Approaches to the determination of antioxidant activity of extracts from bee bread and safflower leaves and flowers
Keywords:bee bread, safflower, antioxidant activity, DPPH, phenolic compounds
The main objective of this study was to develop approaches for the determination of total antioxidant activity of natural products (bee bread and safflower extracts) using DPPH radical scavenging assay. Considering that analytical procedures and results related to this assay and reported by many authors are significally differed between each other and depend on many factors (the nature of tested extracts, the nature of solvents for extraction, a reaction time of DPPH with a sample, DPPH solvents and concentration, ratio between DPPH and an extract, etc.), the methodology of the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of different origin extracts by DPPH radical scavenging assay was developed. Ascorbic acid (AA) was used as standard antioxidant and the correlation between the percentage of DPPH scavenging and AA concentration was determined at two different initial absorbances of DPPH solution. Average concentration of AA which inhibited 50% of DPPH radicals (IC50) was equal to 156.0 - 171.26 µg.mL-1. The reaction kinetics of DPPH inhibition by bee bread and safflower extracts was described by the curves of the dependence of the total antioxidant activity on time with squared correlation coefficients (R2) in the range of 0.89 - 0.98. The reaction times for these extracts were from 40 to 70 min at the correct ratio of volumes between the tested extracts and a DPPH solution. These studies demonstrated that the extracts obtained from bee bread of 2016 year of pollen collection had significantly higher the total antioxidant activity compared with the extracts of bee bread of pollen collection of 2015 considering the ratio of bee bread and the solvent in the extracts and volume of the extract for the procedure. This fact is explained not only botanical origin bun also the time of the storage of bee bread before the preparation of extracts. There was not found significant differences in the total antioxidant activity of extracts from flowers of safflower sown in fall and in spring. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from leaves of spring sown safflower was higher compared with the total antioxidant activity of the extracts from fall sown plants. Ascorbic acid equivalents of the tested extracts could be ranged as follows: bee bread of 2016 pollen collection >bee bread of 2015 pollen collection >leaves of safflower spring sown >flowers of safflower spring sown >flowers of safflower fall sown >leaves of safflower fall sown.
Asgarpanah, J., Kazemivash, N. 2013. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, p.153-159. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1354-5 PMid:23371463 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1354-5
Baba, S. A., Malik, S. A. 2015. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoids content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii. Journal of Taibah University for Science, vol. 9, no 4, p. 449-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2014.11.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2014.11.001
Barene, I., Daberte, I., Siksna, S. 2015. Investigation of bee bread and development of its dosage forms. Medicinos teorija it practika, vol 21, no 1, p. 16-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15591/mtp.2015.003
Bogdanov, S. 2016. Pollen: Production, Nutrition and Health: A Review [online] s. a. [cit. 2017-02-01]. Available at: http://www.bee-hexagon.net.
Čeksterytė, V., Kurtinaitienė, B., Venskutonis, P. R., Pukalskas, A., Kazernavičiūtė R., Balžekas, J. 2016. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and flavonoid composition in differently preserved bee products. Czech Journal of Food Science, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 133-142. https://doi.org/10.17221/312/2015-CJFS DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/312/2015-CJFS
Brindza, J., Brovarskyi, V. 2013. Pollen and bee pollen of some plant species. Kyiv : Korsunskiy vidavnichiy dim Vsesvit, 137 p. ISBN 978-80-552-1073-5.
Brovarskij, V., Brindza, J. 2010. Včelí obnôžkový peľ. 1st ed. Kyjev : FOP I. S. Maidachenko, 290 p. ISBN 978-966-8302-31-2.
Eswaran, V. U., Bhargava, H. R. 2014. Chemical analysis and anti-microbial activity of Karnataka bee bread of apis species. World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 32, no 3, p. 379-385.
Carmona-Jiménez, Y., García-Moreno, M. V., Igartuburu, J. M., Garcia Barroso, C. 2014. Simplification of the DPPH assay for estimating the antioxidant activity of wine and wine by-products. Food Chemistry, vol. 165, p. 198-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.106 PMid:25038667 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.106
Fadda, A., Serra, M., Molinu, M. G., Azara, E., Barberis, A., Sanna, D. 2014. Reaction time and DPPH concentration influence antioxidant activity and kinetic parameters of bioactive molecules and plant extracts in the reaction with the DPPH radical. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 112-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.06.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.06.006
Gálik, B., Bíro, D., Šimko, M., Juráček, M., Capcarová, M., Kolesárová A., Rolinec, M., Toman, R., Kanka, T. 2016. The effect of dietary bee pollen intake on growth performance and biochemical indicators of rats. Acta Veterinaria Brno, vol. 85, no 1, p. 99-104. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201685010099 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201685010099
Gautam, S., Bhagyawant, S. S., Srivastava, N. 2014. Detailed study on therapeutic properties, uses and pharmacological applications of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, vol. 2, no 3, p. 5-16.
Hudz, N. I., Ivanova, R. A., Šimkova, J. 2016. Study of antioxidant activity as a stage in the development of herbal preparations. In Modern achievements of pharmaceutical technology and biotechnology: Scientific proceedings. Kharkow, Ukraine, pp.182-185.
Hudz N., Rehletska A., Filipska A., Vorobets N. 2015. Problems of standartization of bee pollen and bee bread as bioactive components. Scientific Bulletin of National University of life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Set "Technology of production and processing of livestock products", vol. 223, p. 96-103.
Ivanišová, E., Kačániová, M., Frančáková, H., Petrová, J., Hutková, J., Brovarskyi, V., Velychko, S., Adamchuk, L., Schubertová, Z., Musilová. J. 2015. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no 1, p. 592-598. https://doi.org/10.5219/558 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/558
Ivanova, P., Casian, I., Casian, A. 2016. Secondary metabolites accumulation in safflower of fall and spring sowing in the Republic of Moldova. In Sustainable utilisation of plant genetic resources for agriculture and food. Piestany, Slovak Republic : National Agricultural and Food Centre, p. 68. ISBN 978-80-89417-69-8.
Kharisova, A. V. 2014. Pharmacognostical investigation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) : dissertation theses. Russia : University of Samara. 360 p.
Kuşoğlu, E., Kahraman, S. 2015.Total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Carthamus tinctorius L. International Journal of Electronics, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering. vol. 5, no 2, p. 943-947.
Lee, J. Y., Chang, E. J., Kim, H. J., Park, J. H., Choi, S. W. 2002. Antioxidative flavonoids from leaves of Carthamus tinctorius. Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 25, no 3, p. 313-319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02976632
Matthaus, B., Ozcan, M. M., Al Juhaimi, F. Y. 2015. Fatty acid composition and tocopherol profiles of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oils. Natural Product Research, vol. 29, no 2, p. 193-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.971316 PMid:25329876 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.971316
Markievicz-Żukovska, R., Naliwajko, S. K., Bartosiuk, E., Moskwa, J., Isidorov, V., Soroczyńska, J., Borawska M. 2013. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of bee bread, and its influence on the glioblastoma cell line (U87MG). Journal of Apicultural Science, vol. 57, no 2, p. 147-157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/jas-2013-0025
Meda, A., Lamien, C. E., Romito, M., Millogo, J., Nacoulma, O. G. 2005. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemistry, vol. 91, no. 3, p. 571-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006
Nicklisch, S. C. T., Waite, J. H. 2014. Optimized DPPH assay in a detergent-based buffer system for measuring antioxidant activity of proteins. MethodsX, vol. 1, p. 233-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2014.10.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2014.10.004
Petrie, S., Machado, D., Johnson, R., Prichett, L., Rhinhart, K., Tuck, B. 2010. Adaptation and yield of spring and fall sown safflower in Northeastern Oregon. Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center Dryland Research Report 101. Oregon State University, USA. [online] s.a. [cit. 2017-02-19] Available at: http://cbarc.aes.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/adaptation_and_yield_of_spring_and_fall_sown_safflower_in_northeastern_oregon.pdf.
Anonym, 2009. Phytochemical analysis of plant raw material containing flavonoids. Chapter: Chemical analysis of medicinal plants. 2009. Methodological Guide in Pharmacognosy. Irkutsk, 67 p.
Rzepecka-Stojko, A., Stojko, J., Kurek-Górecka, A., Gorecki, M., Kabala-Dzik, A., Kubina, R., Mozdzierz, A., Buszman, E. 2015. Polyphenols from bee pollen: structure, absorption, metabolism and biological activity. Molecules, vol. 20, no 12, p. 21732-21749. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219800 PMid:26690100 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219800
Salem, N., Msaada, K., Hamdaoui, G., Limam, F., Marzouk, B. 2011. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity during flower development of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no 9, p. 4455-4463. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1049936 PMid:21434653 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1049936
Silva, G. R., Natividade, T. B., Camara, C. A., Silva, E. M. S., Assis Ribeiro dos Santos, F., Silva, T. M. S. 2014. Identification of sugar, amino acids and minerals from the pollen of Janaira Stingless Bees (Melipona subnitida). Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 5, no 11, p. 1015-1021. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2014.511112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2014.511112
Treutter, D. 2010. Managing phenol contents in crop plants by phytochemical farming and breeding - visions and constraints. International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 11, p. 807-857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11030807 PMid:20479987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11030807
Yu, S. Y., Lee, Y. J., Kim, J. D., Kang, S. N., Lee, S. K., Jang, J. Y., Lee, H. K., Lim J. H., Lee, O. H. 2013. Phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effect of hot water extract from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed. Nutrients, vol. 5, no 12, p. 4894-4907. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5124894 PMid:24288028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5124894
Yue, S., Tang, Y., Li, S., Duan, J. A. 2013. Chemical and biological properties of quinochalcone C-glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Molecules, vol. 18, no. 12, p.15220-15254. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules181215220 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules181215220
Ukrainian standard 7074:2009. 2010. Kyiv, p. 1-11 p.
Zhao, M., Ito, Y., Tu, P. 2005. Isolation of a novel flavanone 6-glucoside from the flowers of Carthamus tinctorium (Honghua) by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Journal of Chromatgraphy A, vol. 1090, no. 1-2, p. 193-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.010
Zhang, L. L., Tian, K., Tang, Z. H., Chen, X. J., Bian, Z. X., Wang, Y. T., Lu, J. J. 2016. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Carthamus tinctorius L. The Americam Journal of Chinese Mededicine, vol. 44, no 2, p. 197-226. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X16500130 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X16500130
Zhou, X., Tang, L., Xu, Y., Zhou, X., Wang, Z. 2014. Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. in traditional Chinese medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review. Ethnopharmacol, vol. 151, no 1, p. 27-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.050
Zhou, Y. Z., Ma, H. Y., Chen, H., Qiao, L., Yao, Y., Cao J. Q., Pei Y. H. 2006. New acetylenic glucosides from Carthamus tinctorius. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 54, no 10, p. 1455-1456. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.1455 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.1455
Zubkov, V. V., Milyokhin, A. V., Kurkin, V. A., Kharisova, A. V., Platonov, I. A., Pavlova, L. V. 2014. Prospects of safflower seeds oil in food and pharmaceutical industry. Bulletin of the Samara Scientific Center, vol. 16, no 53, p. 1135-1139.
Zuluaga, C. M., Serrato, J. M., Quicazan, M. C. 2015. Chemical, Nutritional and Bioactive Characterization of Colombian Bee-Bread. Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 43, p. 175-180.
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.