Oilseed rape as feedstock for biodiesel production in relation to the environment and human health
Keywords:Keywords, oilseed rape, energy resource, biodiesel, ecological attribute, environment, human health
AbstractOilseed rape is one of the most important crops in cultivation process. A current developmental trend in non-food rapeseed production on agricultural land shows that this new course is irreversible and is a great opportunity for agriculture. Non-food rapeseed production is focused on the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel has good environmental properties. Lower emissions are produced by the combustion of biodiesel than for diesel. In content of exhaust gas is observed a significant decrease of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and etc. The analysis of the literary knowledge on impacts of biodiesel on exhaust emissions, on regulated emissions, shows a reduction of 10.1% for particulate matter, of 21.1% for hydrocarbons, and 11.0% for carbon monoxide with the use of B20. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased by 2.0%. Biodiesel was introduced into the European market in the 1988s as B100. The use of blends with content up to 5% biodiesel has no significant impact on the emissions and their toxicity. An increased mutagenicity was observed with blends containing 20%. Nevertheless, increased mutagenic effects were observed under specific conditions. Accordingly, the problem concerning blends of diesel fuel with biodiesel (B20) should be investigated with high priority. No comprehensive risk assessment for diesel engine emissions from biodiesel and its blends is possible In regard to a comprehensive hazard characterization it is urged to develop a panel of standardized and internationally accepted protocols which allow a reliable assessment of possible health hazards which may arise from the combustion of new fuels compared to conventional diesel fuel. These methods should be robust and should reflect the various health hazards associated with diesel engine emissions to supplement data on regulated emissions. Methods for the generation of the exhaust and sample preparation should be harmonized. There is sufficient evidence supporting a causal relationship between diesel engine emissions and acute health effects, as are childhood asthma, non-asthma respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, total and cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity. Although, diesel engine emissions exposures in developed countries changed strongly during recent years, reliable animal experiments or epidemiological studies concerning the use of new fuels and technologies are almost lacking.
Avino, P., Casciardi, S., Fanizza, C., Manigrasso, M. 2011. Deep Investigation of Ultrafine Particles in Urban Air. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 11, p. 654-663. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.10.0086
Briand, D., Dubreucq, E., Galzy, P. 1991. Enzymatic fatty esters synthesis in aqueous medium with lipase from Candida Parapsilosis (Ashford) langeron and talice, Biotechnology Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, p. 813-818. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/BF00133959 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00133959
Bunn, W. B., Hesterberg, T. W., Valberg, P. A., Slavin, T. J., Hart, G., Lapin, C. A. 2004. A reevaluation of the literature regarding the health assessment of diesel engine exhaust. Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 14, p. 889-900. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370490883783 PMid: 15764476 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370490883783
Burnete, N. et al. 2008. Diesel engines and biofuels for urban transport (in Romanian). Publishing House Mediamira. 1054 p. ISBN 978-973-713-217-8.
Chang, D. Y. Z., Van Gerpen, J. H., Lee, I., Johnson, L. A., Hammond, E. G., Marley, S. J. 1996. Fuel properties and emissions of soybean oil esters as diesel fuel. JAOCS., vol. 73, no. 11, p. 1549-1555. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/BF02523523 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02523523
Colbeck, I., Nasir, Z. A., Ahmad, S., Ali, Z. 2011. Exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and Carbon Monoxide on Roads in Lahore, Pakistan. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 11, p. 689-695. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.10.0087
Directive 2003/30/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 8 May 2003on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport.
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002b. A Comprehensive analysis of biodiesel impacts on exhaust emissions. Draft Technical Report. EPA420-P-02-001, October 2002. Available at internet: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/analysis/biodsl/p02001.pdf
European Norm EN 14214/Biodiesel.
Geiss, O., Barrero-Moreno, J., Tirendi, S., Kotzias, D. 2010. Exposure to Particulate Matter in Vehicle Cabins of Private Cars. Aerosol Air Qual Res., vol. 10, p. 581-588. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.07.0054
Georgogianni, K. G., Katsoulidis, A. K., Pomonis, P. J., Manos, G., Kontominas, M. G. 2009. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for the production of biodiesel using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel Proc. Technol., vol. 90, no. 7-8, p.1016-1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.03.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.03.002
Gryglewicz, S. 1999. Rapeseed oil methyl esters preparation using heterogeneous catalysts. Bioresource Technology, vol. 70, no. 3, p. 249-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00042-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00042-5
HEI. A special report of the institute's diesel working group. USA: Cambridge; 1995. Health Effects Institute: Diesel exhaust: A critical analysis of emissions, exposure, and health effects. Available at internet: http://www.healtheffects.org/Pubs/diesum.htm
HEI. A special report of the institute's diesel epidemiology expert panel. USA: Cambridge; 1999. Health Effects Institute: Diesel exhaust and lung cancer: Epidemiology and quantitative risk assessment.
HEI. Special Report 17. Boston, MA: Health Effects Institute; 2010. Health Effects Institute Panel on the Health Effects of traffic-related Air Pollution. Traffic-related air pollution: A critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects.
Hesterberg, T. W., Bunn, W. B., McClellan, R. O., Hart, G. A., Lapin, C. A. 2005. Carcinogenicity studies of diesel engine exhausts in laboratory animals: a review of past studies and a discussion of future research needs. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., vol. 35, no. 5, p. 379-411. http://dx.doi.org /10.1080/10408440590950542 PMid: 16097136 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440590950542
Hesterberg, T. W., Bunn, W. B., Chase, G. R., Valberg, P. A., Slavin, T. J., Lapin, C. A., et al. 2006. A critical assessment of studies on the carcinogenic potential of diesel exhaust. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., vol. 36, no. 9, p. 727-776. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440600908821 PMid: 17050083 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440600908821
Hesterberg, T. W., Long, C. M., Bunn, W. B., Sax, S. N., Lapin, C. A., Valberg, P. A. 2009. Non-cancer health effects of diesel exhaust: a critical assessment of recent human and animal toxicological literature. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., vol. 39, no. 3, p. 195-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440802220603 PMid: 19280432 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440802220603
Hesterberg, T. W., Long, C. M., Lapin, C. A., Hamade, A. K., Valberg, P. A. 2010. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles? Inhal. Toxicol., vol. 22, no. 8, p. 679-694. https://doi.org/10.3109/08958371003758823 PMid: 20462394 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/08958371003758823
Hesterberg, T. W., Long, C. M., Sax, S. N., Lapin, C. A., McClellan, R. O., Bunn, W. B. et al. 2011. Particulate matter in new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) is quantitatively and qualitatively very different from that found in traditional diesel exhaust (TDE). J. Air. Waste Manag. Assoc., vol. 61, no. 9, p. 894-913. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2011.599277 PMid: 22010375 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2011.599277
Hesterberg, T. W., Long, C. M., Bunn, W. B., Lapin, C. A., McClellan, R. O., Valberg, P. A. 2012. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk. Inhal. Toxicol., vol. 24, no. S1, p.1-45. https://doi.org/ 10.3109/08958378.2012.691913 PMid: 22663144 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2012.691913
Jablonický, J., Žikla, A., Tkáč, Z., Boďo, T., and Bohát, M. 2010. Alternative fuels and thier impact on the operating parameters of ci engine. Savremena poljoprivredna tehnika, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 285-294.
Knothe, G., Krahl, J., van Gerpen, J. 2010. The Biodiesel Handbook. USA : AOCS Press 2710. p. 61802-6996. ISBN 978-1-893997-62-2.
Koskikallio, J. 1969. Alcoholysis, acidolysis and redistribution of esters. Saul Patai: The Chemistry of Carboxylic Acids and Esters. New York : Wiley.
Kotrba, R. 2008. Transition period, Biodiesel. Mag., vol. 52, no. 57, p. 512.
Krahl, J., Munack, A., Ruschel, Y., Schröder, O., Bünger, J. 2008. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of diesel fuel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends. SAE Technical Paper 2008, p. 2501-2508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-2508
Lin, L., Cunshan, Z., Vittayapadung, S., Xiangqian, S., Mingdong, D. 2011. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel. Applied Energy, vol. 88, no. 4, p. 1020-1031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.09.029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.09.029
Lindhjem, C., Pollack, A. 2000. "Impact of biodiesel fuels on air quality - Task 1 report: Incorporate biodiesel data into vehicle emission databases for modeling". Prepared for National Renewal Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
Ma, C. M., Hong, G. B., Chang, C. T. 2011. Influence of Traffic Flow Patterns on Air Quality inside the Longest Tunnel in Asia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 11, p. 44-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.09.0078
McClellan, R. O., Hesterberg, T. W., Wall, J. C. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., vol. 63, no. 2, p. 225-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.04.005 PMid: 22561182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.04.005
McCormick, R. L., Westbrook, S. R. 2010. Storage stability of biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Energy Fuels, vol. 24, no. 1 , p. 690-698. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef900878u DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ef900878u
Michael, J., Haas, M. J., Scott, K. M., Alleman, T. L. and McCormick, R., L. 2001. Engine Performance of Biodiesel Fuel Prepared from Soybean Soapstock: A High Quality Renewable Fuel Produced from a Waste Feedstock. Energy and Fuels, 2001, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 1207-1212. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef010051x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ef010051x
Morris, R. E., Pollack, A. K., Mansell, G. E., Lindhjem, C., Jia, Y., Wilson, G. 2003. Impact of biodiesel fuels on air quality and human health. Summary report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ENVIRON International Corporation Novato DOI: https://doi.org/10.2172/15003890
Müllerová, D., Jablonický, J., Hujo, Ľ., Kosiba, J. 2011. Detection of emission in combustion engines´exhaust. Machines, technologies, materials, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 53-56.
Qiu, F., Yihuai, Li., Y., Yang, D., Li, X., Sun, P. 2011. Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil. Applied Energy, vol., 88, no, 6, p. 2050-2055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.070 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.070
Saka, S., Kusdiana, D. 2001. Biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol. Fuel, vol. 80, no. 2, p. 225-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(00)00083-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(00)00083-1
Turrio-Baldassarri, L., Battistelli, C. L., Conti, L., Crebelli,R., Berardis, B. D., Iamiceli, A. L., Gambino, M., Iannaccone, S. 2004. Emission Comparison of Urban Bus Engine Fueled with Diesel Oil and 'Biodiesel' Blend. Sci. Total Environ., vol. 327, p. 147-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.033 PMid: 15172578 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.033
Wu, F., Wang, J., Chen, W., Shual, S. 2009. A Study on Emission Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Five Typical Methyl Ester Biodiesels. Atmos. Environ., vol. 43, p. 1481-1485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.007
Wu, S. P., Wang, X. H., Yan, J. M., Zhang, M. M., Hong, H. S. 2010. Diurnal Variations of Particle-bound PAHs at a Traffic Site in Xiamen, China. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 10, pp. 497-506. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.05.0040
Yanowitz, J., McCormick R. L., Graboski M. S. 2000. In-use Emission from Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 34, no. 5, p. 729-740. https://doi.org/10.1021/es990903w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/es990903w
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.