Mycobiota of Slovak wine grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species in the small carpathian area


  • Soňa Felšöciová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Dana Tančinová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Ľubomí­r Rybárik Báb 49, 951 34 Báb
  • Zuzana Mašková Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Miroslava Kačániova Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra



wine grapes, Slovak Republik, fungi, mycotoxin


The Slovak wine-growing region is divided into six viticulture areas. The largest in size and the most important over the centuries has been the Small Carpathian area (around 5800 ha of vineyards) spreads in the western of Slovakia. The objectives of this study were: to gain more knowledge about mycobiota on grapes originating from Slovakia, with a focus on genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their ability to produce mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by thin layer chromatography method. From the twelve vineyards were collected 14 samples of wine grapes (white 6, blue 8) during harvesting 2011, 2012 and 2013. Fifty wine grapes per bunch (approximately 7-8 berries per plate) that showed no symptoms were randomly selected on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar medium. The plates were then incubated aerobically at 25 ±1 °C for 5 to 7 days in the dark. Of these samples were identified 22 genera. Ninety-three percent of samples were colonies by the genus Penicillium and 79% by the genus Aspergillus. During the survey, 251 isolates belonging to 14 Penicillium species (P. aurantiogriseum, P. citrinum, P. coprophylum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. glabrum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum, P. oxalicum, P. polonicum, P. purpurogenum, P. roqueforti and P. thomii) and 37 isolates belonging to 7 Aspergillus species (A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. section Nigri, A. ostianus, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor and A. westerdijkiae) were isolated and identified from exogenous contamination. The main occurring penicillium species of the samples were P. chrysogenum (36% Fr), followed P. crustosum (29% Fr), P. griseofulvum (21% Fr) and P. expansum (21% Fr). The main occurring aspergillus species of the samples were A. section Nigri (64%). Thirteen potentially toxigenic species were tested for their toxigenic ability. It was confirmed the production of various mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, G1, citrinin, griseofulvin, patulin, cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A, roquefortin C and sterigmatocystin. Out of 124 strains, 84% produced at least one mycotoxin.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abrunhosa, L., Paterson, R. R. M., Kozakiewicz, Z., Lima, N., Venâncio, A. 2001. Mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from grapes. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 32, no. 4, p. 240-242. PMid:11298933 DOI:

Alves, I., Oliveira, N. G., Laires, A., Rodriques, A. S., Rueff, J. 2000. Induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations by the mycotoxin patulin in mammalian cells: role of ascorbic acid as a modulator of patulin clastogenecity. Mutagenesis, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 229-34. DOI:

Belajová, E., Rauová, D. 2007. Determination of ochratoxin A and itsoccurrence in wines of Slovakian retail. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 68-74.

Bellí, N., Marín, S., Coronas, I., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A. J. 2007. Skin damage, high temperature and relative humidity as detrimental factors for Aspergillus carbonarius infection and ochratoxin A production in grapes. Food control, vol. 18, no. 11, p. 1343-1349. DOI:

Bellí N., Bau, M., Marín, S., Abarca, M. L., Ramos, A. J., Bragulat, M. R. 2006. Mycobiota and ochratoxin A producing fungi from Spanish wine grapes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 111, no. 6, p. 40-45. DOI:

Bellí, N., Pardo, E., Marin, S., Farrè, G., Ramos, A. J., Sanchis, V. 2004. Occurrence of ochratoxin A and toxigenic potential of fungal isolates from Spanish grapes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 84, no. 6,

p. 541-546. DOI:

Bragulat, M. R., Abarca, M. L., Cabanes, F. J. 2008. Low occurrence of patulin- and citrinin-producing species isolated from grapes. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 4, p. 286-289. PMid:19241521 DOI:

Cabañes, F. J., Accensi, F., Bragulat, M. R., Abarca, M. L., Castellá, G., Minguez, S., Pons, A. 2002. What is the source of ochratoxin A in wine? International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 79, no. 3, p. 213-215. DOI:

Chulze, S. N., Magnoli, C., Dalcero, A. 2006. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in wine and ochratoxigenic mycoflora in grapes and dried vine fruits in South America. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 111, p. 5-9. DOI:

Dailey, R. E., Brouwer, E., Blaschka, A. M., Reynaldo, E. F., Green, S., Monlux, W. S., Ruggles, D. I. 1977. Intermediate-duration toxicity study of patulin in rats. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 713-25. DOI:

El Khoury, A., Rizk, T., Lteif, R., Azouri, H., Delia, M. L., Lebrihi, A. 2008. Fungal contamination and Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A in Lebanese wine-grapes and musts. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 2244-2250. DOI:

Escuola, L., Thomsen, M., Bourdiol, D., Pipy, B., Peuriere, S., Roubinet, F. 1988. Patulin immunotoxicology: effect on phagocyte activation and the cellular and humoral immune system of mice and rabbits. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 10, no. 8, p. 983-989. DOI:

Feizy, A., Beheshti, H. R., Asadi, M. 2012. Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in dried vine fruits from the Iranian market. Mycotoxin Research, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 237-242. DOI:

Fredj, S. M. B., Chebil, S., Lebrihi, A., Lasram, S., Ghorbel, A., Mliki, A. 2007. Occurrence of pathogenic fungal species in Tunisian vineyards. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 113, no. 3, p. 245-250. DOI:

González, H. H. L., Martínez, E. J., Pacin, A., Resnik, S. L. 1999. Relationship between Fusarium graminearum and Alternaria alternata contamination and deoxinivalenol occurrence on Argentinian durum wheat. Mycopathologia, vol. 144, no. 2, p. 97-102. DOI:

Guatam, A., Sharma, S., Bhadauria, R. 2009. Detection of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in medicinally important powdered herbal drugs. The Internet Journal of Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 1-8. Available at: DOI:

Hocking, A. D., Leong, S. L., Kazi, B. A., Emmett, R. W., Scott, E. S. 2007. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 119, no. 1-2, p. 84-88. DOI:

Kassemeyer, H. H., Berkelmann-Löhnertz, B. 2009. Fungi of Grapes. In Köning, H. et al. Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine. Berlin Heidelberg : Springer, p. 61-87. ISBN 978-3-540-85463-0. DOI:

Kollia, E., Kanapitsas, A., Markaki, P. 2013. Occurrence of aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Greek market. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 11-16. DOI:

Labuda, R., Tančinová, D. 2006. Fungi recovered from Slovakian poultry feed mixtures and their toxinogenity. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 193-200.

Leong, S. L., Hocking, A. D., Scott, E. S. 2007. Aspergillus species producing ochratoxin A: Isolation from vineyard soil and infection os Semillon bunches in Australia. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 102, no. 1, p. 124-133. DOI:

Magnoli, C., Violante, M., Combina, M., Palacio, G., Dalcero, A. 2003. Mycoflora and ochratoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri in wine grapes in Argentina. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 2, p. 179-184. PMid:12859664 DOI:

Mikušová, P., Santini, A., Ritieni, A., Pavlokin J., Šrobárová, A. 2012. Berries contamination by microfungi in Slovakia vineyard regions: Impact of climate conditions on microfungi biodiversity. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 126-131. DOI:

Ostrý, V., Škarková, J., Procházková, I., Kubátová, A., Malíř, F., Ruprich, J. 2007. Mycobiota of Czech wine grapes and occurrence of ochratoxin A and Alternaria mycotoxins in fresh grape juice, must and wine. Czech Mycology, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 241-254. Available at: DOI:

Pearson, R. C., Goheen, A. C. 1988. Compendium of grape diseases., St. Paul: APS Press, 93 p. ISBN 0-89054-088-8. DOI:

Pitt, J. I. 2000. Toxigenic fungi: which are important? Medical Mycology, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 17-22. PMid:11204142 DOI:

Pitt, J. I., Hocking, A. D. 2009. Fungi and food spoilage. 3rd ed. London, New York : Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009, 519 p. ISBN 978 0-387-92206-5. DOI:

Sáez, J. M., Medina, A., González, G., Llorens, A., Mateo, R., Jiménez, M. 2004. Comparison of different sample treatments for the analysis of ochratoxin A in must, wine and beer by liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, vol. 1029, no. 1-2, p. 125-133. DOI:

Sage, L., Krivobok, S., Delbos, E., Seigle-Murandi, F., Creppy, E. E. 2002. Fungal flora and ochratoxin A production in grapes and musts from France. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 1306-1311. DOI:

Samson, R. A., Frisvad, J. C. 2004. Polyphasic taxonomy of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium: new taxonomic schemes, mycotoxins and other extrolites. Studies in Mycology 46, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, 260 p. ISBN 90-70351-53-6.

Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S., Frisvad, J. C., Filtenborg, O. 2002a. Introduction to food- and airborne fungi. Utrecht : Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, 389 p. ISBN 90-70351-42-0. DOI:

Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S., Lund, F., Filtenborg, O., Frisvad, J. C. 2002b. Method for the detection, isolation and characterisation of food-borne fungi. In Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S., Frisvad, J. C. & Filtenborg, O. Introduction to food- and airborne fungi. Utrecht : Centraalbureau voor Schimmecultures, 2002. p. 283-297. ISBN 90-70351-42-0.

Samson, R. A., Houbraken, J., Thrane, U., Frisvad, J. C., Andersen, B. 2010. Food and Indoor Fungi. Utrecht: CBS - KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, 390 p. ISBN 978-90-70351-82-3.

Samson, R. A., Houbraken, J. A., Kuijpers, A. F., Frank, J. M., Frisvad, J. C. 2004. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri. Studies in Mycology, vol. 50, p. 45-61.

Serra, R., Lourenço, A., Alipio, P., Venancio, A. 2006. Influence of the region of origin on the mycobiota of grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Mycological Research, vol. 110, no. 8, p. 971-978. DOI:

Somma, S., Perrone, G., Logrieco, A. F. 2012. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 131-147.

Tančinová, D., Felšöciová, S., Rybárik, Ľ., Mašková, Z., Císarová, M. 2015. Colonization of grapes berries and cider by potential producers of patulin. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 138-142. DOI:

Valero, A., Marín, S., Ramos, A. J., Sanchis, V. 2005. Ochratoxin A-producing species in grapes and sun-dried grapes and their relation to ecophysiological factors. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 2, p. 196-201. PMid:16033521 DOI:

Varga, J., Kozakiewicz, Z. 2006. Ochratoxin A in grapes and grape-derived products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 72-81. DOI:

Youssef, M. S., Abo-Dahab, N. F., Abou-Seidah, A. A. 2000. Mycobiota and mycotoxin contamination of dried raisins in Egypt. African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology, vol. 8, p. 69-86.




How to Cite

Felšöciová, S. ., Tančinová, D. ., Rybárik, Ľubomí­r ., Mašková, Z. ., & Kačániova, M. . (2015). Mycobiota of Slovak wine grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species in the small carpathian area. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1), 501–508.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>