Composition, quality characteristics and microstructure of the grain Triticum dicoccum
Keywords:wheat, grain, composition, microstructure, antioxidant activity, technological properties
The compositional and quality characteristics of two wheat varieties Triticum dicoccum (Triticum dicoccum var. dicoccum, Triticum dicoccum var. rufum) produced in the Republic of Azerbaijan have been tested and are relatively useful in assessing their applicability to bread production. The wheat species studied, Triticum dicoccum, were found to have a higher protein and cell content, as well as essential proteins of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine, methionine and valine, relative to Gorbustan wheat varieties. The chromatographic method was used to determine the carbohydrate composition of the Triticum dicoccum grain. The following redistribution of low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions is noted: the maltose content is higher, and galactose, glucose and fructose are much lower than those of the modern wheat variety Gorbustan. Such a distribution of carbohydrates can reduce the formation of toxic products when baking bread. In addition, the wheat grain Triticum dicoccum is characterized by a higher content of sterols, in particular β-sitosterol. The antioxidant activity expressed as percentage inhibition of DPPG free radicals in the Triticum dicoccum grain is twice as high as this indicator for wheat of the commercial variety Gorbustan. By scanning electron microscopy, it has been established that the microstructure of the grain surface and the cross section has varietal characteristics. Grain Triticum dicoccum var. rufum has a thicker shell, tighter and tighter, unlike the grain of Triticum dicoccum var. dicoccum. With all the benefits of the wheat grain Triticum dicoccum, its technological properties were even worse. But the use of technological methods to boost gluten will ensure the production of high-quality healthy bread from old wheat grain.
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