The effect of essential oils on cholesterol content in chicken meat


  • Mária Angelovičová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 037 641 5805
  • Michal Angelovič Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421037 641 4795
  • Peter Zajác Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414371
  • Jozef Čapla Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414371
  • Klaudia Šaraková Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Hygiene and Food Safety, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421037 641 5805
  • Jozef Čurlej Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376415825



essential oil, feed mixture, chicken thigh muscle, chicken breast muscle, cholesterol


The study aimed to investigate cholesterol content in chicken breast and thigh muscles by the influence of feed supplements of various content of essential oils. The experiment was carried out under practical conditions in a poultry farm with broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 hybrid combination according to the feed supplement used thyme essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, commercial citrus fruit essential oil, and their combination. The control group was without the use of experimental feed supplements and commercial coccidiostats were used in their feed mixtures. The experiment lasted 40 days in welfare conditions. Broiler chickens were used for sample preparation of breast and thigh muscles with the skin and their analysis for dry matter, fat and cholesterol contents. Samples were analyzed using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results were processed by the SAS system program, version 8.2. The results, which were evaluated, indicated a tendency to reduce the cholesterol content in chicken breast muscle due to cinnamon essential oil and the combination of cinnamon essential oil with citrus fruit essential oil as well as thyme essential oil with citrus fruit essential. In the achieved results of dry matter, fat, and cholesterol content in breast and thigh muscles, the difference between the effects of the used feed supplements based on essential oils and concerning the control group were not statistically significant p >0.05. The correlation was a statistically significant strong linear relation only between dry matter content and fat content due to thyme and cinnamon essential oils. In conclusion, it was stated that the investigation of the feed supplement effect based on essential oils is an open question concerning the production of safe food of animal origin.


Download data is not yet available.


Abd El-Hack, M. E., Alagawany, M., Abdel-Moneim, A. M. E., Mohammed, N. G., Khafaga, A. F., Bin-Jumah, M., Othman, S. I., Allam, A. A., Elnesr, S. S. 2020. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oil as a potential alternative to antibiotics in poultry. Antibiotics, vol. 9, p. 75-79.

Altmann, S. W., Davis, H. R., Jr., Zhu, L. J., Yao, X., Hoos, L. M., Tetzloff, G., Prasad, S., Iyer, N. 2004. Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. Science, vol. 303, p. 1201-1204.

Al-Yasiry, A. R. M., Kiczorowska, B., Samolinska, W. 2017. The nutritional value and content of mineral elements in the meat of broiler chicken feed diets supplemented with Boswellia serrata. Journal of Elementology, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 1027-1037.

Attia, Y. A., Al-Harthi, M. A., Korish, M. A., Shiboob, M. M. 2017. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles, hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of broiler meat in the retail market. Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 16, no. 40.

Ben Jabeur, M., Somai-Jemmali, L., Hamada, W. 2017. Thyme essential oil as an alternative mechanism: biofungicide-causing sensitivity of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 122, p. 932-939.

Bronzato, S., Durante, A. A. 2017. Contemporary Review of the Relationship between Red Meat Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 8.

Challa Kumar, C. S. S. R. 2011. Carbon nanomaterials. Chichester : John Wiley. 482 p. ISBN 978-3-527-32169-8.

Christiansen, L., Karjalainen, M., Seppänen-Laakso, T., Hiltunen, R., Yliruusi, J. 2003. Effect of β-sitosterol on precipitation of cholesterol from non-aqueous and aqueoussolutions. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 254, no. 2, p. 155-166.

Ciftci, M., Simsek, U. G., Yuce, A., Yilmaz, O., Dalkilic, B. 2010. Effects of Dietary Antibiotic and Cinnamon Oil Supplementation on Anioxidant Enzyme Activities, Cholesterol Levels and Fatty Acid Compositions of Serum and Meat in Broiler Chickens. Acta Veterinaria, vol. 79, p. 33-40.

Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1988. 590 p. ISBN-13: 978-0805802832.

Čech Barabaszová, K. 2012. Vybrané instrumentální metody analýzy materiálů a nanomateriálů, vyd. 1 (Selected instrumental methods of materials and nanomaterials analysis, ed. the 1st). Brno : Academic Publishing House CERM. 194 p. ISBN 978-80-7204-810-6 (In Czech).

Dehghani, N., Afsharmanesh, M., Salarmoini, M., Ebrahimnejad, H., Bitaraf, A. 2018. Effect of pennyroyal, savory and thyme essential oils on Japanese quail physiology. Heliyon, vol. 4, no. 10.

Desrues, O., Mueller-Harvey, I., Pellikaan, W. F., Enemark, H. L., Thamsborg, S. M. 2017. Condensed tannins in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle after sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) intake and their possible relationship with anthelmintic effects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 7, p. 1420-1427.

Dinh, T. T. N., Blanton, J. R Jr., Brooks, J. C., Miller, M. F., Thompson, L. D. 2008. A simplified method for cholesterol determination in meat and meat products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 306-314.

Dinh, T. T. N., Thompson, L. D., Galyean, M. L., Patterson, K. Y., Boylan, L. M. 2011. Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 10, 5, p. 269-289.

Evaris, E. F., Sarmiento-Franco, L., Sandoval-Castro, C. 2021. Meat and bone quality of slow-growing male chickens raised with outdoor access in tropical climate. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 98

Goyal, L., Kaushal, S. 2018. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Essential Oil from Citrus reticulata Fruit Peels. Advances in Research, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 1-9.

Haščík, P., Eliman, I. O. E., Garlík, J., Kačániová, M., Bobko, M., Kňazovická, V., Vavrišinová, K., Arpášová, H., Bučko, O. 2012. Chemical composition of muscle after pollen application in nutrition of broiler chickens. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 26-32.

Haščík, P., Čech, M., Pavelková, A., Čuboň, J., Kačániová, M., Bobko, M. 2020. Porovnanie chemického zloženia vybraných druhov mäsa (Comparison of chemical composition of selected types of meat). In Proceeding on New Trends in Gastronomy, Hospitality and Tourism. Brno : College of Business and Hotel Management Ltd. p. 39-47. ISBN 978-80-7627-006-0 (In Slovak).

Kim, H. J., Kim, H. J., Jeon, J. J., Nam, K. C., Shim, K. S., Jung, J. H., Kim, K. S., Choi, Y., Kim, S. H., Jang, A. 2020. Comparison of the quality characteristics of chicken breast meat from conventional and animal welfare farms under refrigerated storage. Poultry Science, vol. 99, no. 3, p. 1788-1796.

Jamroz, D., Wiliczkiewicz, A., Wertelecki T., Orda, J., Sukorupinska, J. 2005. Use of active substances of plant origininchicken diets based on m aize and locally grown cereals. British Poultry Science, vol. 46, no. 4, p. 485-493.

Kazemi, M., Mokhtariniya, S. 2016. Essential Oil Composition of Bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 786-789.

Khaksar, V., Krimpen, M., Hashemipour, H., Pilevar, M. 2012. Effects of Thyme Essential Oil on Performance, Some Blood Parameters and Ileal Microflora of Japanese Quail. The Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 49, p. 106-110.

Kiczorowska, B., Samolinska, W., Al-Yasiry, A. R. M., Kiczorowski, P., Winiarska-Mieczan, A. 2017. The natural feed additives as immunostimulants in monogastric animal nutrition – a review. Annals of Animal Science, vol. 17, p. 605-625.

Koeth, R. A., Wang, Z., Levison, B. S., Buffa, J. A., Org, E., Sheehy, B.T. et al. 2013. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nature medicine, vol. 19, p. 576-585.

Koochaksaraie, R. R., Irani, M., Gharavysi, S. 2011. The effect of cinnamon powder feeding on some blood metabolites in broiler chicks. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola, vol. 13, no. 3, p. 197-201.

Krauze, M., Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M., Matusevicius, P., Stepniowska, A., Jurczak, P., Ognik, K. 2021. The Effect of Asministration of a Phytobiotic Containing Cinnamon Oil and Citric Acid on the Metabolism, Immunity, and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens. Animals, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 399.

Kriaa, A., Bourgin, M., Potiron, A., Mkaouar, H., Jablaoui, A., Gerard, P., Maguin, E., Rhimi, M. 2019. Microbial impact on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism: Current status and future prospects. Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 60, p. 323-332.

Lin, C. C., Wu, S. J., Chang, C. H., Ng, L. T. 2003. Antioxidant activity ofCinnamomum cassia. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 726-730.

Milićević, D., Vranić, D., Mašić, Z., Parunović, N., Trbović, D., Nedeljković-Trailović, J., Petrović, Z. 2014. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors. Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 13, p. 42-50.

Mosca, F., Zaniboni, L., Stella, S., Kuster, C. A., Iaffaldano, N., Cerolini, S. 2018. Slaughter performance and meat quality of Milanino chickens reared according to a specific free-range program. Poultry Science, vol. 97, p. 1148-1154.

Ogawa, K., Hirose, S., Nagaoka, S., Yanase, E. 2015. Interaction between tea polyphenols and bile acid inhibits micellar cholesterol solubility. Journalof Agriculturaland Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 1, p. 204-209.

Oluremi, O. I. A., Ngi, J., Andrew, I. A. 2007. Phytonutriens in citrus fruit peel meal and nutritional implication for livestock production. Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 19, no. 7.

Padre, R. G., Aricetti, J. A., Moreira, F. B., MizubutI, I. Y., Prado, I. N., Visentainer, J. V., Souza, N. E., Matsushita, M. 2006. Fatty acid profile, chemical composition of longissimus muscle of bovine steers and bulls finished in pasture system. Meat Science, vol. 74, p. 242-248.

Safa, S. E. G., Al-Beitawi, N. A. 2009. The effect of feeding of crushed thyme (Thymus valgaris) on growth, blood constituents, gastrointestinal tract and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 4, p. 100-104.

Shang, H. M., Zhao, J. C., Guo, Y., Zhang, H. X., Song, H. 2020. Effect of supplementing feed with fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. On cholesterol deposition in broiler chickens. Livestock Science, vol. 235.

Simitzis, P. E., Symeon, G. K., Charismiadou, M. A., Ayoutanti, A. G., Deligeorgis, S. G. 2011. The effects of dietary hesperidin supplementation on broiler performance and chicken meat characteristics. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 91, p. 275-282.

Sujiwo, J., Kim, D., Jang, A. 2018. Relation among quality traits ofchicken breast meat during cold storage: correlations betweenfreshness traits and torrymeter values. Poultry Science, vol. 97, p. 2887-2894.

Sweeten, M. K., Cross, H. R., Smith, G. C., Smith, S. B. 1990. Subcellular distribution and composition of lipids in muscle and adipose tissues. Journal of Food Science, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 43-45.

Wu. Z., Li, H., Yang, Y., Zhan, Y., Tu, D. 2013. Variation in the components and antioxidant activity of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis essential oils at different stages of maturity. Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 46, p. 311-316.

Zampiga, M., Soglia, F., Petracci, M., Meluzzi, A., Sirri, F. 2019. Effect of different arginine-to-lysine ratios in broiler chicken diets on the occurrence of breast myopathies and meat quality attributes. Poultry Science, vol. 98, p. 2691-2697.

Zotte, A. D., Ricci, R., Cullere, M., Serva, L., Tenti, S., Marchesini, G. 2020. Research Note: Effect of chicken genotype and white striping-wooden breast condition on breast meat proximate composition and amino acid profile. Poultry Science, vol. 99, no. 3, p. 1797-1803.



How to Cite

Angelovičová, M., Angelovič, M., Zajác, P., Čapla, J., Šaraková, K., & Čurlej, J. (2021). The effect of essential oils on cholesterol content in chicken meat. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 1069–1081.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>