The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding
Keywords:table egg, egg shell, demange, soiling, age of laying hen
The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks) during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to three pcs, representing 10.0% of the sampled eggs for analysis. The sediments on the shell eggs were observed as variable ridge shapes of the shell matter. At the first sampling of eggs at age 47 weeks were found 2 pcs of this defect, representing 6.67% of the sampled eggs. The ridges on the egg shell belong to deviations of the natural shell associated with its texture. These defects of egg shell frequently occur depending on the age of laying hens but can also be caused by other factors. In our experiment was studied mainly the age factor of laying hens. It was interested from aspect of clarifying the relation between ridges on the egg shell and weight of the egg, white, egg, respectively. The results of investigated ridges on the egg shell showed that there occurred in every age of laying hens. Their highest number was recorded at age 59 and 62 weeks (5 pcs, i.e. 16.67% of the 30 egg samples). After 59 weeks of age was found also reduce the weight of the white and shell and at age 62 weeks of age was reduced egg shell weight. Egg production with calcareous sediments on the shell is probably hereditary. Currently, the consumer prefers the consumption of eggs with brown shell. Egg shell color is determined primarily by genetics of laying hens. The results of our experiments have shown that the occurrence of the dots on egg shell had a shade darker brown colour or bright dots, especially on the ends of the egg. The occurrence of dotted eggs was recorded in each assessed age of laying hens (5 - 7 pcs, i.e. 16.67 to 23.33%), while in the last, evaluated 62 weeks of age even up to 9 pcs. These dots and their occurrence are related to the intensity of pigment deposition in the shell cuticle. The process of distribution of pigment in egg shell is the same as is formed by packing egg shell and therefore the cuticle. With the increasing age of laying hens reduces the intensity of pigment deposition in the egg shell and increases of egg surface area, of the egg shell area, to which the pigment is stored. This fact is confirmed by our results especially at week 62 of age, when occurrence of pigment dots was the highest on the shell and also these eggs had the highest average weight.
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