments in the dregs could be taken as substantial consideration instead of tea types.</span></p> Renny Indrawati Elok Zubaidah Aji Sutrisno Leenawaty Limantara Tatas Hardo Panintingjati Brotosudarmo Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 835 845 10.5219/1651 The nutritional value, bacterial count and sensory attributes of little tuna (Euthynnus affinis) floss incorporated with the banana blossom https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1657 <p>The study aimed to evaluate the addition of banana blossom (12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50% w/w) on nutritional quality, histamine content, bacterial count, and sensory characteristic in the fish floss prepared from little tuna (<em>Euthynnus affinis</em>). The crude protein content, essential amino acids, lipid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) steadily decreased (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05), while the crude fibre, carbohydrate, and ash components of the tuna floss, increased significantly (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05) with increasing levels of banana blossom. The contents of protein, fat, ash, fibre, carbohydrate, and moisture ranged 28.13 – 30.27%, 14.79 – 18.02%, 4.45 – 5.68%, 2.6 – 3.5%, 27.81 – 31.01, and 16.45 – 17.39%, respectively, and most of them met the Indonesian National Standard. For essential and non-essential amino acids, the level varied about 102.82 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> to 206.76 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> and 79.71 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> to 138.76 mg.g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively in the treated tuna flosses. Moreover, ranging 13.72 – 16.29% of PUFA was found in all treated flosses. The most significant effect was found in the histamine levels of the tuna flosses, especially in the 50% added floss sample. Moreover, bacterial counts and heavy metals content were lower than the maximum limits regulated by the Indonesian National Standard. For sensory evaluation, the banana blossom-added samples significantly increased (<em>p </em>&gt;0.05) the acceptability score for all attributes assessed. Taken together, the tuna floss added with 37.5% of banana blossom may be potentially developed as a low-histamine tuna-based product with high ffibre andEPA+DHA, as well as highly acceptable for consumers.</p> Hartati Kartikaningsih Yahya Yahya Trihartita Yuniar Abdul Aziz Jaziri Wahidu Zzaman Rovina Kobun Nurul Huda Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 15 846 857 10.5219/1657 The system of monitoring of inhibitory drug residues in raw cows' milk in Slovakia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1687 <p>This article provides brief information on the system of monitoring raw cows’ milk for the presence of inhibitory veterinary drug residues in the Slovak Republic. We are describing in detail how the monitoring is carried out and what laboratory methods are used for this monitoring. We also deal with the issue of the disposal of contaminated milk. The presence of inhibitory veterinary drugs like antibiotics or residues of these drugs in milk in an amount exceeding maximal residual limits defined in legislation is illegal. Milk supplies containing detectable concentrations are not acceptable. The reputation of milk as a&nbsp;healthy and safe food should be protected. Dairy companies and consequently consumers want to be confident that milk and milk products are free of inhibitory veterinary drugs contamination. Small amounts of certain antimicrobial agents may affect antibiotic resistance in the human population, some percentage of the population is hypersensitive to antibiotics and other drugs. The presence of drug residues in milk affects the technological process of the production of fermented dairy products. Each country should implement a system of monitoring these drugs' residues in food. The system, which is applied in Slovakia, is effective, it can detect and the presence of these substances before milk processing in dairies. The total incidence of these substances in 2020 was 0.025% of all 12,181 samples tested in central testing laboratories. During the last 20 years.</p> Peter Zajác Stanislava Zubrická Jozef Čapla Jozef Čurlej Maroš Drončovský Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 858 868 10.5219/1687 The role of gambeir filtrate and red palm oil in the formation of canna starch based-functional edible film https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1580 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">This study aims to analyze the role of gambier filtrate and red palm oil in the formation of functional edible film and to determine whether the gambier filtrate and red palm oil are synergistic or antagonistic in the formation of functional edible films. The study design used a factorial randomized block design with two treatment factors and each treatment consisted of three levels, namely: gambier filtrate concentration (A): 20, 30, and 40% (v/v) as well as red palm oil concentration (B): 1.2 and 3% (v/v). The observed parameters were thickness, elongation percentage, water vapor transmission rate, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity. Gambier filtrate and red palm oil were capable to improve the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of canna starch-based edible film. Gambier filtrate plays a role in increasing the elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film.</span></p> Budi Santoso Doni Andrian Saragih Gatot Priyanto Hermanto Hermanto Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 869 876 10.5219/1580 An improved method for determining the mass fraction of calcium carbonate in the carbonate bedrock https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1591 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">In the article it is offered to enter in the technological audit of the lime department of sugar factory the adjusted technique of the definition of the maintenance of calcium carbonate in carbonate breed. For this purpose, a complete chemical analysis of limestone was performed, which includes determination of moisture content, impurities insoluble in hydrochloric acid, the amount of one and a half oxides of aluminum and iron, calcium carbonate (advanced method), and magnesium carbonate, calcium sulfate, alkali metal oxides, potassium, and sodium. The obtained experimental data are summarized in one table and the material balance of all components of carbonate bedrock is summarized. The proposed method made it possible to obtain objective data on the component composition of the carbonate material. This, in turn, avoids many technological problems, namely to reduce the formation of melts in the lime kiln, improve the filtration of juices, increase the ability of lime to chemically interact with water, reduce the volume of water on the juicer etc. Thus, the use of the recommended method for determining calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3</sub>), as part of the technological audit, will allow early adjustment of the process, which will give maximum energy and resource savings, as well as increase the level of environmental friendliness of the enterprise.</span></p> Tatiana Kos Inha Kuznietsova Tamila Sheiko Liubomyr Khomichak Yuliia Kambulova Larysa Bal-Prylypko Volodymyr Vasyliv Mykola Nikolaenko Mykola Bondar Iryna Babych Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 877 890 10.5219/1591 The influence of varietal characteristics on the quality indicators of candied fruits from plum fruits https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1597 <p>The influence of varietal characteristics of plum fruits on the physicochemical parameters of the drying process has been investigated. Revealed significant differences in the content of biologically active compounds on the example of varieties: Stanley, Big Stanley, Grossa di Felisio, President, Blue moon, August Delish, Kabardinskaya early. The consumption rates of raw materials for the production of candied fruits have been determined. The results of laboratory studies on the variation of the content of vitamins (<em>C, P</em>), anthocyanins in plum fruits, taking into account varietal characteristics, are presented. The drying process on a dryer with infrared rays led to a slight decrease in polyphenolic and mineral substances, and higher losses of vitamins in the finished candied fruit. The mathematical processing of the experimental data was carried out by the method of analysis of variance and descriptive statistics using the Microsoft Excel software package. In the production of candied plum fruits, optimal technological modes have been selected that contribute to a high yield of high-quality finished products, taking into account the varietal characteristics of the feedstock. According to biochemical and organoleptic indicators of the quality of candied fruits, Stanley and President varieties were distinguished, the energy value of which is 147.0 kcal with an organoleptic assessment of 4.9 points. The results of experimental biochemical and technological analyzes of fruits at individual technological stages of production made it possible to assess the intensity of complex processes that cause a qualitative transformation of raw materials.</p> Tatiana Prichko Natalya Droficheva Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 891 900 10.5219/1597 Improving the method of determining the mass fraction of magnesium carbonate and the study of the chemical composition of carbonate rocks for the effective conduct of the technological process of sugar production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1620 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">The article considers an improved method for determining the content of magnesium carbonate in the carbonate rock. An adjusted method for determining the content of magnesium carbonate was included in the complete establishment of chemical analysis of limestone, which includes the determination of moisture, impurities insoluble in hydrochloric acid, the amount of one and a half oxides of aluminum and iron, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate (advanced method), calcium sulfate, alkali metal oxides of potassium and sodium. The obtained experimental data were entered into a single table and summed up the material balance of all components of the carbonate rock. As a result, it was found that this technique includes the following criteria: it is the most accurate, most accessible, and cheap. The use of adjusted methods for determining the content of calcium and magnesium carbonate in limestone will make it possible to establish the objective chemical composition of the carbonate rock and avoid several technological problems. Namely, the excess of uncontrolled magnesium carbonate contributes to the formation of the liquid phase, which in turn reduces the concentration of chemically active lime and promotes the formation of melts in the lime kiln, deteriorating filtration rates, clogging the evaporating station, and so on. Therefore, having information about the real component composition of limestone, the technologist will be able to adjust the technological process in advance, which will lead to the preservation of natural resources while the quality of finished products will not decrease.</span></p> Tatiana Kos Inha Kuznietsova Tamila Sheiko Liubomyr Khomichak Larysa Bal-Prylypko Volodymyr Vasyliv Maxim Gudzenko Mykola Nikolaenko Mykola Bondar Irina Haidai Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 901 916 10.5219/1620 Consumption dietary sources of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin among young adults living in megapolis https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1633 <p class="PotText"><span lang="X-NONE">Carotenoids are natural antioxidants, affecting apoptosis, absorbing active forms of oxygen, and improving visual performance through their blue light filtering capabilities. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids of the macular pigment that play a significant role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, and diabetic retinopathy. We analyzed the dietary sources of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin of young adults living in a megapolis. We analyzed 431 food frequency questionnaires and used two different criteria for comparison: age (groups A1 and A2) and season (groups S1, spring, and S2, autumn). Raw red tomatoes and eggs are the main sources of carotenoids for the majority of respondents regardless of age and season. Significant differences between age groups were found for parsley, carrot, cheeseburger, and spring onion. Foods with high levels of carotenoids (tomato juice, pumpkin, spinach, and sprouts) were absent in the diets of most of the study participants. Watermelons and persimmons are seasonal sources of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Dietary sources of carotenoids are present in insufficient quantities in the diets. Foods with high levels of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are absent or only occasionally included in the diet.</span></p> Aleksei Korolev Ekaterina Kirpichenkova Elena Nikitenko Elena Denisova Elena Fanda Irina Barasheva Roman Fetisov Olga Popova Lubov Kuznetsova Ekaterina Petrova Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 917 925 10.5219/1633 The technological properties of winter wheat grain during long-term storage https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1642 <p>In the world, the demand for quality and safe grain products is increasing. The need to preserve wheat in the event of a natural disaster requires the study of optimal storage times of grain without degrading technological indexes. The purpose of the work was to study the dynamics of technological properties of winter wheat grown after peas, clover, corn for silage and the industrial, ecological, biological growing systems during 1, 3, and 5 years of storage in the conditions of the ordinary granary. The absence of significant differences in the technological parameters of the grain of wheat grown at industrial and ecological systems, but significantly lower indicators at a biological growing system was found. The highest hectolitre weight obtained when wheat grain was grown after corn for silage, and vitreousness – after the clover. Significantly higher biochemical parameters of grain and alveographic properties of flour were for the cultivation of wheat after peas, which provided additional accumulation of protein substances. There are no significant changes in the indicator of hectolitre weight during the grain storage. Other indicators increased significantly after 1 year of storage (on average by 10 – 30%). For further storage, vitreousness growth was insignificant. After 5 years of storage, the falling number significantly increased (on 21% compared to the initial values and on 7% – after 3 years of storage). The content of protein, gluten in the grain, and alveographic properties of flour significantly decreased after 5 years of storage. The possibility of obtaining grain of wheat with high technological parameters for a more safe ecological growing system was established. It was also confirmed to need for grain storage up to 1 year to improve quality indicators and it was established that it safely stored for 3 years.</p> Nadiia Yashchuk Liudmyla Matseiko Anatolii Bober Matvei Kobernyk Sergiy Gunko Natalia Grevtseva Yuriy Boyko Oksana Salavor Natalia Bublienko Iryna Babych Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 926 938 10.5219/1642 Product line of selected agricultural entity in Slovakia and suggestion for its expansion based on analysis of consumers' interest in dairy and meat products https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1654 <p>Studies on primary agricultural production in Slovakia aimed mainly at biological, economic, or market point of view and there is a lack of managerial approach providing a specific recommendation for farmers according to their production lines or planning process. As a reaction, we are providing a practically oriented study based on the selected livestock producer, which is aimed at statistical significances as an establishment for further recommendations for management and marketing of this entity. The paper aims to analyze the views and preferences of customers of the monitored company, which sells its meat and dairy products in its stores and verify the expected success of the planned expansion of the product lines. Regarding this, the online questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of 202 respondents. Realized statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and subsequent Bonferroni post hoc correction signify that meat products, fresh meat, and slaughter specialties are the most favorite products among customers of the monitored company. Fresh milk, on the other hand, is not as attractive as a meal for them. However, selling it from vending machines placed out of the store would increase the sales. Dairy products of own production should be even more successful, as we assume they would be as interesting for customers as the currently expanding portfolio of meat products. The benefit of this study lies in the consideration of the practical use of the obtained results in the business practice of the monitored company. Regarding this, we are providing <br />a set of recommendations, according to the planning of their product lines and connected marketing tools for their successful placement on the market.</p> Jana Kozáková Erika Hornáčková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 939 960 10.5219/1654 The organoleptic quality of liquid food formula made from snail (Pila ampullacea), tempeh, and moringa leaves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1672 <p>This study aims to determine the organoleptic quality of liquid food formula made from snail (<em>Pila ampullacea</em>), tempeh, and moringa (<em>Moringa oleifera</em>) leaves. The study was conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It involved 25 moderately trained panelists and also 5 trained panelists, who met the criteria. The measured variable was the organoleptic quality, which included aspects of color, texture, taste, and aroma. The formula tested was a powder formula made from the snail, tempeh, and moringa leaves. The proportion of snail flour, tempeh flour, and moringa leaves flour was 50:30:20. It was found that more than 50% of panelists liked the liquid food formula based on color, texture, taste, and aroma. Independent t-test to determine the difference between the organoleptic quality of the two groups showed <em>p</em> = 0.710 for color, <em>p</em> = 0.335 for texture, <em>p</em> = 0.603 for taste, and <em>p</em> = 0.880 for aroma. In conclusion, most of the panelists liked the liquid food formula products made from snail, tempeh, and moringa leaves based on the organoleptic quality result. There was no difference between the organoleptic quality studies of the two groups in the aspect of color, texture, taste, and aroma.</p> Fery Lusviana Widiany Mochammad Sja'bani Susetyowati Emy Huriyati Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 961 969 10.5219/1672 Innovative approaches to the development of a new sour milk product https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1688 <p>The topic provides an analysis of the current approach to healthy nutrition and represents a new functional fermented milk drink based on buttermilk containing natural prebiotics - a biologically valuable complex Spirulina platensis. The main tasks of the industry as a holistic system for the management and production of food ingredients and products are outlined. The work highlights the requirements for the quality and context of the functional product manufacture, the main criteria for the consumer choice, and positioning of products in the healthy lifestyle system. The topic covers the most common pro- and prebiotics, including strains. The unique food green microalgae Spirulina platensis as a source of biologically valuable components is proposed for industrial application. A technique for the production of the fermented milk drink based on buttermilk and spirulina as prebiotic was developed and scientifically substantiated. The protein contained in buttermilk is characterized by high nutritional value, exhibits functional properties and can significantly affect the quality of the drink. To confirm this, the possibility of using buttermilk with different protein content from 2.9 to 3.2 to improve the structure of the clot in the composition of the drink and the content of spirulina from 10 to 20% was studied. As single criteria for optimizing the prescription composition of the drink at the different protein content of buttermilk used indicators of product quality - acidity, degree of syneresis, organoleptic parameters. The optimal values of the individual criteria are obtained in different ranges of protein content 3 times 1-2-2; sample 2-3.0; sample 3-3.2%, which allows you to get recommendations for the formulation of a new type of drink.</p> Irina Vlasenko Valentyna Bandura Tetyana Semko Larisa Fialkovska Olga Ivanishcheva Vladyslav Palamarchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 970 981 10.5219/1688 Development of the food act of the Slovak Republic from 1995 to 2021 https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1689 <p>Legislation in food is quite fragmented, it includes several regulations, amendments due to the rapid development both in the studied area and the influence of European law. It is a legal branch of a relatively hybrid nature. It contains agricultural legislation that intersects with environmental law. It also affects administrative, financial, and criminal law as a branch of public law. Nor can commercial and civil law as the basis of private law be circumvented here. The legal norm has undergone a relatively interesting development, which is characterized by several amendments. During the more than 25 years of validity of this legal norm, a total of more than twenty amendments. This certainly does not contribute to the stability of the legislation, the legal certainty of the entities concerned, or its clarity and system. The article provides an overview of the development of the legal regulation of the Food Act in Slovakia from 1995 to 2021.</p> Katarína Ševcová Peter Zajác Jozef Čapla Jozef Čurlej Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 982 994 10.5219/1689 The inhibition of wine microorganisms by silver nanoparticles https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1604 <p>The presented work aimed to study the inhibition using nanoparticles produced by the green synthesis in selected acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, which are related to viticulture. The degree of ability to eliminate silver particles produced by green syntheses was determined using the plate method on Petri dishes. This is done using two different approaches - the method of direct application of the solution to the surface of the inoculated medium (determination of inhibition zones) and the method of application using nanoparticles to the inoculated medium. <em>Gluconobacter oxydans</em> (CCM 3618) and A<em>cetobacter aceti </em>(CCM 3620T) were studied from acet acetic bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria were <em>Lactobacillus brevis</em> (CCM 1815) and <em>Pediococcus damnosus</em> (CCM 2465). The application of silver nanoparticles was always in concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g.L<sup>-1</sup>. All applied concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed an inhibitory effect on the monitored microorganisms. Silver particles could be used in wine technology for their antibacterial effects, mainly to inhibit microorganisms during vinification, as a substitute for sulfur dioxide.</p> Aleš Vavřiník Kateřina Štůsková Adrian Alumbro Methusela Perrocha Lenka Sochorová Mojmír Baroň Jiří Sochor Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 995 1004 10.5219/1604 Development of a two-level control system for the analysis of the composition of meat products https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1632 <p>Because of the increased demand for processed meat, there is an urgent need to introduce specific identification methods. Strategies such as molecular genetics and the physical condition of meat are used to quickly explore multi-component products. However, a single methodology does not always unambiguously classify a product as counterfeit. In laboratory practice, as a rule, screening techniques are rarely used in the first stage, followed by arbitration. This work aimed to study individual methodologies using artificially falsified meat samples as examples and to identify their composition based on muscle tissue. For the experiments, the three most common types of raw meat were selected: pork, beef, and chicken. The calculation of the content of muscle tissue was carried out according to the BEFFE method. The study of muscle protein was carried out by ICA, ELISA, PCR, microstructural analysis, and mass spectrometric identification. In this connection, we proposed a multilevel control system for multicomponent meat products. Both classical methodologies, such as calculation by prescription bookmarks (BEFFE) and microstructural analysis, and approaches of highly sensitive methodologies, such as identification of muscle tissue by marker peptides (LC/MS-MRM) and semi-quantitative PCR analysis, were evaluated.</p> Natalya Vostrikova Daniil Khvostov Anatoly Zherdev Mikhail Minaev Elena Zvereva Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1005 1017 10.5219/1632 The effect of carbon dioxide on the quality of the mushrooms https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1634 <p>Mushrooms' quality may be significantly changing depending on their type, strain, growing cycle, packing, cooling, postharvest handling (PHH), and conditions of storage. This work aimed to define the influence of the type and mushrooms' strain, the regime of the PHH by carbon dioxide on their preservation (marketability, loss of weight (LW)), changes in the chemical substances, and physiological activity (intensity respiration (IR) and heat release (HR)). Mushrooms <em>Agaricus bisporus</em> (AB) (strains ІБК-25 and ІБК-15) and <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> (PO) (strains НК-35 and Amycel 3000) were used for testing. Three regimes of treatment by CO<sub>2</sub> with a concentration of 20% were applied: 2 h; 12 h and 22 h. The control was the mushrooms without treatment by CO<sub>2</sub>. Changes in the chemical substances such as dry matters (DM), protein nitrogen (PN), and ascorbic acid (AA) in the researched mushrooms were observed. The best result of mushroom preservation was provided by the regime of CO<sub>2 </sub>treatment during 12 h. The yield of marketable AB was 94.9% (IBK-25) and 94.2% (IBK-15) comparison to control 93.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. The regime of PHH 2 h almost has no influence but 22 h harmed this indicator. PHH of mushrooms by carbon dioxide was promoted to preserve the DM and increasing concentration of CO<sub>2</sub> was supplied better results. Thus, DM at the end of storage in the AB of strain IBK-25 depend on the regime were 8.5, 8.6, and 8.4%, against – 8.3% in the control variant. Significant quantitative changes in the PN and AA as a result of treatment by CO<sub>2</sub> were not established. PHH also affected the IR and HR. The increased duration of treatment by CO<sub>2</sub> inhibited the intensity of physiological processes in the mushrooms. But, as in previous cases, the best result was provided PHH by 20% CO<sub>2</sub> during 12 h. Similar trends of treatments effect by carbon dioxide were observed in the mushrooms of PO.</p> Sergiy Gunko Olha Trynchuk Oksana Naumenko Hryhorii Podpriatov Liubomyr Khomichak Anatoliy Bober Volodymyr Zavhorodnii Volodymyr Voitsekhivskyi Oksana Zavadska Lesia Bondareva Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1018 1028 10.5219/1634 Influence of rootstocks on the productivity and chemical composition of Prunus domestica L. fruits https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1650 <p>The influence of seedling and clonal rootstocks of different spreads on <em>Prunus domestica </em>L. plum fruits quality and productivity of Yaichnaya Sinyaya and Utro varieties was studied. The significant change of productivity and the fruit weight of the varieties under study was to determine under the influence of the rootstock. Depending on the scion-stock combination the plum tree's productivity varied from 7.5 kg/tr. (Utro/140-1) to 15.1 kg/tr. (Yаichnaya Sinyaya /Novinka) at the mean value of 11.5 kg/tr. Medium-growing rootstocks Novinka and OPA-15-2 provided the maximum value of the varieties productivity The significant productivity decrease relatively to seedling rootstock was stated for the combinations with low-growing rootstock 140-1. Soluble solids content in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety is higher than in the fruits of Utro variety, moreover, the highest values were determined on Novinka and OPA-15-2 rootstocks: on 4 – 4.5% higher in comparison with the fruits on the seeding rootstock at average. The rootstock causes less influence on titratable acids. The antioxidant activity of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits is 30% higher than that of Utro variety fruits on average. The maximum values of antioxidant activity in Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits were fixed on OPA-15-2 rootstock (16.37%), the minimal ones – on Skorospelka Krasnaya rootstocks (14.68%). In the fruits of Utro variety the highest values were stated on OP-23-23 rootstock (13.16%), and the lowest ones – on the seedling rootstock (10.93%). The content of phenolic compounds sum is 60% higher in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety than in Utro variety ones on average. The decrease of the content of phenolic compounds sum was stated in the fruits of Utro variety on all the rootstocks in comparison with the combination Utro/seedling rootstock. The decreasing series of ash elements accumulation (K &gt; P &gt; Ca &gt; Mg &gt; Mo &gt; S &gt; Zn &gt; Si) was determined. The strongest variety differences on total mineral element content were overvalued on medium-growing clonal rootstocks (Novinka, OP-23-23 and OPA-15-2). OPA-15-2 and OP-23-23 rootstocks provided the highest fruit quality on the combination of economic and biochemical parameters.</p> Svetlana Motyleva Galina Upadysheva Tatyana Tumaeva Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1029 1038 10.5219/1650 The effect of raw pearl millet flour inclusion on the quality and formulation cost of beef sausages https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1658 <p>This study investigated the sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics as well as formulation cost of beef sausages formulated with raw pearl millet flour (RaPMF) as an extender. Four treatments were formulated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% RaPMF. Ash, carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of the beef sausages were not influenced (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) by the RaPMF. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH contents were highest (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) in the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Cooking loss was at least (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) for the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Formulation of beef sausages with RaPMF did not affect (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05) the sensory properties (week 1), water holding capacity, peroxide value, lightness (week 1), and yellowness (week 1). The formulation cost was least for 15% RaPMF beef sausages and highest for 0% RaPMF beef sausages. As a general conclusion, RaPMF improved the mineral composition of the beef sausages and reduced production costs without compromising its physicochemical and sensory properties.</p> Frederick Adzitey Joseph Yaro Joseph Kudadam Korese Mohammad Halim Jeinie Nurul Huda Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1039 1048 10.5219/1658 The effect of chayote leaves (Sechium edule)’s flavonoid fraction on the reduction of the serum uric acid levels through the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1667 <p>Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism and is categorized as hyperuricemia when it reaches &gt;6.0 mg.dL<sup>-1</sup> for women and &gt;7.0 mg.dL<sup>-1</sup> for men. The chayote leaves (<em>Sechium edule</em>) contain a high amount of flavonoid and might be used as an alternative to reduce hyperuricemia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of chayote leaves (<em>Sechium edule</em>)’s flavonoid fraction on the level of uric acid and the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in <em>Sprague Dawley</em> Rats. The flavonoid fraction (FF) was obtained by extracting the chayote leaves, fractionating with n-hexane, hydrolyzing with HCl, and finally re-fractionating with ethyl acetate. Thirty male <em>Sprague Dawley </em>rats were induced for hyperuricemia by potassium oxonate and broth block for 21 days, and the interventions were given orally for 14 days. The rats were divided randomly into five groups: normal control (K-), hyperuricemia control (K+), hyperuricemia with FF dose 50 mg.200g<sup>-1</sup> body weight (P1), hyperuricemia with FF dose 100 mg.200g<sup>-1</sup> body weight (P2) and hyperuricemia with allopurinol 1.8 mg.200g<sup>-1</sup> body weight. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by <em>CheKine<sup>TM</sup> Xanthine Oxidase Assay Kit</em>, with simple colorimetry methods. The statistical analysis for XO activity was done using <em>Kruskal-Wallis </em>followed by <em>Mann Whitney. </em>The results showed that chayote leaves (<em>Sechium edule</em>)’s flavonoid fraction contains apigenin, apigenin o-glucoside, and luteolin. It also has antioxidant activity with 98.45% inhibition. There was a significant reduction in xanthine oxidase activity in groups treated with FF (<em>p </em>&lt;0.005). The best dose of FF affecting XO activity was 100 mg.200g<sup>-1</sup> body weight. The combination of FF and allopurinol can be more effective in decreasing uric acid levels by inhibiting XO activity.</p> Diah Pitaloka Putri Aulia Putri Wahyuningtyas Ahmad Ni'matullah Al-Baarri Nani Maharani Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1049 1055 10.5219/1667 The effect of oregano essential oil on chicken meat lipid oxidation and peroxidation https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1690 <p>The study aimed to investigate and evaluate the oxidative stability of chicken thighs with skin stored in freezing conditions due to the effect of oregano essential oil for various times. The results were compared with a control group without the use of oregano essential oil. Samples of chicken thighs with skin were obtained from an experiment performed on a poultry farm in a deep litter breeding system. The results obtained from the application of oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin did not show a statistically significant difference (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05) in the dry matter content, fat content and acid value compared to the control group, where coccidiostats were used in starter and growth feed mixtures. A statistically significant difference was found in the peroxide value by applying oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin compared to a control group containing coccidiostats in starter and growth feed mixtures when stored for 1 day at room temperature (<em>p</em> £0.01) and 12 months in freezing conditions at -18 °C (p £0.05) and a statistically non-significant difference (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05) when thighs with skin were stored for 6 and 9 months in -18 °C freezing conditions. In the conclusion, it was stated that maintaining the oxidative stability of chicken meat means knowing the factors that affect it and prepare the conditions for its maintenance. Chicken meat is generally susceptible to oxidative damage because it is characterized by a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. With a sufficient amount of effective antioxidants, chicken meat could be a homoeostatic system, but it remains limited or free of oxidized compounds and reactive components. These questions are the subject of further research in the field of oxidative stability of chicken meat.</p> Mária Angelovičová Michal Angelovič Jozef Čapla Peter Zajác Petra Folvarčíková Jozef Čurlej Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1056 1068 10.5219/1690 The effect of essential oils on cholesterol content in chicken meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1691 <p>The study aimed to investigate cholesterol content in chicken breast and thigh muscles by the influence of feed supplements of various content of essential oils. The experiment was carried out under practical conditions in a poultry farm with broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 hybrid combination according to the feed supplement used thyme essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, commercial citrus fruit essential oil, and their combination. The control group was without the use of experimental feed supplements and commercial coccidiostats were used in their feed mixtures. The experiment lasted 40 days in welfare conditions. Broiler chickens were used for sample preparation of breast and thigh muscles with the skin and their analysis for dry matter, fat and cholesterol contents. Samples were analyzed using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results were processed by the SAS system program, version 8.2. The results, which were evaluated, indicated a tendency to reduce the cholesterol content in chicken breast muscle due to cinnamon essential oil and the combination of cinnamon essential oil with citrus fruit essential oil as well as thyme essential oil with citrus fruit essential. In the achieved results of dry matter, fat, and cholesterol content in breast and thigh muscles, the difference between the effects of the used feed supplements based on essential oils and concerning the control group were not statistically significant <em>p</em> &gt;0.05. The correlation was a statistically significant strong linear relation only between dry matter content and fat content due to thyme and cinnamon essential oils. In conclusion, it was stated that the investigation of the feed supplement effect based on essential oils is an open question concerning the production of safe food of animal origin.</p> Mária Angelovičová Michal Angelovič Peter Zajác Jozef Čapla Klaudia Šaraková Jozef Čurlej Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1069 1081 10.5219/1691 The chemical composition of two kinds of grape juice with medicinal plant addition https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1692 <p>The safety of plant-based food with an herbal origin is a priority for producers and final consumers these days. The interest in the high biological value of the final food products enriched with herbal ingredients is rising. We focused on the study of physico-chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two kinds of grape juice with medicinal plant addition in our study. We used 2 varieties of grapes - Welschriesling and Cabernet Sauvignon, six species of medicinal plants - <em>Calendula officinalis</em> L., <em>Ginkgo biloba</em>, <em>Thymus serpyllum</em>, <em>Matricaria recutita</em>, <em>Salvia officinalis</em> L., and <em>Mentha aquatica</em> var. <em>citrata </em>in our experiment. There were14 samples prepared, two of them were control samples and 12 samples were treated with medicinal plants. We tested each of the selected parameters triplicate with an interval of one week. We evaluated the results statistically in 4 levels of significance <em>p</em> &lt;0,01, <em>p</em> &lt;0,001, <em>p</em> &lt;0,0001 and <em>p</em> &lt;0,00001. The content of fructose, glucose, dry matter, density, malic acid, pH, potential alcohol, total acids, and total sugars in the treated samples was significantly lower compared to the control sample, which was probably due to the degree of dilution of grape juice with extracts gained from medicinal plants. The antioxidant effect was demonstrably higher in the samples enriched with medicinal plants than in the control samples. The highest antioxidant effect was measured in the second test in the samples with the addition of <em>Thymus serpyllum </em>(80.93 % - white grape must, 82.33 % - blue grape must), <em>Calendula officinalis</em> L. (79.29 % - white grape must, 80.49 % - blue grape must) and <em>Ginkgo biloba</em> (79.10 % - white grape must, 83.3 % - blue grape must). Generally, we found out that the selected medicinal plants increase the biological quality of grape juice.</p> Jakub Mankovecký Lucia Galovičová Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1082 1092 10.5219/1692 Antibiofilm and antioxidant activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1693 <p>The aim of the work was to explore the antioxidant potential and antibiofilm activity of the <em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> essential oil. The DPPH method was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The agar microdilution method was used to determine the minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration (MBIC). The MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity on the wood and glass surface. Vapor phase antimicrobial analysis was used to determine the effect on the food model. The antioxidant activity was 28.76 % ± 2.68 %. The MBIC for <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> was 25 µL.mL<sup>-1</sup> and for <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> 12.5 µL.mL<sup>-1</sup>. Analysis of the mass spectra of <em>S. maltophilia</em> revealed an inhibitory effect from the 5<sup>th</sup>, which persisted until the end of the experiment. Analysis of the mass spectra of <em>B. subtilis</em> showed an inhibitory effect from the 7<sup>th</sup> of the experiment. The experiments showed an effect on both tested surfaces. The food model showed a more pronounced effect of the <em>Rosmarinus officinalis </em>essential oil against <em>B. subtilis</em>. We assume that the effect of the essential oil is to disrupt the polysaccharide structure of the biofilm and consequently reduce the resistance of the biofilm. We have established that MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper is a suitable tool for evaluating changes in biofilm structure and could find more significant application for the study of biofilms in food and clinical practice.</p> Lucia Galovičová Petra Borotová Veronika Valková Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1093 1103 10.5219/1693 The content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1694 <p>Garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em> L.) is one of the most commonly grown vegetables and thanks to its sensory properties, it has an important place in numerous world cuisines. Garlic is also known for its health-promoting properties, which are attributed to its chemical composition. The health benefits of garlic depending on the content of biologically active compounds, which vary between cultivars and geographical areas. Seven cultivars of garlic, namely Sukoradsky, Zahorsky, Germidour, Mojmir, Karel IV., Arkus, Makoi, were analyzed in this study. This study aimed to determine the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of garlic. Studied characteristics were analyzed by the UV-VIS spectrometry method. Total polyphenol content ranged from 430.26 to 640.04 mg GAE.kg<sup>-1</sup> FW. Total flavonoid content ranged from 10.29 to 60.49 mg CE.kg<sup>-1 </sup>FW. Antioxidant activity measured by ABTS assay ranged from 1.098 to 1.955 mmol TE.kg<sup>-1</sup> FW. Antioxidant activity measured by FRAP assay ranged from 0.63 to 1.467 mmol.kg<sup>-1</sup> FW. Highest TPC, TFC, and AA were determined in the cultivar Mojmir. The lowest TPC and TFC were determined in the cultivar Zahorsky. The lowest AA was determined in the cultivar Sukoradsky. High positive correlations were determined between individual parameters.</p> Natália Čeryová Iveta Čičová Judita Lidiková Marek Šnirc Jarmila Horváthová Helena Lichtnerová Hana Franková Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1104 1111 10.5219/1694 The Citrus reticulata essential oil: evaluation of antifungal activity against penicillium species related to bakery products spoilage https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1695 <p>Fungal food spoilage plays a key role in the deterioration of food products, and finding a suitable natural preservative can solve this problem. Therefore, antifungal activity of green mandarin (<em>Citrus reticulata</em>) essential oil (GMEO) in the vapor phase against the growth of <em>Penicillium</em> (<em>P.</em>) <em>expansum </em>and <em>P. chrysogenum</em> inoculated on wheat bread (<em>in situ </em>experiment) was investigated in the current research. The volatile compounds of the GMEO were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC–MS), and its antioxidant activity was determined by testing free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH assay). Moreover, the disc diffusion method was used to analyze the antifungal activity of GMEO in <em>in vitro</em> conditions. The results demonstrate that the <em>Citrus reticulata</em> EO consisted of α-limonene as the most abundant component (71.5%), followed by γ-terpinene (13.9%), and β-pinene (3.5%), and it displayed the weak antioxidant activity with the value of inhibition 5.6 ±0.7%, which corresponds to 103.0 ±6.4 µg TEAC.mL<sup>-1</sup>. The findings from the GMEO antifungal activity determination revealed that values for the inhibition zone with disc diffusion method ranged from 0.00 ±0.00 (no antifungal effectiveness) to 5.67 ±0.58 mm (moderate antifungal activity). Finally, exposure of <em>Penicillium</em> strains growing on bread to GMEO in vapor phase led to the finding that 250 μL.L<sup>-1</sup> of GMEO exhibited the lowest value for mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of <em>P. expansum</em> (-51.37 ±3.01%) whose negative value reflects even supportive effect of the EO on the microscopic fungus growth. On the other hand, GMEO at this concentration (250 μL.L<sup>-1</sup>) resulted in the strongest inhibitory action (MGI: 54.15 ±1.15%) against growth of <em>P. chrysogenum</em>. Based on the findings it can be concluded that GMEO in the vapor phase is not an effective antifungal agent against the growth of <em>P. expansum</em> inoculated on bread; however, its antifungal potential manifested against <em>P. chrysogenum</em> suggests GMEO to be an appropriate alternative to the use of chemical inhibitors for bread preservation.</p> Veronika Valková Hana Ďúranová Lucia Galovičová Jana Štefániková Nenad Vukovic Miroslava Kačániová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1112 1119 10.5219/1695 The effect of soil biostimulant Agriful on the selected quantitative and qualitative parameters of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang.) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1696 <p>The research task was focused on an important type of root vegetable – carrot (<em>Daucus carota</em> L.), cultivar ´Romance F1´ (family: <em>Apiaceae</em>). The main goal was to verify the application of soil biostimulant Agriful (based on humic and fulvic acids) and its impact on the yield potential and quality of carrot roots. Nowadays, it is the common need to intensify and increase crop production because of the growing human population and look for environmentally friendly cultivation methods. In general, biostimulants are biologically based products and their purpose is to stimulate the natural nutritional processes in cultivated crops. In the realized experiment, Agriful (treatment of 5 L/300 L water/ha) was applied twice per vegetation period by spraying over the pivot. The increase of average root weight after the application of Agriful was found, concretely about +4.47% compared to the control variant. The higher root weight after Agriful application resulted in a higher total yield of carrot about +2.84% compared to the control variant. The quality of consumable parts of carrots were evaluated based on the classification of roots into quality classes according to the valid standard for fresh carrot marketing (UNECE FFV-10). In the ´Extra class´, there was an increase in the average yield after the application of Agriful about +5.4%; The average carrot yield in ´Class I´ was decreased about -1.0% and the root ratio in the ´Class II´ decreased about -1.9%. The ratio of ´Non-standard´ carrot roots was lower about -2.5%. Based on evaluating qualitative substance content (total carotenoids, refractometric dry matter), the positive influence of the effect of Agriful application was found. The content of total carotenoids was higher about +8.7% compared to the control variant. The refractometric dry matter was higher about +4.1% compared to the control variant. The obtained results can be used in further research on biostimulants and it is possible to create clear recommendations for using Agriful for small growers. It should be useful to verify these results in another vegetation period for recommendation to large-scale producers of carrots.</p> Júlia Fabianová Alena Andrejiová Miroslav Šlosár Alžbeta Hegedűsová Lenka Benzová Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 15 1120 1127 10.5219/1696