Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo <p class="textnormal" style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; color: #000000; font-weight: normal;" align="left"><strong>Welcome to administration panel</strong></p> HACCP Consulting en-US Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 1337-0960 <span style="font-size: 11px; color: #111111;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><ol type="a"><br /><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a style="text-decoration: underline; color: #006666;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><br /><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><br /><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a style="text-decoration: underline; color: #898e79;" href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol></span> Polyphenol components and antioxidant activity of Thymus spp. https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1715 <p> This scientific work was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of aromatic plants of <em>Thymus</em> spp. in the East of Ukraine. These plants are known as medicinal and food around the world. All antioxidant parameters were investigated spectrophotometrically: total content of polyphenols (TPC), the total content of phenolic acids (TPAC), the total content of flavonoids (TFC), molybdenum reducing power of extracts (MRP), and antioxidant activity by DPPH method (DPPH). Investigation of ethanolic extracts demonstrated that TPC varied from 57.89 to 123.67 mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) DW for <em>Th. pulegioides</em>, from 61.43 to 168.18 mg GAE/g for <em>Th. serpyllum</em>, and from 47.36 to 115.67 mg GAE/g for <em>Th. vulgaris</em>. TPAC ranged from 27.36 to 50.22 mg/g caffeic acid equivalent (CAE) DW for <em>Th. pulegioides</em>, from 28.58 to 59.62 mg CAE/g for <em>Th. serpyllum</em>, and from 22.95 to 53.82 mg CAE/g for <em>Th. vulgaris</em>. TFC was determined in a range from 29.88 to 61.23 mg/g quercetin equivalent (QE) DW for <em>Th. pulegioides</em>, from 36.0 to 82.43 mg QE/g for <em>Th. serpyllum, </em>and from 24.59 to 55.41 mg QE/g for <em>Th. vulgaris</em>. MRP was detected in the range of 94.65 – 204.76 mg/g Trolox equivalent (TE) DW for <em>Th. pulegioides</em>, 96.06 – 219.0 mg TE/g for <em>Th. serpyllum</em>, and 87.56 – 215.43 mg TE/g for <em>Th. vulgaris</em>. The antioxidant activity of extracts by the DPPH method was 6.34 – 9.23 mg TE/g for <em>Th. pulegioides</em>, 8.11 – 9.21 mg TE/g for <em>Th. serpyllum, </em>and 4.97 – 9.53 mg TE/g for <em>Th. vulgaris</em>. It was established that polyphenol accumulation depended on the growth stage and species. For all species was found a strong correlation between TPC and TFC (<em>r</em> = 0.938, 0.908, and 0.854). Investigated <em>Thymus</em> spp. are a valuable source of antioxidants that can be used in pharmacological studies and the food industry.</p> Olena Vergun Liudmyla Svidenko Olga Grygorieva Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková Katarína Fatrcová Šramková Eva Ivanišová Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 16 1 14 10.5219/1715 The intensification of dehydration process of pectin-containing raw materials https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1711 <p>The process of intensifying dehydration of pectin-containing raw materials by using centrifugation with simultaneous application of low-frequency oscillations to the working container creates an electroosmotic effect in unilateral diffusion to improve the filtration process. It is established that to reduce the technological resistance in the presented methods; it is necessary to create a fluidized bed of products due to the oscillating motion of the working capacity. An experimental vibration unit has been developed to determine the rational parameters of the vibrocentric moisture removal process using the electroosmotic effect. It is proved that the complex of the designed equipment provides consecutive carrying out of three-stage vibration filtration-convective drying of high-moisture production by an alternation of action of a stream of the heat carrier, an electromagnetic field, low-frequency fluctuations. According to the research results, the dependences of the kinetics of the moisture diffusion process on the electric field strength are obtained; frequency of electric current and duty cycle of pulses, which allowed to optimize the process parameters according to the criteria of minimizing energy consumption. It was found that the processing time to achieve the desired humidity with the application of vibration, filtration, and electroosmotic effect was twice less than for filtration drying in a fixed bed. In combination with the noted physical and mechanical factors, the proposed technology improves the technical and economic parameters of the studied process.</p> Igor Palamarchuk Oksana Zozulyak Mikhailo Mushtruk Ievgenii Petrychenko Nataliia Slobodyanyuk Оlexander Domin Sergiy Udodov Olena Semenova Inna Karpovych Roksolana Blishch Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 16 15 26 10.5219/1711 The study of the intensification of technological parameters of the sausage production process https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1712 <p>One of the sources of sodium are meat products. Increased consumption of meat products and sodium intake leads to serious health problems. The task of reducing the dosage of sodium chloride in minced meat needs to be addressed. The partial replacement of table salt with sea salt will reduce the sodium concentration in products to 20%. It is established that this modification increases the moisture-binding properties of minced meat and lowers the dosage of salt in the mass of raw meat, which will reduce the level of harm to the body due to excessive consumption of sausages. It is proposed to introduce a bacterial preparation based on the strain <em>Staphylococcus carnosus</em>, which will reduce the amount of sodium nitrite in the finished products. Technology has been developed to regulate the composition of microelements in meat products by enriching them with a kelp extract. It was found that changes in the composition of minced meat can adversely affect the taste and physicochemical properties of the product, which is confirmed by expert studies. As a result of laboratory studies, it was found that a partial change of salt in the sea helps to improve the stability and physicochemical quality of minced meat (active acidity, water activity, moisture retention, and shear stress). According to the research results, the recipe of sausages recommended for implementation at the enterprises of the meat processing industry of Ukraine has been developed.</p> Larysa Bal-Prylypko Maryna Yancheva Mariia Paska Maxim Ryabovol Mykola Nikolaenko Valentyna Israelian Oksana Pylypchuk Nina Tverezovska Yurii Kushnir Maryna Nazarenko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 16 27 41 10.5219/1712 Bromine in chicken eggs, feed, and water from different regions of Ukraine https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1710 <p>The purpose of these studies was to analyse and compare the content of bromine in samples of chicken eggs, feed, and water from different regions of Ukraine in the dynamics of 2016 – 2020: with an increased risk of bromine in products (Kharkiv, Poltava, Dnipropetrovsk and Mykolaiv regions) and outside the risk zone (Volyn, Vinnytsia and Zaporizhzhia). Studies of bromine content in eggs, feed, and water were performed in the laboratory of toxicological monitoring of the National Scientific Center "Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine" (Kharkiv) using X-ray fluorescence analysis. As a result of the conducted researches, the increase of the bromine content in chicken eggs in the dynamics of 2016 – 2020 was established: the bromine content increased regardless of the region of the poultry farm location. The highest bromine concentration in chicken eggs was found in Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, and Zaporizhia regions. Bromine source in poultry products is the excessive intake of bromine in the poultry body with alimentary environmental factors (feed and water). Bromine content in feed for chickens increased in the research dynamics (from 35.1% in the Poltava region to 2.5 times in the Zaporizhzhia region). It exceeded the established EFSA (4.4% of the total) and the average in Ukraine (51.2% of the total number of samples). In addition, the average bromine content in feed from poultry farms of the studied regions of Ukraine correlated with the number of registered and approved bromine-containing pesticides. The average bromine concentration in water sources in the studied regions of Ukraine had no significant differences compared to the beginning of the study but exceeded the maximum allowable concentration by 21.7% in 2016, 34.8% in 2018 and 39.1% in 2020. The maximum bromine concentration was in water sources in Mykolayiv, Kharkiv, and Dnipropetrovsk regions.</p> Oleksandr Orobchenko Yuliia Koreneva Anatoliy Paliy Kateryna Rodionova Mikola Korenev Natalіya Kravchenko Olena Pavlichenko Svetlana Tkachuk Oleksandr Nechyporenko Svitlana Nazarenko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 16 42 54 10.5219/1710 Entrepreneurial development in the production sphere of the regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1718 <p>In recent years, in connection with the rise of prices for resources the aggravation of the competition, the concept of enterprise performance management has begun to be actively used. The process of financial diagnostics and assessment of the security level in economic entities' activities is one of the most debatable in the scientific community. This research aimed to study the entrepreneurial development in the milk production sphere in Kazakhstan and to find the most effective tools for ensuring the financial security of enterprises. The databases of the Bureau of national statistics of the Agency for strategic planning and reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Eurasian Economic Commission were used as the study materials. The main methods were the resource and functional approach, integrated, and financial risk. Within the framework of this study, the dairy industry of Kazakhstan was investigated. Industrial enterprises operate in challenging economic conditions. Therefore, the managerial decisions should be directed towards strengthening the financial and property status and developing strategic potential capable of adapting to unfavourable environmental factors. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the presence of an organic link between the economic situation in the state and the profit margins requires an increase in the efficiency of using the production capabilities of the enterprise. The study's practical significance lies in using the findings and developments as recommendations for improving the economic aspects of dairy enterprises.</p> Yerkebulan Utegenov Jamilya Seitkhozhina Madina Ryspekova Zhuldyz Utegenova Azhar Baltasheva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 16 55 68 10.5219/1718 Analysis of qualitative and quantitative indicators of milk production and processing at the enterprises of the Akmola region https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1720 <p>The primary tasks are the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the provision of high-quality products to the population. The Akmola region is one of the country's most developed agricultural and industrial regions. The assessment of qualitative and quantitative indicators of milk production and processing in the Akmola region reflects the development dynamics of the dairy industry of the country and the main problems that need to be solved; therefore, research on this issue is relevant. The purpose of the study was to analyse the quantitative and qualitative indicators of milk production and processing at the enterprises of the Akmola region, review research on the development of formulations based on the raw materials of the area, and study factors affecting the quality of dairy products. The main method used in the study was the analysis of the suitability of milk of the Akmola region as a raw material for producing cheese fermented milk. It was found that, in general, the quality of milk of the Akmola region in terms of fat, protein, minerals, and lactose, the fatty-acid composition of milk fat, the content of somatic cells is good. The specificity of the region, which consists in the fact that most of the raw materials for milk processing plants are supplied by private farms, leads to the variability of microbiological indicators of milk and the content of somatic cells, which limits the use of milk in the production of certain types of cheese. It was concluded that there is a necessity in the development of new recipes, considering the characteristics of raw and powdered milk produced in the Akmola region, which will increase the range of high-quality dairy products, which will be distributed within the country and for export.</p> Zhanara Nurtayeva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 16 69 79 10.5219/1720 The effect of transportation and pre-slaughter detention on quality of pig meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1699 <p> This research aimed to determine the influence of stress of various etiologies in pigs caused by transportation and pre-slaughter conditions on meat quality. For this purpose, pigs were divided into 11 groups within two meat processing enterprises, depending on the duration of transportation (short, long without breaks and long with breaks) and the conditions of keeping animals before slaughter. Also, within the two groups were created two subgroups with pigs of different breeds. A total of 156 pigs were studied. Blood was collected from all pigs to determine cortisol and lactate levels, and a sample of meat from the longest back muscle. The pH of the meat was determined at different stages of its maturation, and the weight loss of the sample was determined. As a result of the research, it was found that the highest quality pork was obtained from pigs that experienced lower levels of stress before slaughter. Keeping pigs for 10 – 14 hours before slaughter without access to water and food resulted in higher stress levels, which were probably expressed in higher blood concentrations of cortisol and lactate. Pigs’ access to food and water during pre-slaughter retention allows for high-quality meat by reducing the influence of stress. Pigs’ access to water before pre-slaughter does not affect the stress level but positively affects the loss of meat weight during maturation. The higher the concentration of lactate in pigs’ blood, the faster the pH of the meat decreases after slaughter, which negatively affects its quality and moisture retention. If there is a long-term transport of pigs, there is no rest stop that can significantly reduce stress levels in pigs. Duration of transportation of pigs does not correlate with stress levels, as the conditions before slaughter content.</p> Marian Simonov Ivan Stronskyi Volodymyr Salata Yuriy Stronskyi Larysa Kladnytska Mykola Kukhtyn Viktor Tomchuk Tetiana Kozytska Tetiana Tokarchuk Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 80 91 10.5219/1699 The hypoglycemic and regenerative effect of the pancreas using instant porridge mix of pumpkin and brown rice flour on diabetic rats https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1705 <p>Diabetes is a congenital disease resulting from inefficiencies in insulin production and activities. Instant porridge mixed with pumpkin and brown rice (instant porridge mix) can be a functional food to lower blood sugar. This study aimed to determine the hypoglycemic activity and the ability of instant porridge mix to regenerate pancreatic beta cells in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (STZ). Instant porridge mix was used to substitute the standard feed AIN-93 at 0, 10, 20, and 30% levels. The hypoglycemic activity test used 30 Sprague Dawley rats assigned to five groups with six each. The groups were (1) normal rats fed with standard feed AIN-93, (2) DM/diabetes mellitus rats fed with AIN 93 feed, (3) DM rats fed with 10% instant porridge mix, (4) DM rats fed with 20% instant porridge mix, and (5) DM rats fed with 30% instant porridge mix. The treatment was carried out for twenty-eight days, and blood sampling was carried out at seven-day intervals for blood analysis to determine glucose levels. At the end of the study, the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) and blood glucose in the liver of the rats were also analyzed. A histopathology test was also done on the pancreas. The results showed that feed substitution (20%) with instant porridge mix significantly (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) reduced the level of blood glucose from 271.81 to 99.66 mg.dL<sup>-1</sup> in DM rats. In conclusion, DM rats fed with 20% instant porridge mix were the best treatment for hypoglycemic and regenerative effects of the pancreas.</p> Agus Slamet Bayu Kanetro Agus Setiyoko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 92 100 10.5219/1705 Acclimatization of fish to the higher calcium levels in the water environment https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1732 <p>It is established that calcium concentration changes (variations) in the water environment significantly influence its intake and distribution in tissues and organs of hydrobionts. The decrease in calcium concentration in water from <br />100 to 60 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> significantly reduces its content in fish liver. In the gills glandular apparatus of fish acclimated to the environment with lower calcium level (in comparison with control one), its concentration on the first day of the acclimation period slightly exceeded the initial level, thus testifying to its possible excretion of endogenous calcium by gills. The increase of calcium excretion through the renal and digestive systems in fish acclimates to the higher water level, and specific changes in phosphates excretion dynamics accompany oral intake. Long keeping fish in water with 100 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> calcium is accompanied by the increase of total phosphorus in urine (by 2 – 2.5 times), and its day excretion increases by 1.9 – 2.4 times. During fish acclimation to higher calcium levels in the water environment, the excretion of total phosphorus with faecal matter increases. The increase of calcium in the water environment to 100 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> leads to a temporary increase in total phosphorus excretion with faecal issues. The rise in cation concentration to 200 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> increases significantly during long-time fish stay in such an environment.</p> Nataliia Hrynevych Mykola Svitelskyi Valentyna Solomatina Оksаnа Ishchuk Svitlana Matkovska Alla Sliusarenko Oleksandr Khomiak Alla Trofymchuk Petro Pukalo Valeriia Zharchynska Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 101 113 10.5219/1732 Development and shelf-life assessment of soft-drink with honey https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1738 <p>This scientific work describes research that aims to determine the physicochemical parameters of homogenized honey and its safety indicators based on the determination of toxic metals and radionuclides. A series of experimental studies were conducted to develop and study recipes for honey water based on different types of honey collected in the Lviv region of Ukraine, namely acacia, buckwheat, sunflower, coriander, goldenrod, linden, and weeds. According to the results of experiments, it was found that the studied honey meets all the requirements presented in the standard for natural honey. And the results obtained to determine the dry matter content and pH allowed to blend different types of honey and get honey drinks, which will expand the range of non-carbonated products, which is very popular, especially in summer, and drink this drink during the year. To prolong the shelf life of honey drinks, it is recommended to add citric acid in an amount of 1% by weight of the drink and sodium benzoate as a preservative in an amount of 0.1%. The quality of the obtained honey water samples was assessed using organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical parameters. The resulting beverages have good organoleptic characteristics and can be offered for products in the industry.</p> Marija Zheplinska Mikhailo Mushtruk Liubov Shablii Vasyl Shynkaruk Natalia Slobodyanyuk Yaroslav Rudyk Ivan Chumachenko Yevheniia Marchyshyna Alina Omelian Iryna Kharsika Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 114 126 10.5219/1738 The prolonged effect of GLUTAM 1M biologically active preparation on dairy productivity and milk quality of cows https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1739 <p>We have studied the effect of biologically active preparation of metabolic-neurotropic action “Glutam 1M” on milk productivity of cows and quality indicators of raw milk. This preparation was used for dry cows in the last trimester of pregnancy. Studies were performed in the private agricultural enterprise “Savertsi” of Popilnyansky district of Zhytomyr region on cows of Holstein breed. The biologically active preparation “Glutam 1M” has been administered to the cows of the experimental groups under the skin behind the shoulder blade in an amount of 20 ml, starting from 270 and 265 days of gestation, once a day for three consecutive days. Cows of control groups were injected with saline in the same dose. Using the biologically active preparation “Glutam 1M”, a milk yield decreased slightly by 2% (91.9 kg). The milk yield increased by 2.9% (141.5 kg) in the control group. 305-days milk yield in the control group of cows was almost the same as in the previous lactation period. During the experiment, the experimental group of cows – has decreased by 2.9% (136.5 kg). A similar situation has been observed during the biologically active preparation “Glutam 1M” on the 270 – 272<sup>th</sup> days of pregnancy. Milk yield in the experimental group of animals for the previous lactation and after the use of preparation remained almost at the same level in the control group – decreased by 4.7% (207.1 kg). 305-days milk yield in the control group of cows for the previous and post-lactation experiment period was almost the same. In the experimental group of animals, there was an increase in this indicator by 2.7% (128.7 kg). The use of the “Glutam 1M” preparation did not affect milk quality, namely the mass fraction of fat and protein; fluctuations of the above indicators stayed within the error.</p> Vita Trokhymenko Тetyana Kovalchuk Volodymyr Bidenko Viacheslav Zakharin Оksana Pylypchuk Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 127 136 10.5219/1739 Perspectives for the application of the sous-vide cooking in the development of products for public catering https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1719 <p>The effect of different sous-vide cooking temperature-time combinations on beef steak's microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic parameters were analysed. The organoleptic quality of souse-vide beef steaks was excellent. The sous-vide cooking had a considerable impact on the physical and chemical parameters of the product. The amino acid composition of the sous-vide cooked meat was similar to the original fresh beef. Souse-vide meat cooking does not denature proteins as much as conventional cooking and frying. In some cases, the microbiological parameters exceeded the expected legislation limit. We recommend additional antimicrobial barriers, such as lower pH and antimicrobial extracts from ginger in a concentration of 0.5 – 1.5% of the weight of fresh meat, combined with garlic powder. The final product had an extended shelf life compared to control samples prepared by boiling and frying.</p> Sayat Berdigaliuly Lyazzat Baybolova Nataliia Davydenko Talgat Kulazhanov Yernur Kulazhanov Jozef Čapla Peter Zajác Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 16 137 148 10.5219/1719 The inhibitory effect of Ukrainian honey on probiotic bacteria https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1721 <p>Honey is used in the food industry as a natural sweetener and has therapeutic effects on the human body. Obtaining quality honey involves using organic preventive and treatment agents in beekeeping. The most common of these agents are probiotic supplements. This research aimed to study honey’s interaction with an inhibitory effect on the growth of microorganisms from the probiotic supplement Immunobacterin-D under laboratory and experimental field conditions. At the first stage of the research, we assessed the effects of ten honey varieties (buckwheat, sunflower, meadow and forest plants, linden) on <br /><em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>B. licheniformis</em> from the dry probiotic supplement. The honey-containing nutrient media had an inhibitory effect on the growth of <em>B. subtilis</em> colonies. After 24 hours of cultivation under aerobic conditions, the concentration of <em>B. subtilis</em> decreased, on average, from 5×10<sup>12</sup> colony-forming units in 1 g to 3.2×10<sup>4</sup> and 2.1×10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g in samples with monofloral and polyfloral honey, respectively. These results emphasize the need for further research on the symbiotic role of microflora in the stability of the microbiota of the hive and bee colony ecosystem. The next stage of the study investigated the probiotic effect on bee colonies in the field. Observations were made on the sanitary conditions of the hives and the behaviour of bees at the Petrodolyna demo apiary. No differences were found at the macro hive-bee colony ecosystem level between control bee colonies (n = 5) and the experimental ones (n = 5) that had received carbohydrate feeding with added probiotics. This confirms the inhibitory effect of honey on the development of bacteria, which eliminates the risk of uncontrolled growth of <em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>B. licheniformis</em> strain colonies inside the hive and the bacteria getting into bee products. The probiotic had positive effects, increasing the live weight of worker bees by 9.15% by the end of the apiary season compared to the control. This can improve the viability of the bees during wintering. At the last stage of the research, the honey obtained from the experimental colonies was checked for the spores of <em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>B. licheniformis</em> using melissopalynology.</p> Svitlana Sidashova Leonora Adamchuk Valentyna Yasko Natalia Kirovich Dina Lisohurska Hanna Postoienko Olha Lisohurska Svitlana Furman Liudmyla Bezditko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 16 149 160 10.5219/1721 Use of laboratory equipment for analysis of external quality of food maize kernel https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1722 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the parameters of the grain air-sieve cleaner in laboratory conditions on the external quality of food maize (Zea mays L.) kernel in terms of the design for the selection of a suitable sieve mesh for cleaning procedures. The object of the research was maize kernel, variety Pionier P0216, year of cultivation 2019. The available laboratory equipment was used in the study. To evaluate the external quality of food maize kernel, indicators were determined, which were investigated before and after cleaning. An Asus notebook computer with software from Microsoft Windows XP and Ofice 2010 was used to evaluate the measurement results. These results were achieved: an average bulk density of 846.77 kg.m<sup>-3</sup> was found in the input sample of food maize kernel after harvest, admixtures before cleaning reached an average of 19.1% and impurities of 2.76%, cleanliness of kernels before cleaning averaged 76.9%, the output after cleaning expressed in terms of bulk density reached an average value of 851.15 kg.m<sup>-3</sup>, admixtures after cleaning reached 0.07% and impurities 4.21%, clean kernels after cleaning reached 94.86% and damage kernels after cleaning decreased slightly by separation of fragments and chipped kernels. In conclusion, it was stated that the laboratory technique for post-harvest treatment of grain is at a high level worldwide. Currently, the issue of post-harvest processing of grain in Slovakia is addressed at an average level. Post-harvest processing and storage of grain in terms of enginery and technological and economic aspects is little researched in the Slovak Republic, so these issues are open to further research.</p> Marek Angelovič Michal Angelovič Ján Jobbágy Koloman Krištof Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 16 161 174 10.5219/1722 Quality changes of sous-vide cooked and blue light sterilized Argentine squid (Illex argentinus) https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1731 <p>The present work was carried out to investigate the quality changes and shelf life of blue light (Blu-ray) irradiated sous-vide cooked (SVC) Argentine squid (Illex argentinus) during storage at 0, 5, and 10 °C. Sensory evaluation, color, shear force, lipid oxidation levels, total viable counts (TVC), and psychrophilic bacterial count were used to study the changes in storage quality of SVC squid at different temperatures. Results showed that the high-quality endpoints of Blu-ray irradiated Argentine squid were 360, 144, and 72 h, and the shelf-life endpoints were 504, 240, and 120 h during storage at 0, 5, and 10 ℃, respectively. The redness values of irradiated squid did not differ significantly (<em>p</em> &gt;0.05) during the storage, the brightness and yellowness values of irradiated squid showed an increasing trend, and the sheer force initially increased and then decreased. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance of each squid stored at low temperature increased with the extension of the storage period, indicating that they exhibited fat oxidation with the extension of the storage period. The TVC and the number of Psychrobacter species increased with the storage period. The correlation analysis suggested that TVC and Psychrobacter count as indicators of quality changes in Argentine squid during low-temperature storage were in good agreement with sensory scores (R<sup>2 </sup>&gt;0.9). Additionally, our results showed that Blu-ray sterilization played a positive role by inducing photosensitive oxidation and decreasing TVC and the total number of Psychrobacter than the control group during storage of SVC squid after Blu-ray irradiation. This study provides a theoretical basis for applying Blu-ray sterilization in aquatic product processing.</p> Xin Zhao Zehua Zhang Zhenkun Cui Tatiana Manoli Han Yan Hao Zhang Galina Shlapak Alina Menchynska Anastasiia Ivaniuta Nataliia Holembovska Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 16 175 186 10.5219/1731 The aromachology and possibilities of its application in a selected business entity https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1742 <p>Aromachology studies the influence of odours on human behaviour and examines the relationship between feelings and emotions. The submitted paper deals with implementing a new marketing communication tool into practice and the possibilities of its use. Our research deals with the use of the human senses in marketing, where we take a closer look at the sense of smell because it has an important position in the human mind and life. It can awaken our memories and create emotions and improve the mood and often unconsciously influence consumer behaviour. The paper is divided into two parts. The first one aims at the theoretical introduction devoted to basic concepts such as aromachology and aroma marketing. This knowledge was subsequently applied directly to the surveyed company in the results part. The research subject is the influence of aromas on the emotional side of consumer behaviour which is influenced by all stimuli around us. Based on the research, we identified the most suitable aroma category that the company could use in the future. We have developed proposals and recommendations that could help increase awareness of a new product in the company's portfolio through unconscious communication at the point of sale, which will bring the gradual implementation of this marketing tool into practice. Two questionnaires were used – the first one aimed to gain basic information about consumers and their consumer behaviour. The second one was realized as a blind review of selected aromas using facial biometrics. Based on both surveys, we can conclude that introducing a specific aroma in the company certainly could influence the sale of a new product, a chocolate cake.</p> Jakub Berčík Roderik Virágh Zdenka Kádeková Martina Budovcová Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 16 187 205 10.5219/1742 Exploring linkages between food security and economic growth: a Systematic mapping literature review https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1734 <p>Food security can be achieved by being carried out simultaneously alongside the economy's growth at the macro level. While many countries worldwide carry out economic growth policies to improve food security, the causal relationship between economic growth and food security is still debated. This study uses a systematic mapping review to analyze the relationship between food security (FS) and economic growth (EG) using a systematic mapping review. There are 26 previous research results from 780 articles obtained. Database from google scholar, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, and JSTOR with a limited date range on published information from 2004-2021. The result shows an empirical gap in the relationship between FS dan EG with 76.92% supporting the correlative relationship between FS and EG, while the other 19.23% claimed that there is no correlation, and 3.85% (one study) explored the relationship between EG and FI (Food Insecurity). Furthermore, 11 studies explained that EG has a positive effect on FS; one study stated that it has a negative impact, and another one hurts Food insecurity. Meanwhile, seven studies revealed that FS has a positive effect on economic growth, one study on the contrary, and two studies explained it has no effect. Availability and GDP per Capita variables were mainly used in describing the relationship between FS and EG.</p> Mario Fernandes Palupi Lindiasari Samputra Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 16 206 218 10.5219/1734 Social responsibility in reducing food losses and waste in the Slovak Republic: the role of policies – the responsibility of all https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1754 <p>The study aimed to point out the calls of the European Commission to the social responsibility of the solution of food losses and waste, to evaluate the current state of the researched issues in the Slovak Republic, to point out the trends, and propose measures to improve the situation of the food losses and waste on the poultry meat market in the Slovak Republic. The scientific hypotheses were established. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain primary data. The research object was households and agricultural enterprises of broiler chicken farming (poultry farms) in the Slovak Republic. Data from questionnaires completed by households and poultry farms were examined and processed by the sorting method. Cumulative totals, intervals, and percentage ranges were calculated in each response class. The obtained data for individual objects of research were processed by sorting using Microsoft Word tables – Excel, Office 2016. The chi-square test (χ2 test) with a contingency table according to the procedure of Social Science Statistics was chosen for hypothesis testing. The SAS program was used for statistical evaluation of the results and answers of the respondents from the questionnaires. <strong> </strong>The research shows that food losses in Slovak households were up to 40% and on poultry farms at 6.8%. Mould and rot were the most common causes of food degradation. Mortality during breed has been recorded as a cause of food waste in poultry farms. A statistically significant difference (<em>p </em>≤0.001) was found in the quantity of food losses between gross household income per family member and month. Statistically, no significant difference (<em>p </em>˃0.05) was found between the numbers of family members. The proposals were recommended to improve the solution of reducing food losses and food waste in households and poultry farms. Based on the application of a practical approach of households and poultry farms to reduce food losses and support innovative solutions, it is possible to achieve gentle practices in ensuring the security of nutrition, food production, social and economic sustainability as well as environmental protection in the Slovak Republic.</p> Mária Medveďová Zuzana Kapsdorferová Petronela Švikruhová Veronika Zábojníková Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 16 219 232 10.5219/1754 The effect of storage conditions on the microstructure of sterilized canned meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1714 <p>The article presents the results of studies of changes in the microstructure of the meat system as a whole and its protein component during freezing, subsequent defrosting, and storage of canned meat. Microstructural analysis of the prototypes showed the presence of several types of destruction of muscle fibers, loosening of collagen fiber bundles, and the formation of multiple cavities due to the action of ice crystals. The main components of sterilized canned meat had new characteristics after thawing, such as decreased transverse striations of muscle tissue fibers, loosening of myofibrils, changes in the size and shape of sarcomeres, violation of sarcolemma integrity, and multiple fiber fragmentation with the formation of a fine-grained protein mass. Freezing did not lead to a decrease in the content of the high-molecular-weight protein fraction of the nitrogen system, the ratio of the peptide fraction content to the residual nitrogen remained equal to 5.2. However, the ratio of non-protein nitrogen to total nitrogen decreased by 1.8 times due to the destruction of low-molecular-weight nitrogen under the action of ice crystals. The dynamics of the eh values of control and experimental canned food samples during storage indicated the loss of oxidative stability of the protein system of the samples subjected to freezing. Based on the results, we would like to recommend that logistic organizations sort and confirm canned meat safety and quality requirements after thawing in the case of unforeseen circumstances.</p> Tatyana Kuznetsova Valentina Krylova Tatyana Gustova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 16 233 243 10.5219/1714 Nutrition of older adults in the Republic of Kazakhstan https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1747 <p>This article discusses a study on the nutrition specifics of older adults living in social service institutions in three major cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Nur-Sultan, Almaty, and Shymkent. The direction of the research meets the priorities of the World Health Organization to achieve goals on aging and health. The diets of older adults in the Republic of Kazakhstan were studied, food preferences were identified, and needs for basic nutrients were established. This article presents the results of sociological surveys of older adults who answered questions about nutrition, preferred foods, raw materials, and meat products. Based on the survey results, technologies of herodietic meat products aimed at enriching the diet with proteins were developed, along with practical recommendations for a balanced diet. This area of research is relevant due to the lack of products with a herodietic profile on the Kazakhstan market.</p> Zhuldyz Satayeva Aigul Tayeva Berdan Rskeldiyev Gulshat Zhaksylykova Nursulu Akhmetova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 16 244 257 10.5219/1747 A multiplicative approach to optimize the consumer properties of quick-frozen semifinished products from cultivated champignons https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1755 <p>It is possible to maximise the consumer properties of grown fruit and vegetable products, significantly reduce their losses during the life cycle, and satisfy the public demand for products ready for consumption by using different preservation methods, particularly freezing. It has been found that the freezing of mushrooms without pretreatment does not provide a high-quality finished product. It justifies the expediency of mushroom pretreatment before freezing to stabilize their consumer properties. The inhibition effect of high temperatures on the oxidoreductase activity has been confirmed, ensuring the high preservation of cultivated champignons' natural color and consistency. A quasimetric assessment of the quality of quick-frozen cultivated mushrooms was performed, and the optimal heat treatment parameters were determined. Before freezing, blanched mushrooms' efficiency with polysaccharides has been scientifically proved. Rational concentrations and types of polysaccharides for mushroom processing have been determined. It has been established that blanching champignons in 0.1% citric acid solution followed by xanthan gum (0.2%), guar gum (0.1%), and lamidan (0.1%) processing ensure stability of consumer properties of quick-frozen semifinished products made of cultured champignons. After defrosting, they have an attractive appearance, natural light brown colour, elastic consistency, well-expressed mushroom flavour, and harmonious taste.</p> Nataliia Nesterenko Svitlana Belinska Iuliia Motuzka Maryna Mardar Nadiia Bolila Natalia Slobodyanyuk Anastasiia Ivaniuta Alina Menchynska Nataliia Holembovska Valentyna Israelian Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 16 258 270 10.5219/1755 Development of a laboratory method for determination of the quality and freshness of frozen poultry meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1757 <p>Traceability of poultry meat quality imported into Kazakhstan is an urgent task. To increase their benefits, some suppliers resort to falsification – they misrepresent thawed meat for chilled raw materials or carry out several cycles of freezing-thawing meat. The objective of these studies is to develop reliable methods for determining the quality and freshness of frozen natural semi-finished poultry meat, including the number of cycles of freezing and thawing meat. Dressed broiler chickens developed by the manufacturer from the Russian Federation using gas and electric stunning of poultry were selected as the research objects. A synchronous analysis device was used for thermal analysis in the heating-cooling process. Histomorphological studies were carried out on a microscope with an eyepiece magnification of x7. Histological examination revealed alterations in the structure of re-frozen and thawing lean tissue. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the specific heat of thawing broiler fillets stunned by electric current during the first thawing is 218.8 J/g, at the second 209.5 J/g, and the third 201.4 J/g, and the specific heat of thawing broiler fillets stunned by gas during the first thawing is 176.5 J/g, at the second 171.9 J/g, and the third 162.6 J/g. Samples of broiler fillets stunned by electric current lost about 2.5% at each thawing stage, and with gas stunning 3% of moisture. The obtained results and research methods can be used to establish the falsification of the thermal state of broiler chicken meat by its undeclared freezing-thawing.</p> Daulet Shalginbaeyv Raushangul Uazhanova Akmaral Mateyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 16 271 278 10.5219/1757 The possibility of a halal mix probiotic medium for the cultivation of Lactobacillus plantarum N16 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1713 <p>This study aimed to determine the effects of interaction between media type (halal mix preparation) and culture mixtures of <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> N16 and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> (probiotics). A completely randomised factorial design (CRFD) consisting of 2 factors and three replications was used, where factor A was a mixture of <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> N16 and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> at a ratio of 1:1 (A1); 1:2 (A2) and 2:1 (A3) and factor B was the type of growth media, that is, control (B1), whey tofu, molasses, and fish waste flour (B2), and coconut water, onggok flour and shrimp waste flour (B3). The variables measured were viability, cell biomass, and pH. The results showed interactions between factors A and B, which were significantly different (<em>p </em>&lt;0.05) in terms of viability, cell biomass, and pH. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the mixture of <em>Lactobacillus plantarum </em>N16 and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> at a ratio of 2:1 (A3), using coconut water, onggok flour, and shrimp waste flour (B3) as medium and incubated at 36 °C for 24 hours was the best medium. It had a 2.37 viability, 42.33 mg/ml biomass cell, and a pH of 2.37.</p> Yetti Marlida Harnentis Azizah Yuliaty Shafan Nur Frederick Adzitey Norliza Julmohammad Nurul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 279 286 10.5219/1713 The effect of the cooking method on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1717 <p>Fish is nutritious seafood and contains protein with high biological value and essential nutrients for the human body. In Iran, the fish <em>Oncorhynchus mykiss</em> is locally known as Ghezelala and is a commercial fish species. Different methods were used to process the fish: boiling, frying in sunflower oil and grilling. This research investigated on effect of various cooking methods on proximate pH and cooking loss of fresh fish (<em>Oncorhynchus mykiss</em>). The highest and lowest values for protein were found in fish processed using grilling (18.51%) and frying (16.52%), respectively (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) compared to the fresh sample (18.20%). The fat content of the fried sample showed significantly highest (5.16%) (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05), while the lowest fat content was found for the boiled sample (20.57%) compared to the fresh fat (24.36%) (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). Comparing the loss percentage of samples in different cooking methods showed that the boiled sample had the lowest value (25.46%) and the fried sample with the highest value (45.02%) (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). pH value in the boiled sample was the highest (6.74%), while the grilled sample had the lowest (6.63) compared to the fresh sample (6.54). The highest energy value was found for the fried sample (578.48 kcal/100g), and the lowest was for the boiled sample (269.29 kcal/100g). The results suggest that the boiled and grilled fish found higher nutritional quality due to the relatively high protein content, the most needed nutrients. The results also showed that all cooking methods did not significantly affect in mineral content of the fresh fish.</p> Ali Aberoumand Milad Masoudi Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 287 295 10.5219/1717 Thermomechanical processing of components of combined feeds by the expansion method https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1746 <p>The availability of high-quality combined feed largely determines the level of economic development in animal husbandry and poultry farming since, in the structure of the cost of livestock products, feed costs reach 65 – 70%. At the same time, the authors of this article aim to compare the current situation around the feed industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a similar situation in the Russian Federation, as the formation of this industry in our countries has common roots. Thermomechanical processing methods are proposed to implement deep physicochemical changes in the protein-carbohydrate complex of components of combined feeds. As a result, the quality of the combined feeds improves. Starch gelatinization occurs, and starch grains transition into a more digestible form, contributing to its better assimilation. Bacterial contamination decreases, and coliform bacteria, colon bacillus, mould fungi, and salmonella are destroyed.</p> Abdymanap Ospanov Alexander Ostrikov Vitaly Vasilenko Aigul Timurbekova Dulat Zhalelov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 296 306 10.5219/1746 The yield of adipose tissue and by-products in the course of the slaughter of inbred and outbred bulls of the Ukrainian beef breed https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1758 <p>The research focuses on analysing and generalising the distribution of internal adipose tissue and organs that are not part of the carcasses of inbred and outbred bulls of <em>the Ukrainian beef breed</em>. Animal stock inbreeding was determined based on five breeding records according to Wright’s method modified by Kyslovskyi. Two experimental groups of 5 bulls were formed. The average inbreeding coefficient for inbred bulls was 3.43%. Animals were bred up to 18 months of age. Following slaughter, the mass and the yield of the head, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, and brain were determined, and 4 types of fat were separated and weighed: perirenal, from the stomach, intestines, and pericardial. Inbred animals are more prone to the accretion of internal adipose tissue. Inbred bulls have 1.8 points more of it. Fat is more intensely accumulated around inbred bulls' multichambered stomachs and kidneys. Intensive fat accumulation was observed around the hearts and intestines of outbred bulls. Adipose tissue around the heart and intestines is more variable in inbred and outbred animals – from the forestomach and kidneys. The weight of inbred bulls’ liver is less by 22.4%, kidneys – by 62.5%, heart – by 11.1%, and head – by 23.8% compared to outbred ones. The weight of their lungs is more by 10.5%. At the same time, inbred bulls tend to have brain weight gain of 12.5% and testicles – by 8.3%. Thus, inbreeding application in <em>Ukrainian beef breed</em>s with a small population size affects the growth of internal organs and the intensity of accumulation and distribution of interior fat. Due to more intensive accumulation of internal adipose tissue, inbred bulls have increased expenditure of forage energy for its formation. They are characterized by an increased yield of low-value raw fat, making them less efficient than outbred bulls for beef production. </p> Anatolii Ugnivenko Nataliia Kos Dmytro Nosevych Mikhailo Mushtruk Natalia Slobodyanyuk Yuriy Zasukha Volodymyr Otchenashko Ivan Chumachenko Sergii Gryshchenko Olha Snizhko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 307 319 10.5219/1758 The influence of grain mixtures on the quality and nutritional value of bread https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1767 <p>The desire to survive in a competitive environment mobilizes managers to make unconventional decisions to increase their product range, quality, and safety. This study aims t to create a technology of bread with increased nutritional value using bioactivated cereal mixtures and develop new bread recipes. The experiment used bioactivated wheat and maize grains, flax, rye flour, 1st-graduate wheat flour, spontaneous fermentation starter, salt, and water. Vegetable components such as dried crushed hawthorn berries, jaggery, and barberry were also used. Standard, generally accepted chemical and organoleptic methods of examining raw materials, semi-finished and finished products were used. It was found that the best physical and chemical indices were possessed by testing the bread prepared with the addition of a 20% grain mixture. All experimental analyses improved several parameters compared to the control sample. The nutritional value of obtained products was increased from 0.5 to 3 times. According to the obtained results, it is possible to conclude the relevance of this topic is getting a new range of bread products with increased nutritional value.</p> Zhuldyz Nurgozhina Dinara Shansharova Gulzhanat Umirzakova Pernekul Maliktayeva Madina Yakiyayeva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 320 340 10.5219/1767 Factorial analysis of taste quality and technological properties of cherry fruits depending on weather factors https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1766 <p>The results of researching the fund formation of dry soluble substances, sugars, and titrated acids in cherry fruits of 10 studied varieties under the Southern Steppe Subzone of Ukraine are given. According to the content of biochemical quality indicators, the following varieties were selected: Modnytsya (the content of dry soluble substances is 17.1%), Ozhidaniye (the content of sugars is 11.7%), and Solidarnost (the content of titrated acids is 1.79%). The cherry fruits units. By conducting a two-factor dispersion analysis, the feasibility of forecasting the content of the principal components of the chemical composition (dry soluble substances, sugars, titrated acids) in the cherry fruits was determined by average values and a factor that maximally impacts the accumulation of the studied indicators was identified during the studies. The dominant influence of weather conditions during research years was determined. Therefore, the taste qualities of the cherry fruits were proposed to forecast by average varietal value. The average and strong correlation dependences of influencing 19 weather factors on the content of the studied biochemical indicators in the cherry fruits were determined. The accumulation dependence models of dry soluble substances, sugars, and titrated acids were built based on the principal component and least-squares methods. The first-rank weather indicators with the maximum influence particles were identified for the studied biochemical quality indicators. The average monthly air temperature in June maximally impacted the fund accumulation of dry soluble substances in the cherry fruits (delta = 9.9%), the content of sugars - the average monthly precipitation in June (delta = 8.5%), on the content of titrated acids - the total number of precipitation days in June (delta = 18.62%). At the end of the flowering phase before fruit ripening and in the last month of fruit formation, humidity indicators had the greatest influence on the accumulation of the studied biochemical indicators in the cherry fruits (June).of Melitopol purpura and Modnytsya have maximum indicators of the sugar-acid index in the range of 8.9-9.3 relative</p> Iryna Ivanova Maryna Serdiuk Vira Malkina Oksana Tonkha Oleksandr Tsyz Anna Shkinder-Barmina Valentуna Verkholantseva Nadiia Palianychka Mikhailo Mushtruk Tatyana Rozbytska Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 16 341 355 10.5219/1766 Manifestation of living and post-slaughter traits of productivity in inbred and outbred bull calves of Ukrainian meat cattle breed https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1769 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-US">Selection in meat cattle herds requires caution due to the manifestation of inbred depression in traits that affect the economics of this livestock industry. This paper analyses the productivity of inbred and outbred bull calves of the Ukrainian meat cattle breed and justifies methods of pair selection in purebred herds with natural pairing. In bull calves, the growth of animals and traits of their meat productivity after slaughter were considered. Inbreeding was determined based on their pedigree. Inbred animals tended to have a growth rate of 10.2% from birth to 8 months of age. Afterwards, their average daily gain in live weight decreases sharply compared to outbred peers, who grow faster over a more extended period. From 8 to 18 months of age, it is probably (<em>p</em> &gt;0.95) higher by 27.3% compared to inbred animals. Inbred bull calves have higher variability (Cv,%) in average daily gains. This indicates different adaptations to the environment during the suckling period and after weaning. Outbred animals tend to gain 2.3% of body weight at 12 months, 4.7 at 15 months, and 10.3% at 18 months. Its variability with age decreases by 7.4 points in inbred bull calves and 0.4 points in outbred ones, from 8 to 18 months. The inbred animals spent 29.5% more feed per kg of gain (<em>p</em> &gt;0.95) than the outbred ones. Inbred bull calves vs outbred ones at 15 and 18 months of age tend to improve the expression of meat forms by 1.3 and 2.7%. They are relatively shorter and have a more rounded barrel. As a result, they have a shorter period of rapid growth. With the small size of the Ukrainian meat cattle population, one of the most important problems is reducing genetic variation in beef productivity traits and manifesting inbred depression in them. In purebred commercial herds, the mating of close animals should be avoided. To do this, an "order" for bulls should be made, and pairs should be selected without using inbreeding at different grades. Thus, outbred bull calves will reach live weight more quickly, spending less feed per growth unit, and have better basic slaughter traits.</span></p> </div> Anatolii Ugnivenko Dmytro Nosevych Tatyana Antoniuk Ivan Chumachenko Anastasiia Ivaniuta Nataliia Slobodyanyuk Yuliya Kryzhova Tatyana Rozbytska Mykola Gruntovskyi Yevheniia Marchyshyna Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-06 2022-07-06 16 356 366 10.5219/1769 Incorporation of catechin extracts from gambier products and pasak bumi in the production of functional instant green robusta coffee https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1735 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-US">The research was used to produce functional instant green coffee through gambier catechin extract and pasak bumi powder. This involved using a non-factorial completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consist of 5 formulations (F), including the instant green coffee (%), gambir catechin extract (%), and pasak bumi powder (%) where F1 was at 100:0:0, F2 was 80:15:5, F3 was 70:20:10, F4 was 60:25:15, and F5 was 50:30:20. The results showed the functional instant green coffee produced has a water content of 3.84 – 4.81%, soluble speed of 26.78 – 29.33 seconds, and total phenol of 16.79 – 169.48 mg/L, and IC50 of 44.68- 207.59 ppm. The addition of gambier catechin extract and pasak bumi powder to the formulation was observed to have significantly increased the functional properties and water content. Moreover, the soluble speed of the instant coffee fulfils the quality requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) number 2983 of 2014.</span></p> </div> Budi Santoso Muhammad Ridho Wahyu Aulia Syerina Raihatul Jannah Gatot Priyanto Agus Wijaya Hermanto Hermanto Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 16 367 374 10.5219/1735 Mixing of flour mixture components in the production of pasta from nontraditional raw materials https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1749 <div><span lang="EN-US">Along with a balanced amino acid composition and high protein digestibility, food products should contain complex carbohydrates and ballast substances (dietary fibers) that ensure the normal functioning of the digestive organs. In this regard, fresh raw foods for dietary pasta are of interest for modern pasta production. It is to such raw materials for the manufacture of dough that flour and starch from some cereals, triticale flour, and stale deformed bread are referred. When forming pasta dough from nontraditional flour raw materials, an important technological value for giving the best rheological properties of the dough is the uniform distribution of the binder component in the mixture – dry wheat gluten (DWG). As an object of experimental research to study the mixing process, a loose flour mixture of cereals (barley, oats, corn, buckwheat, millet, peas, and soybeans) was used, compiled based on calculating the recipe using computer programs. The prepared mixtures are a valuable source of nutrients and minerals. At the same time, to improve the technological properties of the dough as a biologically active additive, <br />25% DWG is introduced to improve the rheological properties of the dough.</span></div> Abdymanap Ospanov Nurzhan Muslimov Aigul Timurbekova Dinash Nurdan Dulat Zhalelov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 16 375 387 10.5219/1749 The effect of incorporation of gambier filtrate and rosella flower petals extract on mechanical properties and antioxidant activity of canna starch based active edible film https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1736 <div><span lang="EN-US">The research objective was to analyse the incorporation effect of gambier filtrate and rosella flower petals extract on mechanical properties and antioxidant activity of canna starch-based active edible film. This research used an experimental method consisting of two treatments, namely gambier filtrate (A): A1 = 3, A2 = 4, and A3 = 5 (% v/v), as well as rosella flower petals extract (B): B1 = 2, B2 = 4 and B3 = 6 (% v/v) and each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that the two treatment interactions significantly influenced elongation percentage, water vapour transmission rate, and antioxidant activity. The edible film’s thickness, tensile strength, and water vapour transmission rate were 0.096-0.124 mm, 1.89-3.38 MPa, and 12.99-17.04 g.m<sup>-2</sup>.d<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The edible film contains an antioxidant compound of the strong category with IC50 values of 34.53 to 48.02 ppm. Treatment of A3B2 [gambier filtrate 5% (v/v) and rosella flower petals extract 4% (v)] was the best treatment. This edible film is generally suitable for application as a packaging material for food having high lipid content to inhibit the oxidation process of that food.</span></div> Budi Santoso Dwi Ambar Wati Umi Rosidah Hermanto Hermanto Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-10 2022-07-10 16 388 397 10.5219/1736 The potential of goat meat as a nutrition source for schoolchildren https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1763 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-GB">The issue of rational nutrition of children is still extremely relevant and an effective factor in ensuring the preservation of the life and health of children. Pathological conditions associated with intolerance to certain components of food are increasingly common. Biologically complete products play an important role in the organization of rational nutrition of children, which can be created only in industrial production conditions. When assessing the chemical composition of experimental goat meat samples (Zaanenskaya, Alpine, Nubian), no abnormal deviations were detected, and all indicators were in the generally accepted contents of this type of animal muscle tissue. The mineral composition showed that goat meat is rich in such elements as potassium – 1693.22 – 4125.83 mg/kg; sodium – 852.27 – 1518 mg/kg, magnesium – 125.33 – 295.8 mg/kg; calcium – 79.27 – 160.79 mg/kg, iron 11.42-87.52 mg/kg. The vitamin composition of goat meat showed that the content of pantothenic acid (B5) was 0.53 – 0.62 mg / 100g, pyridoxine (B6) 0.52 – 0.64 mg/100g tocopherol 0.27 – 0.33 mg/100g. The mass fraction of goat meat proteins was 2.1 ±0.3 – 2.4 ±0.4%. The study of the dynamics of changes in the composition of protein fractions based on the results of comparative studies of the ratio of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the content of water-soluble (1.75 – 4.06%), salt-soluble (1.75 – 2.44%), alkali-soluble (11.15 – 15.10%) proteins. The salt-soluble fraction reflects the total changes in the state of protein fractions, the solubility of which was not the same for the rocks under consideration (the highest concentration was determined in the Nubian rock).</span></p> </div> Gulzhan Tokysheva Kadyrzhan Makangali Yasin Uzakov Mukhtarbek Kakimov Natalya Vostrikova Meruert Baiysbayeva Nurbibi Mashanova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-10 2022-07-10 16 398 410 10.5219/1763 Investigation of internal organs and additive tissue of hybrid hypophthalmichthys (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) as a promising raw material for the production of dietary nutritional products https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1760 <p>Preservation of the nutritional value of fish and the useful qualities of its rich composition is extremely important. The urgent task of the food industry is to develop and create quality food products that meet modern production trends and compete in domestic and foreign markets. This scientific paper describes studies aimed at assessing the specific weight (%) of essential nutrients (glycogen, proteins, and lipids) in particular organs and tissues of different size and mass groups of the hybrid of silver and bighead carp experimental ponds and reservoirs of Ukraine. To achieve the goal in the research process, fish farming, biochemical (study of total protein, lipids, and carbohydrates), and statistical (mathematical processing of research results) research methods were used. In all size and mass groups of the hybrid of silver and bighead carp from ponds and reservoirs in 2017, 2018, and 2019, mostly satisfactory values of general metabolism indicators were found - glycogen, proteins, and lipids in the liver, gills, and muscles of fish. In annual fish of winter ponds, total protein and glycogen content in all organs and tissues was slightly reduced. The organisms of biennial fish from feeding ponds were characterized by fluctuations in the content of glycogen in the liver (it was the highest in fish, 3.28 – 3.33%). Significant fluctuations in the total protein content of muscle, liver, and gills and a slight excess of glycogen in the liver and lipids in the gills of three-year-olds were observed in the reservoirs. The difference found in the availability of essential nutrients in the body of the studied fish indicates a change in the intensity and direction of their metabolic processes. However, their physiological condition at the time of the study was within normal limits.</p> Alina Makarenko Mikhailo Mushtruk Nataliіa Rudyk-Leuska Ruslan Kononenkо Petro Shevchenko Melania Khyzhniak Vadym Martseniuk Ganna Kotovska Anton Klymkovetskyі Julia Glebova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 16 411 430 10.5219/1760 Milk and diary products – summary of European legislation, hygiene manuals, ISO standards and Codex Alimentarius standards https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1744 <p>European Union legislation laying down rules for the dairy sector. The legislation defines the conditions under which milk and milk products intended for human consumption can be imported into the EU. Milk and milk products must come only from third countries that appear on the list of authorized countries. Establishments, where milk and milk products are produced, must be approved for export. The TRACES system is used on imports and the consignment must be accompanied by a certificate. This system ensures product traceability and prevents the introduction of diseases. An important role is delegated to the designated border control posts (BCPs) where the appropriate customs and veterinary inspections are performed by government institutions of the country. The European Union has adopted legislation to ensure the safety of food placed on the market in EU member countries. This legislation sets general hygienic requirements for food production based on the good manufacturing practice and the HACCP system. The criteria for microorganisms, chemicals, and applicable food additives are set. Also, the legislation contains requirements for product labeling. Part of the legislation concerns the common organization of the market in milk and milk products. These regulations contain rules for direct payments, subsidies, define the school milk system, etc. Specific legislation creates rules for organic bio food production, for production and labeling of products with the Protected Geographical Indication, Protected Designation of Origin, and Traditional Specialty Guaranteed. There is also legislation that defines the labeling of products intended for specific populations, e.g. gluten-free foods, lactose-free foods, etc. Areas not regulated by the legislation include the labeling of products with certification marks designed to highlight the suitability of food for religious purposes or quality certification.</p> Jozef Čapla Peter Zajác Katarína Ševcová Jozef Čurlej Martina Fikselová Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 16 431 462 10.5219/1744 The use of vapor condensation cavitation to increase the activity of milk of lime in sugar beet production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1781 <p>The paper presents research on increasing the activity of milk of lime in beet sugar production using vapor condensation cavitation. The work aimed to develop a rational way of activating milk of lime using the effects of vapor condensation cavitation and its hardware design, substantiating the optimal values of the process parameters. It was established that to increase the activity of milk of lime at a steam potential of 0.18 MPa, an optimal consumption of water vapor using vapor condensation cavitation is required, which is 1 .75 – 2.0% to the weight of the suspension. This is ensured by the action of the combined CaO particles with the bulk of the steam, due to which the Their additional solution is due to the t-plot, which occurs through the boundary layer from the bubbles. As a result, a pre-saturated, water-lime suspension is created, in which the It is the number of dissolved calcium ions. It has been proven that the water vapour-treated suspension is 1.5 times lower It expands and has a volume of sediment of the solid phase in the medium that is 10% larger than that of processed suspension. Such a study is indirect evidence of the increase in the dispersal of these systems after Her husband's work. By increasing the activity of milk of lime, it is possible to increase the effect of cleaning juices at various stages of the technological process and reduce the consumption of limestone for the production of granulated sugar.</p> Marija Zheplinska Volodymyr Vasyliv Vasyl Shynkaruk Julia Khvesyk Viktor Yemtcev Nataliia Mushtruk Yaroslav Rudyk Mykola Gruntovskyi Svitlana Tarasenko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 16 463 472 10.5219/1781 The effect of astaxanthin and lycopene on the content of fatty acids in the yolks of chicken eggs under different storage regimes https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1774 <p>The level of consumers’ satisfaction with the quality of edible chicken eggs is determined, in particular, by the attractive appearance of the yolks and their content of biologically active substances that have functional properties. Such compounds include carotenoids astaxanthin and lycopene, which can be deposited in the yolks, provide their pigmentation, and as powerful antioxidants, affect the stability of the fatty acid composition of lipids during egg storage. The aim This study aimed mine the effect of supplements of oil extracts of astaxanthin (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg of feed) or lycopene (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg of feed) on the Dion of young hens on the fatty acid composition of the yolks during eggs storage in temperature conditions 4 ±0.5 ℃ and 12 ±0.5 ℃ for 30 days. The experiment used 45 High-Line W36 crossbred laying hens at 24 weeks of age. It was found that the storage temperature of eggs (4 ±0.5 ℃ and 12 ±0.5 ℃) equally affected the fatty acid composition of lipids of egg yolks obtained from laying hens fed lycopene supplements in doses of 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin in doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg of feed for 30 days. Doses of lycopene from 20 to 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin from 10 to 30 mg/kg in the diet of laying hens contributed to a decrease in egg yolks at both storage temperatures of ω6 PUFA particles: Eicosatetraenoic and 6.9, 12-okadekatrienic acids until their complete disappearance. The addition of astaxanthin to the diet of laying hens reduced and stabilized the ratio of ω3/ω6 PUFA in yolks during egg storage to a greater extent than the addition of lycopene. Storage of lycopene or astaxanthin-enriched edible chicken eggs at 4 ±0.5 °C and 12 ±0.5 °C for 30 days can be used to correct the fatty acid profile of yolk lipids.</p> Vitaliy Honchar Olha Iakubchak Larysa Shevchenko Svitlana Midyk Valentyna Korniyenko Vadym Kondratiuk Tatyana Rozbytska Viktoriia Melnik Yuliya Kryzhova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 16 473 489 10.5219/1774 Characteristics of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism of fish of the Kremenchuk Reservoir in the prespawning period https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1771 <p>The paper presents the results of scientific research aimed at studying the peculiarities of metabolism in the body of seven species of mature fish in the Kremenchuk reservoir in the pre-spawning period under ecological conditions that differ from existing ones according to the Dnipro Reservoir Rules of Operation. Somewhat increased levels of total protein accumulation were found during this period in the muscles of zander, perch, and gibel carp. More statistically significant differences between the content of total protein in the liver and muscles were found in other fish species, in particular in roach it was 51.2%, in bream – 57.8%, in European flounder, and zope – 40.6%.</p> <p>Slightly elevated total lipids were found in the muscles of these fish. Thus, in the muscles of silver bream, it was 12.07 mg/g of raw weight, and in the muscles of gibel carp – 18.5 mg/g, while in the muscles of all other studied species of fish, this figure was in the range of 6.7 to 8.71 mg/g of raw weight. The glycogen content in the muscles of different objects of the Kremenchuk reservoir in the pre-spawning period was different. Its highest content was found in the gibel carp muscle, which reached 74 mg/g of raw weight. Significantly lower (2.7 times) was the level of glycogen accumulation in zander muscles and 3.2 times – in roach muscles. In the muscles of bream, European perch and silver bream found close, relatively low levels of glycogen, which was in the range of 10 – 13 mg/g of raw mass, and the lowest level of its accumulation was recorded in the muscles of the zope (only <br />4.9 mg/g). The glycogen content of the liver of all studied fish species significantly exceeded that recorded in their muscles.</p> Nataliіa Rudyk-Leuska Mykhailo Leuskyi Nikolay Yevtushenko Melaniia Khyzhniak Igor Buzevich Alina Makarenko Ganna Kotovska Iryna Kononenko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 16 490 501 10.5219/1771 A model for increasing the business activity of personal subsidiary farms based on small-scale poultry meat production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1761 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-US">The basis of this article is the study of such a form of farming in rural areas as personal subsidiary farms (PSF). The importance of private farming is actualized both in matters of a social nature in rural areas and issues of sustainable development of entire sectors of the economy. The article clarifies the main socio-economic functions of individual subsidiary farms. The basics of motivation and goal setting for entrepreneurship are considered. And in this regard, a model is given for increasing the business activity of personal subsidiary farms based on small-scale poultry meat production. The model is described both from the point of view of the mechanisms of interaction of participants and from the organisation's point of view. The financial mechanisms of this model and its features are also given. Many economists consider PSF the most massive, and economically stable; one might even say the surviving producer of agricultural products sustainably. This phenomenon lies in the economic nature of PSF. In these conditions, personal subsidiary farms are additional for those who are engaged in hired work. For the majority, this is about 3 million people who are considered "self-employed", the only source of income. Of particular interest is the financial model of this project, which was developed by the project's authors and tested for three years. This model allows you to reduce the price of finished products and keep it 15% below the market. The project showed that personal subsidiary farms without special conditions could not transform massively into individual entrepreneurs or peasant farms. To do this, the state needs to organize prototypes of such operators on the ground, which will begin to perform all intermediary functions to improve the business environment of each rural locality.</span></p> </div> Kairat Aituganov Gulnara Assanova Makhabat Saginbayeva Serik Aitkhozhin Daniyar Nurpeissov Aliya Shaimerdenova Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 502 518 10.5219/1761 The study of "muscle eye" in bulls of Ukrainian black-spotted dairy-meat breed as a factor in improving the properties of meat products https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1762 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-US">The impact of age, live weight, and growth rate of the bulls of Ukrainian breeds on the area of “muscle eye” (cross-section of <em>m. longissimus</em> <em>dorsi</em> when the carcass is divided into front and rear between the 12<sup>th</sup> and 13<sup>th</sup> ribs) was studied. The correlation between the size of the “muscle eye” and the carcass's characteristics and the meat's qualitative indicators was also determined. The research was conducted on the bulls of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy (UBWDB) and Ukrainian meat (UMB) breeds. Living animals</span> <span lang="EN-US">“muscle eye” area was determined with the ultrasonic analyser Emperor 860, after slaughter. It was found that UMB bulls have the area of “muscle eye” twice as big as their UBWDB peers. The “muscle eye” area increases when growing the cattle to 400 – 450 kg. In the future, it will be practically independent of the age and weight of the animals and remains stable. An increase in the average daily gains within the breed leads to an increase in the “muscle eye” area. The area of “muscle eye” has a weak negative connection (r = -0.193) with meat tenderness and dry matter content (r = -0.345) and a positive one with slaughter weight (r = 0.614) and slaughter yield (r = 0.653). Of the three parameters (length, depth, and area) of “muscle eye”, the greatest impact on the technological properties of meat has depth. Its increase has a negative connection with meat tenderness (r = -0.810) and moisture (r = -0.474), but it has a positive impact on the moisture retention capacity (r = 0.338) and weight of weighed portion after heat treatment. The obtained results can be used to clarify the optimal growing parameters of the bulls of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy and meat breeds for meat and determine the optimal age and live weight of the cattle slaughter.</span></p> </div> Anatolii Ugnivenko Andriy Getya Dmytro Nosevych Tetiana Antoniuk Olha Kruk Nataliia Slobodyanyuk Anastasiia Ivaniuta Alina Omelian Sergii Gryshchenko Valentyna Israelian Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 519 529 10.5219/1762 The effect of vibration massage on the salting process of ostrich meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1775 <p>Existing massagers are characterized by relatively high energy consumption during operation, the metal consumption of the structure, complexity of the drive mechanism. Therefore, the search for effective implementation schemes of mixing operations and uniform structure formation of viscous and elastic-plastic raw materials, in particular, minced meat, subject to increased contact interaction while minimizing the force on the products, is relevant to the conducted research. The purpose of this work is to substantiate the technological preparation modes of the given minced meat with the use of a developed vibrating massager, as well as to determine the kinematic parameters of the oscillation system and graphic-analytical analysis of their change. The experimental model of the vibrating massager with an eccentric drive mechanism, a measuring evaluation base of rheological characteristics of the minced ostrich meat, and kinematic parameters of the vibrating drive of the massager, in particular, amplitude-frequency and speed characteristics were developed to carry out the specified tasks. High technological results were obtained when using the forced eccentric drive of the massager, which is characterized by a minimum mass of the oscillation masses of the parts compared to traditional unbalanced vibrators, which allow reducing 2 - 2.5 times the energy consumption to drive the vibrating massager under study. The practical value of the conducted work includes the use of the eccentric forced vibrating exciter for obtaining the force control over the minced meat to be formed, which reduces the oscillation masses of the drive and minimizes the energy consumption for the process, accordingly; it has the simplest structure among the mechanical vibrators, significantly reduces the dynamic loads on the supporting units of the vibrator as well as provides a sufficiently high contact interaction for both the vibration impact and the processing intensity in general.</p> Valentyna Israelian Igor Palamarchuk Sedat Sevin Nataliia Holembovska Nataliia Prokopenko Anastasiia Ivaniuta Oleksandra Shynkaruk Yaroslav Rudyk Dmytro Nosevych Nina Tverezovska Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 530 544 10.5219/1775 The effect of technological parameters on functional, technological and physicochemical indicators of horse meat minces with added chicken combs https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1786 <div><span lang="EN-GB">This study aimed to determine the effect of technological parameters of the production of horse meat minces with the addition of protein-oil emulsion from chicken combs on the functional, technological and physicochemical indicators. Chicken combs were pre-treated with bacterial concentrate to improve their properties. Experimental approach: The ultimate shear stress and technological indicators – water holding capacity and oil holding capacity – were determined to set the optimal time for cutting raw materials. Physicochemical analyses of the meat minces were conducted. Results and conclusions: The research results have shown that the cutting time significantly affects the meat minces' rheological, functional and technological indicators. The optimum mixing time for meat minces is 6 min. Adding a protein-oil emulsion from biotechnologically processed chicken combs, cottonseed oil, and water into the minced horse meat does not significantly affect the nutritional value. Adding 15 – 20% protein-oil emulsion (POE) is recommended to get minced meat with optimal rheological parameters. Novelty and scientific contribution: The research results allow the rational use of poultry by-products.</span></div> Gulnara Zhumanova Oksana Zinina Maxim Rebezov Mohammad Ali Shariati Zhanar Moldabayeva Mars Khayrullin Gulmira Baybalinova Sandugash Toleubekova Gulmira Mirasheva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 545 555 10.5219/1786 The production of wine vinegar using different types of acetic acid bacteria https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1723 <p style="font-weight: 400;">This work aimed to study the properties of acetic fermentation bacteria during the acetic fermentation of wine. Attention was focused on the ability of the bacteria to metabolize selected organic substances and their suitability for wine vinegar production. For the production of wine vinegar, white wine of the variety Veltliner Green was used. Three variants were established for this experiment. The first variant was fermented with <em>Gluconobacter</em> <em>oxydans</em>, the second with <em>Acetobacter</em> <em>aceti,</em> and the third variant of vinegar production was carried out by spontaneous fermentation. During the vinegar fermentation, samples were taken at regular 24-hour intervals and subsequently analyzed. The alcohol, acetic, malic, and tartaric acid contents were monitored. The results showed that all variants showed a strong acetic and malic acid increase. Bacteria <em>Acetobacter aceti</em> produced the most acetic acid within nine days (25 g.L<sup>-1</sup>). This bacterium also produced the most lactic acid (18 g.L<sup>-1</sup>). Tartaric acid was also produced in all three variants, but not to the same extent as the previous two organic acids. <em>Acetobacter</em> <em>aceti</em> was found to metabolize ethanol more rapidly than <em>Gluconobacter</em> <em>oxydans</em>.</p> Aleš Vavřiník Kateřina Štusková Mojmír Baroň Jiří Sochor Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 556 567 10.5219/1723 Analysis of liability and protein content of soybean biscuits with Ambon banana as an alternative to emergency food for the elderly https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1753 <div> <p class="PotText"><span lang="EN-GB"> In disaster conditions, the elderly are vulnerable groups that require special attention. With increasing age, there is a decrease in biological function and psychological disorders. The elderly tend to have anxiety, especially during disaster conditions. This anxiety has an impact on the diet and health of the elderly. Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> L.) flour biscuits and Ambon banana (<em>Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum</em> L.) flour is a food product that meets disaster emergency food requirements and food requirements for the elderly. It is appropriate to be used as an alternative disaster emergency food for the elderly. This study aims to determine the effect of the balance of the soybean flour biscuit formula Ambon banana flour on the organoleptic and protein properties. The research design used is an experimental study, with the research method used is a hedonic test for testing organoleptic properties and the Kjeldahl procedure for testing protein content. The formula of Ambon banana and soybean flour biscuits consisted of three balances, with the ratio of Ambon banana flour soybean flour (%) F1 (45:55), F2 (35:65), and F3 (25:75). From the study results, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in the test results of organoleptic properties only for colour. Moreover, there are no significant differences in the test results of organoleptic properties, including aroma, taste, texture, and overall. In the test results of organoleptic properties, the balance (25:75) was declared superior overall. The 45:55 balance contains 8.01% protein, the 35:65 balance contains 7.23% protein, and the 25:75 balance includes 7.42%.</span></p> </div> Gurid Pramintarto Eko Mulyo Sinta Arwan Sukowati Agus Sulaeman Mamat Rahmat Yohannes Wilihelm Saleky Osman Syarief Roro Nur Fauziyah Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 568 578 10.5219/1753 Technological aspects of rice gluten-free bread production https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1725 <p>The article presents data on the study of the influence of hydrocolloids and protein additives on the technological aspects of gluten-free rice bread production. The method of full-factor experiment PFE 2 <sup>3</sup> determined the optimal conditions for bread production – the amount of yeast 1.5% by flour weight, dough moisture 60%, duration of fermentation, and proofing 70 minutes. The prescribed amount of yeast, salt, agar, and gelatin was dissolved in water at 35 ºC and mixed with the specified amount of rice flour. The dough was kneaded for 15 minutes. The dough was placed in the mould and left to ferment for 40 minutes and stand for 30 minutes at the temperature of 30 ºC. After fermentation, the dough was divided into pieces weighing 50 grams, placed in baking tins, and baked for 35 – 40 minutes at the temperature of 180 ºC. Since adding polysaccharides and protein improvers to the recipe of gluten-free dough to regulate its technological properties can significantly affect the intensity of fermentation and the activity of amylolytic enzymes of flour, studied the dynamics of carbon dioxide release gluten-free rice dough. It was found that additives of protein nature increase the amount of carbon dioxide accumulation in gluten-free dough by 33 – 44%. It is experimentally substantiated that the recommended duration of fermentation of rice flour dough with the addition of gelatin is 45 – 50 min, with the addition of agar 25 – 30 min, and the mixture of gelatin and agar 35 – 45 min. It is established that to achieve full readiness of bread based on rice flour, it is possible after 35 minutes of baking at 200 ºC. When extending the duration of heat treatment, the quality of bread does not change, so long-term heat treatment is not economically feasible.</p> Olha Shanina Natalia Borovikova Tatyana Gavrish Kateryna Dugina Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 16 579 589 10.5219/1725 The impact of the Russian embargo on the development and specialization of agri-food trade between Slovakia and Russia https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1779 <p>The paper examines and evaluates the impact of the Russian embargo on the development and specialization of agri-food foreign trade between Slovakia and Russia through the evaluation of the one-factor Lafay and Grubel-Lloyd indexes. As a result of the application of the Russian embargo on imports of agri-food products, based on the calculation of the indexes, we can state that the degree of specialization of Slovak agri-food foreign trade has changed. Although in 2013 Slovakia specialized in exporting a relatively wide range of agri-food products, in 2020, their number decreased. Also, in 2020 there was no overall increase in the volume of mutual trade. In general, Slovakia's exports to Russia decreased compared to 2013. The following factors have contributed to this situation: substantial attenuation, that is, the elimination of Slovak agri-food exports to Russia based on the impact of the Russian embargo with side effects and an increase in imports from Russia but not in absolute but relative terms in the context of its comparison with Slovak exports.</p> Elena Kašťáková Matúš Žatko Malgorzata Agnieszka Jarossová Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 16 590 602 10.5219/1779 The influence of beet pectin concentrate and whole-ground corn flour on the quality and safety of hardtacks https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1780 <p>Currently, the main task of food manufacturers is to continuously improve quality while complying with legal regulations primarily related to ensuring product safety for consumers. In this regard, using pectin substances as natural detoxifiers and wholemeal flour in the production of hardtacks will solve the problem of meeting the population's needs for safe food products with high nutritional and biological value. The article substantiates the sequence and parameters of technological operations for producing pectin concentrate from ‘Ardan’ sugar beet. The effectiveness of the use of beet pectin concentrate and whole-ground corn flour in the production of hardtacks has been substantiated experimentally based on a study of their qualitative characteristics, chemical composition and safety. The optimal dosage of pectin concentrate was determined at 10% and whole-ground corn flour at 15% in the production of hardtacks from first-grade wheat flour, where the properties of the gluten and the quality of finished products were similar to the control samples. The use of ‘Ardan’ sugar beet pectin concentrate made it possible to alter the dough's properties to increase its firmness and elasticity. It was found that the food and biological value of the developed hardtacks was higher than that of the control samples. The products obtained complied with the safety requirements of TR CU 021/2011 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union ‘On Food Safety’.</p> Zhuldyz Zharylkasynova Galiya Iskakova Meruyet Baiysbayeva Assel Izembayeva Anton Slavov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 16 603 621 10.5219/1780 Development of a scientific concept of industrial storage systems for environmentally safe apples https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1785 <p>The research project has developed and justified the storage modes of apples in a modified gas environment by creating an isolated "closed loop" of high-pressure polyethylene; the expediency of creating highly efficient technologies for storing fresh fruits in a controlled atmosphere, in bioactive bactericidal packages and by creating microfilm on the surface of fruits has been confirmed. The prospects of using a progressive method of storing fruits in a modified gas atmosphere by creating an isolated "closed circuit" in a separate refrigerating chamber without using expensive equipment (in normal and subnormal gas environments) are proved. New technologies have been developed for storing apple fruits susceptible to infectious and physiological diseases based on improved storage methods with minimal losses. The consumption rates of <em>Phytosporin-M</em> for the surface treatment of fruits were determined and optimized to control the intensity of biochemical and microbiological processes during storage. The modes and technologies of post-harvest fruit processing with the <em>Phytosporin-M</em> biopreparation have been substantiated.</p> Albina Alekseevna Varivoda Elena Valentinovna Svetlakova Irina Vladimirovna Ziruk Inna Sergeevna Kirichenko Olga Yurievna Kolosova Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin Bogdan Olegovich Ivakhnenko Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 16 622 635 10.5219/1785 The potential of Curcuma extract to alleviate muscle damage in amateur soccer players https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1787 <p>Compounds with high bioactive are commonly used as a nutritional approach for accelerating muscle damage recovery after strenuous exercise. There are still inconsistent results of post-exercise antioxidant supplementation on the circulating muscle damage biomarker. This study aimed to examine the effect of post-exercise Curcuma extract supplementation in ice cream on muscle damage and inflammatory markers in amateur soccer players. Male amateur soccer athletes (aged 14 – 18 years) participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study under two conditions: control group (n = 10) and treatment group (n = 10). The treatment group was treated with Curcuma extract ice cream (250 mg/100 g) for 21 days. Blood samples were drawn before training, considered baseline, and 3 h after training on day 21. The level of creatine kinase, IL-6, haemoglobin (Hb), and lactic acid were quantified. There was a significant decrease in creatine kinase change in the treatment group compared to the control group (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). No change in IL-6 and Hb levels in the treatment group. Lactic acid decreased by 16.3% from baseline in the treatment group (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05). Curcuma extract ice cream potentiates to ameliorate exercise-induced muscle damage.</p> Ali Rosidi Annisa Ayuningtyas Nurrahman Luthfia Dewi Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-14 2022-09-14 16 636 644 10.5219/1787 The extrusion process of poly-cereal mixtures: study and calculation of the main parameters https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1756 <p>Theoretical prerequisites for the extrusion of bulk components for the production of high-readiness products have been developed, which formed the basis for calculating and optimizing the main technological parameters of the extrusion process. It has been experimentally confirmed: firstly, the design parameters of the extruder and the initial humidity of the poly-cereal mixture have the greatest influence on the melt pressure of the product; secondly, the geometric characteristics of the working body, the frequency (speed) of the screw rotation and the pressure of the product maximally affect the temperature in the pre-matrix zone of the extruder. It was found that an increase in the rotation speed of the working organ (screw) from 80 to 250 min<sup>-1</sup> leads to the highest value of the optimization criterion – the energy value of a poly-cereal food product of a high degree of readiness, respectively, for the poly-cereal mixture Fitness – 332.34 kcal and the poly-cereal mixture Health – <br />334.09 kcal.</p> Abdymanap Ospanov Aigul Timurbekova Nurzhan Muslimov Aigul Almaganbetova Dulat Zhalelov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 16 645 655 10.5219/1756 A fish market survey using a novel PCR-sequencing-based protocols for the identification of commercial significant fish species https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1777 <p>This study developed a simple, specific, and affordable PCR-sequencing-<em>COI</em> gene-based protocol for the simultaneous identification of some important commercial fish species: <em>Merluccius merluccius</em>, <em>Lates niloticus</em>, <em>Gadus morhua</em>, <em>Ruvettus pretiosus</em>, <em>Pangasianodon hypophthalmus</em>, <em>Epinephelus</em> spp. For this study, a local market survey on fish was carried out to evaluate the application of labelling laws and to detect fraudulent actions using the developed PCR protocols. Ten specimens of each fish species of interest were obtained from wholesale fishery plants and were utilized for the protocol development. DNA was extracted from the individual samples and quantified. DNA isolates were subjected to end-point PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. For the identification of fish species, novel species-specific primers were developed by the program "Primer Express 3.0" and by the software “Primer-BLAST” to amplify fragments of 200 bp, 250 bp, 300 and 562 bp, 350 bp, 400 bp and 522 bp within the <em>COI</em> gene for <em>M. merluccius</em>, <em>L. niloticus</em>, <em>G. morhua</em>, <em>R. pretiosus</em>, <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>, <em>Epinephelus</em> spp., respectively. Single PCR was performed using DNA isolates and developed primers for each fish species of interest. After sequencing, the isolates were compared with the selected sequences of the COI gene and showed a similarity ranging from 99 to 100%. Among 43 samples obtained for the survey, 19 (44.2%) were mislabelled, with 18 (41.9%) mislabelled samples from local fisheries and fish marketplaces and 1 (2.32%) from hypermarket stores. Among fish samples purchased at local fisheries and fish marketplaces, fraudulent actions were observed more frequently in fish slices (100%) than fish fillets (65%). Regarding fish fillets, out of four samples labelled as grouper, three were <em>L. niloticus</em> and one <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>. Two fillets marketed as cod were substituted with <em>L. niloticus</em>. Five samples labelled as “fillet” and two samples labelled as “perch” were identified as <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>. Regarding fish slices, all samples marketed as grouper (<em>E. marginatus</em>) were slices of <em>R. pretiosus</em>. The single case of mislabelling detected from fishery products purchased at hypermarket stores was a sample of “Spinycheek grouper” (<em>Epinephelus diacanthus</em>) that was indicated on label as “Grouper” (<em>Epinephelus marginatus</em>). In summary, our work highlights the need for continuous surveillance of the commercialization of fishery products, to reduce the number of fraud cases that happen in the market. Furthermore, our protocols based on PCR techniques could be useful for quality control of fresh finfish and to strengthen controls on the most frequent fraudulent actions of marketed fishery products.</p> Ashraf Ali Pietro Di Taranto Antonio Parisi Laura Del Sambro Antonio Iannacci Donatella Belluscio Daniela Paola Debernardis Giovanni Normanno Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 16 656 669 10.5219/1777 How to target millennials as beer consumers through social responsibility? The case of Plzenský Prazdroj https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1764 <p>The paper evaluates the consumer attitude of millennials as beer consumers through social responsibility. Various CSR activities are applied by beer producer companies that target different age groups, gender, etc., through different communication channels. The main subject of the paper is the beer producer company, Plzenský Prazdroj (PP), which has an ambitious strategy related to the environment, waste management, underage alcohol drinking, and other aspects. Even though the company has a promising vision relating to CSR, the effect on consumer awareness can be different than expected. Therefore, a general hypothesis was set on whether there is or is not a difference between millennials in their attitudes towards CSR activities of PP. The characteristics of the research sample are displayed on the set of general factors, such as gender, age, monthly income, and more; beer factors like beer preferences, place of drinking, disposal of plastics, etc.; and attitudes of the monitored millennials towards the selected CSR activities of PP, such as recyclable packaging, Promile app, support of communities and more. The results of the paper assist in understanding the consumer attitude of this age group, and their perception of the CSR activities of PP, and can contribute to a successful marketing strategy creation of Plzenský Prazdroj oriented toward targeted cohort. Concerning the results, we created suggestions and recommendations for PP such as diversification of product portfolio and/or even business activities, diversification of non-alcoholic beer products, strengthening the CSR activities relating to the environment and waste management, and creating CSR activities that enable the engagement of millennials via their smartphones. The outcomes can also benefit other brewing companies in terms of CSR activities and marketing strategy creation.</p> Xénia Szarková Jana Kozáková Radovan Savov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 670 687 10.5219/1764 Antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens of dairy cows in Ukraine https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1791 <p>Mastitis is one of the most common diseases on dairy farms. It causes significant economic damage associated with the cost of treating sick cows, reduced milk yield and quality indicators of dairy products, and the risk of premature culling of animals. Treatment of cows with mastitis on dairy farms is carried out mainly with antimicrobial drugs, which are usually used without a preliminary test to identify the causative agent of the disease and determine its sensitivity to antimicrobial substances, which is an important part of the effectiveness of therapy. Increasing the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial substances poses a threat not only to the animal but also to humans, as a consumer of dairy products. The availability of data on the sensitivity of mastitis pathogens to antimicrobial drugs makes it possible for veterinary doctors to choose the most effective antibiotic for treating animals with the shortest duration of treatment. The presented results of studies of breast secret samples taken from cows indicate that in 57.5% of cases, contagious pathogens of mastitis were identified. In particular, <em>Streptococcus agalactiae </em>made 24.1%, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>– 18.4%, <em>Corynebacterium </em>spp. – 7.2%, <em>Streptococcus dysgalactiae</em>– 5.6%, <em>Streptococcus uberis </em>– 2.2%. Environmental pathogens accounted for 42.5% of the total number of isolated isolates, among which <em>Streptococci </em>represented gram-positive microflora at 11.5 <em>Streptococcuscus</em> spp. (6.2% <em>Streptococcuscus</em><em> parauberis</em> (4.4% <em>Streptococcuscus</em><em> Bovis</em> (0.9%) and <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp. – 10.3%. Gram-negative microflora is 20.6%, among which the largest percentage belongs to <em>E. coli </em>– 8.4% and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia </em>– 1.9%. Mastitis caused by yeast accounted for 1.4% of all diagnosed pathogens. Antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). According to the results of determining the sensitivity of mastitis pathogens to antimicrobial substances, it was found that the highest sensitivity of the isolated isolates was to Ceftiofur, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Rifampicin, Amoxicillin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin, Bacitracin, Cephalexin, Cloxacillin, Enrofloxacin, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Oxytetracycline, Lincomycin. The least sensitive – to Spiramycin, Tylosin, streptomycin, neomycin, Marbofloxacin, Tilmicosin, and Danofloxacin.</p> Yurii Zhuk Ruslan Zaritskyi Denys Dreval Serhii Derkach Vitalii Kovpak Yurii Masalovych Olena Ochkolyas Svitlana Bazyvoliak Yevheni Antypov Iryna Kharsika Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-19 2022-10-19 16 688 704 10.5219/1791 The production of the innovative craft cheese "Anchan" https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1778 <p>The analysis of regional raw materials for producing craft cheese "Anchan" and studies of raw milk for its physical and chemical properties and technological indicators. Milk samples were pasteurized in the laboratory at a temperature of 80 °C for 10 seconds. Anchan was added to the milk for colour. Next, the milk before coagulation was heated in a pasteurization boiler by heating with saturated steam 36 – 38 °C. The enzyme 4 mL per 100 kg of milk and 4 mL of black cornflower extract was added to the prepared milk to improve milk coagulation and the formation of a dense cheese clot. Strains of probiotic cultures were selected for Anchan. The composition of the main complex yeast of mesophilic lactococci acid and aroma-forming cultures, namely <em>Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis</em>, <em>Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactococcus lactis subsp. diacetilactis</em>, <em>Leuconostoc lactis</em>. As an additional leaven used thermophilic lactic acid sticks of the species <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em> (incoherent race to obtain a new taste of craft cheese. Using these ingredients reduced fermentation time by 8 – 10 minutes. Closing the skin of the cheese by watering the cheese heats with hot water (50 – 55 °C). Marking, packaging, transportation and storage were carried out per the craft product's specifications for the craft producer. The following criteria were used for optimizing the technological process of Anchan cheese production: temperature treatment of milk, amount of added water for whey deoxidation and amount of salt in cheese. as a result of previous research.</p> Tetyana Semko Vladyslav Palamarchuk Olga Ivanishcheva Olga Vasylyshyna Nadiia Andrusenko Kryzhak Liliia Olena Pahomska Аlla Solomon Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 16 705 720 10.5219/1778 The mathematical model of drying melon pulp by the convective method https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1788 <p>Melon is a dessert loved by many, captivating with its thick aroma and delicate honey taste. The juicy, fragrant pulp is not only delicious but also very useful for dietary purposes, with a therapeutic effect on diseases of the liver and kidneys, anaemia, rheumatism and cardiovascular disorders. This storehouse of vitamins is especially rich in potassium and iron salts, pectins, fibre, easily digestible sugars, proteins, starch and other elements necessary for health. This article presents the results of a study of the Myrzachulskaya melon variety and establishes the optimal parameters for drying the pulp, pre-treating melons with 99.5% ethanol before drying. Twenty drying experiments were carried out, in which the parameters of the operating variables, namely temperature, air velocity and sample size, were varied according to the compiled mathematical processing planning matrix. Drying caused a decrease in biologically active compounds, affecting some antioxidant properties (vitamin C content, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity) of melon pulp. As a result, the optimal parameters were established, at which samples of dried melon pulp showed insignificant losses (up to 1%) in the total content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. The optimal parameters for drying melon fruits are a temperature of 55 °C, a drying time of 11 h and a slice thickness of not more than 0.5 cm.</p> Marzhan Yerzhanovna Kizatova Alibek Omirserikuly Baikenov Kadyrbek Aslanbekovich Baigenzhinov Zhazira Amangeldykyzy Yessimova Alibi Gabitovich Zhusipov Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 16 721 732 10.5219/1788 Nutritive, chemical and technological properties of liver pate formulated with beef offal, sheep tail fat and licorice and ginger root https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1800 <p>In the present study, incorporation of sheep tail fat, beef heart, kidneys, and herbal ingredients (grounded licorice and ginger root, pumpkin, carrots, and onions) into liver pate formulations was investigated. Four types of liver pate were prepared: control sample containing only liver and butter; experimental sample S1 - pate with sheep tail fat (5%), ground dried licorice root (1%) and ginger (2%); experimental sample S2 - pate with sheep tail fat (8%), ground dried licorice root (2%) and ginger (3%); experimental sample S3 - pate with sheep tail fat (10%), ground dried licorice root (3%) and ginger (4%). Inclusion of the above-mentioned ingredients in the pate recipe did not cause significant changes in the mass fraction of table salt and protein (P &gt; 0.05) and, conversely, significantly increased the moisture content, carbohydrates, fat and be-ta-carotene in the test sample (P &lt; 0.05). In the experimental samples, the number of amino acids decreased with the exception of arginine. Among the experimental samples, the highest content of amino acids (18 g / 100 g) and essential amino acids (8.89 g/ 100 g) was detected in S1. The results of determining the fatty acid composition showed significant changes in the composition of experimental samples com-pared with the control. The total content of saturated acids in the experimental samples decreased while the content of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased (P ˂ 0.05). Textural characteristics, such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhe-siveness in the test sample have changed significantly (P &lt; 0.05). However, the elasticity (springiness) and stickiness of the paste mass were almost the same for the control and experi-mental samples. The introduction of the above-mentioned ingredients in the experimental sam-ples increased the pH and water-binding capacity) values, which suggests an increase in juici-ness. The conducted studies have confirmed the prospects for improving the chemical compo-sition without deterioration of the consistency and structure of the finished product.</p> Gulmira Kenenbay Urishbay Chomanov Tamara Tultabayeva Nurzhan Tultabayev Zhanibek Yessimbekov Mohammad Ali Shariati Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 16 733 749 10.5219/1800 Comparative characteristics of goat milk products in farms of Akmola and North Kazakhstan regions https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1792 <p>Providing the population with high-quality products is a priority intention of the government. North Kazakhstan and Akmola regions are the most promising in developing the country's dairy cattle breeding and milk processing. An assessment of the qualitative indicators of milk production and processing in these areas would allow us to assess the dynamics of the development of the country's dairy industry and identify the main problems, so research on this issue is relevant. The study aimed to analyze the qualitative indicators of milk production and processing at the enterprises of the North Kazakhstan and Akmola regions, the factors affecting the quality of dairy products, and the prospects for expanding the range of enterprises. In the study, an InfraXact infrared analyzer was used to determine the quality of haylage in the diet of goats and for goat milk - the CombiFoss FT + analyzer. Generally, the quality of milk on the goat farms "Zeren" and "Tamasha-2050" in terms of fat, protein, lactose, fatty acid composition of milk fat, and somatic cells meets the regulatory requirements. The specificity of the goat farm "Tamasha-2050" is the production of various hard and soft cheese types. Farm "Zeren" is focused on the production scale and a wide range of products (drinking milk, yogurt, kefir, and ice cream). It was concluded that there is a wide choice for the consumer of high-quality dairy products from goat milk in enterprises.</p> Mariam Alimardanova Alma Shunekeyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 16 750 764 10.5219/1792 The impartiality of conformity assessment bodies is an integral component of the food safety management system https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1784 <p>The article aims to consider in detail the principles and requirements for impartiality, its components, and the status of implementation of these requirements in the current state of conformity assessment in Ukraine for different types of conformity assessment bodies (CABs); involved in food safety management system; compliance with the requirements of impartiality in terms of managing the risks associated with impartiality. The article uses methods of theoretical, empirical-theoretical, and empirical research, including analysis of documentation. Expert assessments were used to determine the significance of individual elements. The importance of impartiality in the activities of CABs is substantiated and demonstrated. Received a list of mandatory and recommended impartiality requirements for the requirements of the received standards and identified factors that threaten impartiality. Practical recommendations for documenting the process of impartiality management developed. The article analyzed the completeness and sufficiency of possible documented evidence, identified the risks of impartiality, and developed a set of preventive measures to minimize the identified risks. The authors developed a methodology for managing impartiality, which combines the experience and experience of CABs in various fields. The research results allow the CAB to carry out and document lending sector activities following the standard's requirements.</p> Olha Samoilichenko Olga Priadko Valentyn Mokiichuk Nataliia Pashchenko Larysa Bal-Prylypko Yuliia Slyva Valentyna Tkachuk Nataliya Silonova Mykola Nikolaienko Tatyana Rozbytska Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 16 765 776 10.5219/1784 Investigation of the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of Chlorella vulgaris biomass treated with pulsed discharges technology for potential use in the food industry https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1803 <p>The use of chlorella as a dietary supplement has great prospects. Nevertheless, the processing of chlorella is associated with certain difficulties that limit its use on an industrial scale. Problems with the processing are primarily related to the thick and strong cell wall of chlorella (50-100 nm), which is poorly digested by most vertebrate species due to its complex multilayer structure. Our experiments have shown that discharge pulse treatment contributes to the destruction of the strong cell wall of chlorella. The results of atomic force microscopy and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the suspension confirm this. A study of the chemical composition of dried chlorella biomass showed a content of 56.8% protein and 12.6% fat, which causes a high nutritional value of chlorella. The study of the physicochemical properties of the prepared chlorella preparation showed pronounced hydrophilicity of proteins. Observation of gels with different contents of chlorella preparation, formed during heating and subsequent cooling and stored for seven days at +8 °C, showed that the gels do not emit a synergistic liquid. Total gels based on the chlorella preparation are characterized by high stability. Based on the results obtained, we concluded that the preparation based on disintegrated chlorella has a high potential for functional and technological application in food technologies</p> Zulai Orusmurzaeva Alina Maslova Zulfiya Tambieva Elina Sadykova Petimat Askhadova Kamila Umarova Amina Merzhoeva Khadijat Albogachieva Karen Ulikhanyan Sergey Povetkin Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 16 777 789 10.5219/1803 Food consumption patterns and child stunting in the lowland region https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1789 <p>Stunting in children under five is a public health problem in Indonesia, especially in lowland areas related to food consumption patterns. This study aims to determine the relationship between food consumption patterns and the incidence of toddler stunting in lowland areas in the Province of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. This type of research is quantitative descriptive, and the sample study amounted to 166 toddlers 12-59 months. The instrument used was a threaded form of the expected food pattern score (DDP) and a 24-hour food recall to determine the diversity of food consumption for toddlers. To determine the relationship between food consumption patterns and stunting, Chi-Square analysis (α = 0.05) was used. The results showed that the average actual energy of under five was quite diverse, with a DDP score of 76.4. The average energy consumed by toddlers at 1296.4 kcal/cap/day. The highest food groups consumed by toddlers are grains at 740.3 kcal/cap/day, and the lowest oily seeds fruit food group at 7.8 kcal/cap/day. Based on the analysis of Chi-Square shows the results of 21.715 and <em>p</em>-value = 0.000 (α = 0.05), then α &gt; <em>p</em>-value indicates a link between food consumption patterns in toddlers with the incidence of stunting in toddlers in lowlands.</p> Ahmad Suhaimi Helda Syahfari Syamad Ramayana Rum Van Royensyah Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 16 790 799 10.5219/1789 Determination of the fatty acid composition and fatty acids trans-isomers in the horse, stall horse, mutton, beef and pork meat https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1799 <p>In this study, we have focussed on the fatty acid composition of the meat of various animals raised in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We have analyzed pasture horse meat, stall horse meat, lamb, beef, and pork meat. Samples from four carcass muscles (back, hip, rib, and neck) were tested. Comparative analysis of the content of trans isomers of fatty acids (TFA) was performed. The analysis of the obtained samples showed that the TFA content is significantly (<em>p</em> &lt;0.05) different in different parts of the carcasses of all animals. Their highest content was observed in the mutton sample, which reached 79.56-82.04%. The beef was next after mutton (6.20-9.64%). Less than in mutton and beef, but more than in pork and TFAs were contained in stall horse meat (2.75-5.52%). Of the two types of horse meat, there was less TFA in horse meat of pasture content (1.85-3.46%). Compared to all studied samples, the lowest level of trans fatty acids was in pork (0.91-1.39%). In horse meat of both types, TFAs were present in trans-9-C16: 1. More types of TFA were found in the meat of other animals: in mutton (trans-9-C14: 1; trans-9-C16: 1; trans-9-C18: 1; trans-11 C18: 1; trans-9-trans- 12-C18: 2), in beef (trans-9-C16: 1; trans-9-C18: 1; trans-11-C18: 1; trans-9-trans-12-C18: 2), in pork (trans-9-C16: 1). In addition to TFA, an analysis was made of the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 (ω-6: ω-3). Considering that the lower the ratio of ω-6: ω-3 in fat, the healthier it is for the human body, the most optimal among the studied samples in terms of the ratio of ω-6: ω-3 fatty acids was mutton (1.83-2.35) and horse meat of stall keeping (1.76-6.53). The most unfavourable ratios were in the pork samples (17.46-35.69). The ratio ω-6: ω-3 in other animals was within the following limits: beef (5.35-9.13), horse meat of pasture content (7.08-10.50).</p> Aidyn Igenbayev Shyngys Amirkhanov Gulnazym Ospankulova Serik Kardenov Saule Baytukenova Mohammad Ali Shariati Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 16 800 809 10.5219/1799 Processing of beef rumen with ultrasonic waves https://potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/1794 <p>The article discusses the main trends in processing animal products, the development of technologies to improve their quality and technologies to preserve the quality indicators of the product over time. A review of the effects of ultrasound treatment on beef rumen is presented, and the main directions of ultrasound application are determined. The advantages of ultrasonic processing and its influence on the characteristics of raw meat were researched. The modes and parameters (frequency, intensity and duration) of ultrasound treatment of muscle tissue were established based on the results. This study evaluated the effect of ultrasound treatment on beef rumen's physical, microstructural and organoleptic characteristics. The physicochemical, mineral, microbiological, vitamin and amino acid composition of beef rumen and reticulum were also studied. Based on the results of the presented review, it can be concluded that the development of technologies for processing beef rumen with ultrasound is of potential interest. The optimal parameters are 400 and 600 W/m<sup>2</sup>, with a frequency of 40 kHz, for 50-60 minutes.</p> Gulmira Serikbayevna Kenenbai Urishbai Chomanovich Chomanov Bakytzhan Bolatovna Omirzhanova Amina Nurlanovna Tatieva Rabiga Kassymbek Gulzhan Zhumaliyeva Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 16 810 823 10.5219/1794