The antimicrobial activity of polyfloral honey and its awareness among urban consumers in Slovakia


  • Peter Šedí­k Slovak University of Agiculture in Nitra, Faculty of Economics and Management, Center for Research and Educational projects, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 4908
  • Kristína Predanócyová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, AgroBioTech Research Centre, Trieda A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 4914
  • Elena Horská Slovak University of Agiculture in Nitra, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing and Trade, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 5179
  • Miroslava Kačániová , Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Department of Fruit Sciences, Viticulture and Enology, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia; University of Rzeszow, Institute of Food Technology and Nutrition, Department of Bioenergy, Food Technology and Microbiology, Zelwerowicza St. 4, 35601 Rzeszow, Poland, Tel. +421376414715



consumer research, consumer perception, honey consumer, antimicrobial activity, Slovak honey , honey


The current interdisciplinary research studies the antimicrobial activity of selected polyfloral kinds of honey (n = 30) against three microorganisms (gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica, and one yeast Candida krusei) as well as investigates consumer behavior and awareness towards honey healing properties. Consumer research involved 617 honey consumers living in urban areas. T-test for Equality of means, non-parametric tests, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that antimicrobial activity was found in all honey samples with a concentration of 50%. Nevertheless, better activity was obtained in honey samples from urban beekeepers compared to samples from retail stores. Results of consumer research showed that honey is mostly used as food (sweetener in beverages, ingredient in the recipe, or direct consumption) and as medicine mainly during the winter period. The consumer awareness towards honey healing effects was very high (97%), however, 1/3 of respondents were not able to list any specific examples, and only 11 % mentioned antibacterial activity. Furthermore, more than 70% of respondents did not know to explain the term “medical honey” and more than 50% of respondents are not aware of the maximum temperature used for heating honey without decreasing its biologically active compounds.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abbas, A. S., Ghozy, S., Minh, L. H. N., Hashan, M., Soliman, A., Van, N., Hirayama, K., Nguyen, H. 2019. Honey in Bronchial Asthma: From Folk Tales to Scientific Facts. Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 543-550. DOI:

Ahluwalia, M., Ahluwalia, P., Dhandapani, K. M., Vaibhav, K. 2020. Honey: A Sweet Way to Health. In Rehman, M. U., Majid, S. Therapeutic Applications of Honey and its Phytochemicals. Singapore : Springer, p. 53-80. ISBN 978-981-15-6799-5. DOI:

Al-Hatamleh, M., Hatmal, M., Sattar, K., Ahmad, S., Mustafa, M., Bittencourt, M., Mohamud, R. 2020. Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytochemicals from Honey against COVID-19: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions. Molecules, vol. 25, no. 21, p. 1-23. DOI:

Al-Jabri, A., Nzeako, B., Mahrooqi, Z., Naqdy, A., Nsanze, H. 2003. In vitro antibacterial activity of Omani and African honey. British Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 1-4. DOI:

Al-Waili, N. 2004. Investigating the Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Honey and Its Effects on the Pathogenic Bacterial Infections of Surgical Wounds and Conjunctiva. Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 210-222. DOI:

Borodin, T., Arion, F., Muresan, I. 2013. Romanian premium honey consumer’s perceptions about traceability. Agricultura – Ştiinţă şi practică, vol. 85, no. 1-2, p. 104-111.

Borowska, A. 2011. Stan i perspektywy rozwoju pszczelarstwa w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem miodów regionalnych Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW w Warszawie (The state and prospects for the development of beekeeping in Poland, with particular emphasis on regional honeys. Scientific Papers of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences.) Problemy Rolnictwa Światowego, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 37-47. (in Polish)

Buba, F., Gidado, A., Shugaba, A. 2013. Analysis of Biochemical Composition of Honey Samples from North-East Nigeria. Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 1-7. DOI:

Bucekova, M., Bugárová, V., Godocikova, J., Majtan, J. 2020. Demanding New Honey Qualitative Standard Based on Antibacterial Activity. Foods, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 1-12. DOI:

Bucekova, M., Jardekova, L., Juricova, V., Bugárová, V., Marco, G., Gismondi, A., Leonardi, D., Farkasovska, J., Godocikova, J., Laho, M., Klaudiny, J., Majtan, V., Canini, A., Majtan, J. 2019. Antibacterial Activity of Different Blossom Honeys: New Findings. Molecules, vol. 24, no. 8, p. 1-20. DOI:

Bucekova, M., Juricova, V., Di Marco, G., Gismondi, A., Leonardi, D., Canini, A., Majtan, J. 2018. Effect of thermal liquefying of crystallised honeys on their antibacterial activities. Food Chemistry, vol. 269, p. 335-341. DOI:

Bueno-Costa, F., Zambiazi, R., Bohmer, B., Chaves, F., Silva, W., Zanusso, J., Dutra, I. 2015. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of honeys from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 65, p. 333-340. DOI:

Cilia, G., Fratini, F., Marchi, M., Sagona, S., Turchi, B., Adamchuk, L., Felicioli, A., Kacaniova, M. 2020. Antibacterial Activity of Honey Samples from Ukraine. Veterinary Sciences, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 181. DOI:

Ciric, M., Ignjatijević, S., Cvijanovic, D. 2015. Research of honey consumers' behavior in province of Vojvodina. Ekonomika poljoprivrede, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 627-644. DOI:

Cosmina, M. Gallenti, G. Marangon, F., Troiano, S. 2016. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experimental approach. Appetite, vol. 99, no. 1, p. 52-58 DOI:

Da Silva, P. M., Gauche, C., Gonzaga, L. V., Costa, A. C. O. 2016. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chemistry, vol. 196, p. 309-323. DOI:

Escuredo, O., Dobre, I., Fernández-González, M., Seijo, M. C. 2014. Contribution of botanical origin and sugar composition of honeys on the crystallization phenomenon. Food Chemistry, vol. 149, p. 84-90. DOI:

Escuredo, O., Miguez, M., Fernández-González, M., Seijo-Coello, M. C. 2013. Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of honeys produced in a European Atlantic area. Food chemistry, vol. 138, no. 2-3, p. 851-856. DOI:

Escuredo, O., Seijo, M. C. 2019. Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity. Foods, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 1-3. DOI:

Gündoğdu, E., Cakmakci, S., Şat, İ. 2019. An Overview of Honey: Its Composition, Nutritional and Functional Properties. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, vol. 9, p. 10-14. DOI:

Güneş, U., Rn, İ. 2007. Effectiveness of a Honey Dressing for Healing Pressure Ulcers. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 184-190. DOI:

Gyau, A., Mayimba, C., Degrande, A., Biloso, A. 2014. Determinants of Consumer Preferences for Honey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Food Products Marketing, vol. 20, no. 5, p. 476-490. DOI:

Idrus, R., Sainik, N., Nordin, A., Saim, A., Sulaiman, N. 2020. Cardioprotective Effects of Honey and Its Constituent: An Evidence-Based Review of Laboratory Studies and Clinical Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 10, p. 1-22. DOI:

Ismaiel, S., Kahtani, S., Adgaba, N., Al-Ghamdi, A., Zulail, A. 2014. Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 5, no. 17, p. 1725-1737. DOI:

Kačániová, M., Hleba, L., Dzugan, M., Pasternakiewicz, A., Knazovická, V., Pavelková, A., . Felsöciová, S., Petrová, J., Rovná, K., Kluz, M., Grabek-Lejko, D. 2012. Microbiological properties and antimicrobial effect of slovakian and polish honey having regard to the water activity and water content. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 272-281.

Kala, C., Taleuzzaman, M., Gilani, S., Imam, S., Ali, S. 2020. Positive Influence of Honey on Human Health. In Rehman, M. U., Majid, S. Therapeutic Applications of Honey and its Phytochemicals. Singapore : Springer, p. 237-259. ISBN 978-981-15-6799-5. DOI:

Karabagias, I. K., Maia, M., Karabagias, V. K., Gatzias, I., Badeka, A. V. 2018. Characterization of Eucalyptus, Chestnut and Heather Honeys from Portugal Using Multi-Parameter Analysis and Chemo-Calculus. Foods, vol. 7, no. 12, p. 1-25. DOI:

Keskin, M., Keskin, Ş. 2021. Health-promoting benefits of honey. In Chukwuebuka, E., Abhay, P. M., Megh, R. G. Preparation of Phytopharmaceuticals for the Management of Disorders. Amsterdam, Netherland : Elsevier, p. 303-306. ISBN 9780128202852. DOI:

Khalil, M., Sulaiman, S. A. 2010. The Potential Role of Honey and its Polyphenols in Preventing Heart Diseases: A Review. AJTCAM, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 315-321. DOI:

Kopała, E., Balcerak, M., Kuźnicka, E. 2019. Survey of consumer preferences on the bee product market. Part 1. Honey. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW - Animal Science, vol. 58, no. 2, p. 153-158. DOI:

Kos Skubic, M., Erjavec, K., Klopčič, M. 2018. Consumer preferences regarding national and EU quality labels for cheese, ham and honey: The case of Slovenia. British Food Journal, vol. 120, no. 3, p. 650-664. DOI:

Krystallis, A., Petrovici, D., Arvanitoyannis, I. 2007. From Commodities to the Consumption of Quality Foods in Eastern European Context. Journal of East-West Business, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 5-37. DOI:

Kumar, K. P., Bhowmik, B., Chiranjib, C., Biswajit, B., Chandira, M. R. 2010. Medižcinal uses and health benefits of Honey: An Overview. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 385-395.

Kumar, V., Sharma, U. K., Singh, S. 2012. Marketing pattern of honey in Haryana. Annals of Agri Bio Research, vol. 17, p. 144-148.

Kwakman, P., Te Velde, A., Boer, L., Speijer, D., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C., Zaat, S. 2010. How honey kills bacteria. The FASEB Journal : The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, vol. 24, no. 7, p. 2576-2582. DOI:

Lusby, P. E., Coombes, A. L., Wilkinson, J. M. 2005. Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria. Archives of Medical Research, vol. 36, no. 5, p.464-467. DOI:

Mandal, M. D., Mandal, S. 2011. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 154-160. DOI:

Marzec, J. 2003. Wpływ struktury handlu detalicznego na miejsca dokonywania zakupów miodu przez mieszkańców Krakowa (The impact of the retail trade structure on the places where honey is purchased by the inhabitants of Krakow). Proceedings of the XL Naukowej Konferencji Pszczelarskiej. Puławy, Poland. 11-12 March 2003. p. 55-56. (in Polish)

Meo, S. A., Al-Asiri, S. A., Mahesar, A. L., Ansari, M. J. 2017. Role of honey in modern medicine. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 5, p 975-978. DOI:

Mundo, M. A., Padilla-Zakour, O. I., Worobo, R. W. 2004. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 97, no. 1, p. 1-8. DOI:

Oravecz, T., Mucha, L., Magda, R., Totth, G., Illés, C. 2020. Consumers' Preferences for Locally Produced Honey in Hungary. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 407-418. DOI:

Otero, M. C., Bernolo, L. 2020. Honey as Functional Food and Prospects in Natural Honey Production. In Egbuna, C., Dable Tupas, G. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals. 1st ed. New York, USA : Springer, p. 197-210. ISBN 978-3030423186. DOI:

Pimentel-González, D. J., Basilio-Cortes, U. A., Hernández-Fuentes, A. D., Figueira, A. C., Quintero-Lira, A., Campos-Montiel, R. G. 2015. Effect of Thermal Processing on Antibacterial Activity of Multifloral Honeys. Journal of Food Process Engineering, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 1-8. DOI:

Pocol, C. B. 2011. Modelling the honey consumption behaviour in Romania by using socio-demographic determinants. African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, p. 4069-4080.

Pocol, C. B., Bolboaca, S. 2013. Perceptions and trends related to the consumption of honey: A case study of North-West Romania. International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, p. 642-649. DOI:

Pocol, C. B., Moldovan-Teselios, C. 2012. Socio-economic determinants of honey consumption in Romania. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, vol. 10, no. 2 , p. 18-21.

Puścion-Jakubik, A., Borawska, M., Socha, K. 2020. Modern Methods for Assessing the Quality of Bee Honey and Botanical Origin Identification. Foods, vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1-21. DOI:

Ranneh, Y., Md. Akim, A., Hasiah, A., Khazaai, H., Fadel, A., Zakaria, Z., Albujja, M., Abu Bakar, M. F. 2021. Honey and its nutritional and anti-inflammatory value. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, vol. 21, no. 30, p. 1-17. DOI:

Röhr, A., Lüddecke, K., Drusch, S., Müller, M. J., Alvensleben, R. V. 2005. Food quality and safety - consumer perception and public health concern. Food Control, vol. 16, no. 8, p. 649-655. DOI:

Roman, A., Popiela-Pleban, E., Kozak, M. 2013. Factors influencing consumer behavior relating to the purchasing of honey part 1. The buying process and the level of consumption. Journal of Apicultural Science, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 159-172. DOI:

Samarghandian, S., Farkhondeh, T., Samini, F. 2017. Honey and Health: A Review of Recent Clinical Research. Pharmacognosy Research, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 121-127.

Scepankova, H., Saraiva, J. A., Estevinho, L. M. 2017. Honey Health Benefits and Uses in Medicine. In Alvarez-Suarez, J. Bee Products - Chemical and Biological Properties. New York, USA : Springer, p. 83-96. ISBN 9783319596891. DOI:

Šedík, P., Zagula, G., Ivanišová, E., Kňazovická, V., Horská, E., Kačániová, M. 2018. Nutrition marketing of honey: chemical, microbiological, antioxidant and antimicrobial profile. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 767-774. DOI:

Selmi, S., Irnad, I., Sistanto, S. 2020. Segmentation of consumers of honey and identification of honey preference in Kota Bengkulu. AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 88-97. DOI:

Ványi, G. V., Csapo, Z., Karpati, L. 2010. Honey consumption in Europe with especial regard to Hungary. In 45th Croatian & 5th International Symposium on Agriculture: Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. Opatija, Croatia : Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, p. 200-204. ISBN 978-953-6331-80-2.

Wu, S., Fooks, J., Messer, K., Delaney, D. 2015. Consumer demand for local honey. Applied Economics, vol. 47, no. 41, p. 4377-4394. DOI:

Yeow, S. H. C., Chin, T., Yeow, J., Tan, K. 2013. Consumer Purchase intentions and honey related products. Entrepreneurship Vision 2020: Innovation, Development Sustainability, and Economic Growth - Proceedings of the 20th International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2013, p. 332-345. DOI:

Żak, N. 2017. Preferencje konsumentów polskich oraz amerykańskich dotyczące spożycia miodów pszczelich (Preferences of Polish and American consumers regarding the consumption of bee honey). Marketing i Zarządzanie, vol. 2, no. 48, p. 117-130. (in Polish) DOI:



How to Cite

Šedí­k, P., Predanócyová, K. ., Horská, E., & Kačániová, M. . (2021). The antimicrobial activity of polyfloral honey and its awareness among urban consumers in Slovakia. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 467–474.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7