Relationship between mastitis causative pathogens and somatic cell counts in dairy cows
Keywords:bovine mastitis, microorganisms, somatic cell count, milk
Milk somatic cell count is a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality and an indicator of udder health and of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk samples differed by somatic cell count (SCC) in microbiologically positive samples. Also frequency of distribution of samples differed by SCC were studied in non infected samples as well. The milk samples were collected from individual quarters from the dairy farms located in Nitra region with problematic udder health of herd for SCC and bacteriological analysis. Totally, 390 milk samples were examined, and 288 (73.85%) positive milk samples were detected. Four SCC groups of samples (<100, <100<SCC<200, <200<SCC<400 and >400×103/ml) were used to identify presence of microorganisms in positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens in samples with high SCC >400×103/ml according to year were Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (29.11 %) in 2012, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (28.0%) in 2010, yeasts (24.05%) in 2012, Escherichia coli (22.78%) in 2012, Bacillus sp. (20%) in 2010 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa (11.88%) in 2011. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (66.67%) were the predominantly identified in the samples with low SCC <100×103 cells/ml, followed by Bacillus spp (50%), Entrococcus spp. (33.33%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.67%) and E. coli (16.67%). The results of this study indicated that the SCC of individual milk samples corresponded with the health status of the udder of dairy cows represented by presence of mastitis microorganisms in milk. However, the contamination of milk samples could be also connected with low SCC. On the ohter side the samples with high SCC were found out without presence of microorganism. The further study is needed to identify the reason of high SCC in milk from negative samples.
Ariznabarreta, A., Gonzal, C., San Primitivo, O. F. 2002. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count of ewe milk with special reference to staphylococci, Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 85, no. 6, p. 1370-1375. https://doi.org/2010.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74203-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74203-3
Bradley, A. J. 2002. Bovine mastitis: An evolving disease. Veterinary Journal, vol. 164, no. 2, p. 116-128. https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.2002.0724 PMid:12359466 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.2002.0724
De Casia Dos Santos, R., Marin, J. M. 2005. Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic bovine milk in Brazil. Mycopathologia, vol. 159, no. 2, p. 251-253. https://doi.org/ 2010.1007/s11046-004-2229-2 PMid:15770451 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-004-2229-2
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M. C., Gonzalo, C., San Primitivo, F., Carmenes, P., Rodriguez, M. C. G. 1995. Relations between somatic cell count and intramammary infection of the half udder in dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 78, no. 2,
Hallén Sandgren, C., Persson Waller, K., Emanuelson, U. 2008. Therapeutic effects of systemic or intramammary antimicrobial treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis during lactation, Veterinary Journal, vol. 175, no. 1, p. 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.12.005 PMid:17320434 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.12.005
Idriss, Sh., Foltys, V., Tančin, V., Kirchnerová, K., Zaujec, K. 2013. Mastitis pathogens in milk of dairy cows in Slovakia, Slovak Journal of Animal Science, in press.
International Dairy Federation 1981. Laboratory Methods for use in mastitis Work. Document No 132, IDF Brussels, p. 27.
Kubicová, Ľ., Dobák, D. 2012. The development and the level of milk consumption and milk product in Slovak Republic and modeling of food demand of selected groups of households : SPU Nitra, 88 p.
Kumar, M., Goel, P., Sharma, A., Kumar, A. 2009. Prevalence of sub clinical mastitis in cows at a Goshala. Proceedings of Compendium of 27th ISVM International Summit and Convention at Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, p. 4-7.
Laevens, H., Deluyker, H., Schukken, Y. H., De Meulemeester, L., Vandermeersch, R., De Muelenaere, E., De Kruif, A. 1997. Influence of parity and stage of lactation on somatic cell count in bacteriologically negative dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 80, no. 12, p. 3219-3226. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76295-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76295-7
Leitner, G., Eligulashvily, R., Krifucks, O., Perl, S., Saran, A. 2003. Immune cell differentiation in mammary gland tissues and milk of cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Vetetrinary Medecine, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 45-52. PMid:12710501 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0450.2003.00602.x
Mikulová, M. 2011. Content of free fatty acids, lipolytic bacteria and somatic cells in relation to milking technology. Journal of Agrobiology, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 49-54. Retrieved from the web: http://www.zf.jcu.cz/copy_of_dokumenty/dokumenty-journal-of-agrobiology/2011-number-1/Mikulova_imprim_web.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10146-011-0005-8
McDougall, S., Murdough, P., Pankey, W., Delaney, C., Barlow, J., Scruton, D. 2001. Relationship among somatic cell count, California mastitis test, impedance and bacteriological status of milk in goats and sheep in early lactation. Small Ruminant Research, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 245-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00185-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00185-7
Piepers, S., Meulemeester, L. De., De Kruif, A., Opsomer, G., Barkema, H. W., De Vliegher, S. 2007. Prevalence and distribution of mastitis pathogens in subclinically infected dairy cows in Flanders, Belgium. Journal of Dairy Research, vol. 74, no. 4, p. 478-483. https://doi.org/10.1017/20S0022029907002841 PMid:17931457 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029907002841
Reksen, O., Sølverød, L., Østeras, O. 2008. Relationships between milk culture results and composite milk somatic cell counts in Norwegian Dairy Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 91, no. 8, p. 3102-3113 https://doi.org/2010.3168/jds.2008-1006 PMid:18650286 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1006
Olde Riekerink, R. G., Barkema, H. W., Veenstra, W., Berg, F. E., Stryhn, H., Zadoks, R. N. 2007. Somatic cell count during and between milkings. Journal Dairy Science, vol. 90, no. 8, p. 3733-3741. https://doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2007-0001 PMid:17638984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0001
Sarikaya, H., Schlaberger, G., Meyer, H. H. D., Bruckmaier, R. M. 2006. Leukocyte populations and mRNA expression of inflammatory factors in quarter milk fractions at different somatic cell score levels in dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science, vol. 89, p. 2479-2486. https://doi.org/2010.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72322-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72322-0
Schukken, Y. H., Wilson, D. J., Welcome, F., Garrison-Tikofsky, L., Gonzalez, R. N. 2003. Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts. Veterinary Research, vol. 34, no. 5, p. 579-596. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2003028 PMid:14556696 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2003028
Schwarz, D., Diesterbeck, U. S., Failing, K., König, S., Brügemann, K., Zschöck, M., Wolter, W., Czerny, C. P. 2010. Somatic cell counts and bacteriological status in quarter foremilk samples of cows in Hesse, Germany. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, no. 12, p. 5716-5728. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3223 PMid: 21094743 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3223
Schwarz, D., Diesterbeck, U. S., König, S., Brügemann, K., Schlez, K., Zschöck, M., Wolter, W., Czerny, C. P. 2011. Flow cytometric differential cell counts in milk for the evaluation of inflammatory reactions in clinically healthy and subclinically infected bovine mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 94, no. 10, p. 5033-5044. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4348 PMid:21943754 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4348
Sharma, D. K., Jallewar, P. K., Sharma, K. K. 2010. Antibiogram of bacteria isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Indian Veterinary Journal, vol. 87, p. 407-407.
Sorensen, L. P., Mark, T., Madsen, P., Lund, M. S. 2009. Genetic correlations between pathogen-specific mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holsteins Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 7, p. 3457-3471. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1870 PMid:19528624 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1870
Sundekilde, U. K., Poulsen, N. A., Larsen, L. B., Bertram, H. C. 2012. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 96, no. 1, p. 290-299. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5819 PMid:23182357 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5819
Tančin, V. 2013. Somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows under practical conditions. Slovak Journal of Animal Science., vol. 46, p. 31-34 Retrieved from the web: http://www.cvzv.sk/slju/13_1/Tancin.pdf
Tančin, V., Kirchnerová, K., Foltys, V., Mačuhova, L., Tančinová, D. 2006. Microbial contamination and somatic cell count of bovine milk striped and after udder preparation for milking. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, vol. 39, p. 214-217. Retrieved from the web: http://www.cvzv.sk/slju/06_4/Tancin.pdf
Zajác, P., Golian, J., Nováková, R. 2007. The effect of high somatic cells count on raw cow’s milk safety. Potravinarstvo, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 10-15. Retrieved from the web: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/potravinarstvo_no1_2007.pdf
Zajác, P., Tomáška, M., Murárová, A. Čapla, J. Čurlej, J. 2012. Quality and safety of raw cow’s milk in Slovakia in 2011. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6., no. 2, p. 64-73. http:dx.doi.org/10.5219/189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/189
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.