Morphological and organoleptic nature of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.


  • Ján Brindza Institute of Biological Conservation and biosafety, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculutre in Nitra, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Margita Karmatovská Botanical Garden Research Centre, Nova Kachovka, Sadova 1, 74900 Plodove, Kherson, Tel.: +380950844654
  • Olga Grygorieva National Botanical Gardens of Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Timiryazevska 1, 01014 Kiev
  • Vladimí­r Vietoris Department of Storing and Processing of Plant Products, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Lucia Kucelová Institute of Biological Conservation and biosafety, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculutre in Nitra, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Gabriela Erdélyová Institute of Biological Conservation and biosafety, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculutre in Nitra, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra



Jujube, Ziziphus jujuba Mill., agrophysical traits, fruit, stone, sensory analysis, dried fruit


Aim of the experiment was to determine morphological and sensory differences between selected Ziziphus jujube Mill. genotypes. For experimental study were used 19 seed  grown  genotypes planted in experimental garden of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. In our laboratories were analysed quantitative and qualitative traits of matured fruits. In the collection of genotypes were identified by morphological analysis the average weight in range from 4.68 to 0.66 grams,  length of 21.67 to 0.77 mm, and width of 16.97 to 0.67 mm. Mass weight ratio of fresh pulp to total fruit were determined in the range 57-79%. In the group of selected genotypes were identified significant differences in the pulp and pericarp pigmentation. With stones was determined the average weight in the range 0.90-0.24 g, length from 14.35-0.58 mm and width 8.32-0.34 mm. Significant differences has ben found in stones shape and color of analyzed genotypes as well. For the evaluation of sensory analysis was applied the 9 point scale. By sensory analysis were evaluated the dried fruit pulp samples of five genotypes (A, B, C, D, E) and 8 genotypes (AV, BV, CV,DV, EV, PV , GV, HV) samples of dried flesh for  60 minutes boiled in water and then extracted. Among the samples were identified significant differences in taste too. Gained experience and results can be used for expansion of jujube specific genotypes  in Slovakia with primary orientation on organic agriculture and/or for other applications in practice as well.


Download data is not yet available.


ABDEL-ZAHER, A. O., SALIM, S. Y., ASSAF, M. H., ABDEL-HADY, R. H. 2005. Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. In Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 101, 2005, no. 1-3, p. 129-138. PMid:16009520

ALI, N. A. A., JULICH, W. D., KUSNICK, C., LINDEQUIST, U. 2001. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 74, 2001, p. 173-179. PMid: 11167035

ALIEV, A. A., DZHAFAROVA, S. D., RUSTAMOVA, A. M., MEDZHIDOV, M. M. 2002. Protection of mammalian genome from the mutagenicity of styrene and aniline using the extract from unabi (Zizyphus Mill) fruit and a composite preparation. In Tsitol Genet., vol. 36, 2002, no.5, p. 26-29. PMid:12442544

AL-REZA, S. M., BAJPAI, V. K., KANG, S. C. 2009. Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba. In Food and Chemical Toxicology, vo. 47, 2007, p. 2374-2380. PMid:19563858

CISSE, A., NDIAYE, A., LOPEZ-SALL, P., SECK, F., FAYE, B. 2000. Antidiabetic activity of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). In Dakar Medical, vol. 45, 2000, p. 105-107. PMid:15779161

ECEVİT, F. M., ŞAN, B., DİLMAÇ ÜNAL, T., HALLAÇ TÜRK, F., YILDIRIM, A. N., POLAT, M., YILDIRIM, F. 2007. Selection of Superior Ber (Ziziphus jujuba L.) Genotypes in Çivril Region. In Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 14, 2008, no. 1, p. 51-56.

GAO, L., ZHOU, G. F., SHEN, G. N. 2003. New jujube varieties and their cultural techniques. In China Fruits, vol. 2, 2003, p. 38-40.

GHOSH, S. N., MATHEW, B. 2002. Performance of nine ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) cultivars on topworking in the semi-arid region of West Bengal. In Journal of Applied Horticulture, vol. 4, 2002, no. 1, p. 49-51.

GUIL-GUERRERO, J. L., DIAZ DELGADO, A., MATALLANA GONZÁLEZ, M. C., TORIJA ISASA, M. E. 2004. Fatty Acids and Carotenes in Some Ber (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) Varieties. In Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, no. 59, 2004, p. 23-27. PMid:15675148

GUPTA, M., MAZUMDER, U. K., VAMSI, M. L., SIVAKUMAR, T., KANDAR, C. C. 2004. Anti-steroidogenic activity of the two Indian medicinal plants in mice. In J Ethnopharmacol, vol. 90, 2004, no. 1, p. 21-25. PMid:14698503

HEATON, D. D. 1997. A produce reference guide to fruits and vegetables from around the world. New York : Food Products Press, 1997, p. 79. ISBN 1-56022-865-2.

INAYAT-UR-RAHMAN, ALI KHAN, M., AFRAN, M., AKHTAR, G., KHAN, L., AHMAD, V. U. 2007. A new 14-membered cyclopeptide alkaloid from Zizyphus oxyphylla. In Natural Product Research, vol. 21, 2007, no. 3, p. 243-253. PMid:17365715

JIA, Y. F., LU, R., DUAN, Y., MA, W. 2010. A New Zizyphus jujuba Cultivar 'Shiguang' (Shijiazhuang Pomology Institute, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050061, China)

JIANG, X. W., CAO, J. Q., ZENG, J. X., HUANG, F. P. 2006. Jujube cultivars trials and study on their adaptability. In South China Fruits, vol. 1, 2006, p. 51-52.

JUNG IN YOON, AL-REZA, S. M., KANG, S. C. 2010. Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. In Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, 2010, p. 1350-1354. PMid:20206225

KARNATOVSKA, M., BRINDZA, J., GRYGORIEVA, O., DEREVJANKO V., KOCHANOVA, Z., BIROVA, D. 2007. Jujube Fruit (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) Variability Determination. 1st International Scientific Conference on Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Plants. In Book of Scientific Papers and Abstracts, December 5-6, 2007, Nitra. p. 219. ISBN 987-80-8069-973-4.

KLIMENKO, S. V., GRYGORIEVA, O. V. 2008. Zizifus (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) v lesostepnej zóne na Ukrajine. Aktuálne problémy z botaniky v Arménsku. In Zborník medzinárodnej konferencie, 70. Výročie Botanickeho ústavu, Botanickej záhrady NAN RA a 90. Výročie akademika V. O. Kazariana G, 6-9 október 2008, Erevan : Ústav botaniky NAN RA, 2008, p. 378-381.

KRŠKA, B., MISHRA, S. 2009. Sensory evaluation of different products of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. 2009. I International Jujube Symposium. ISH Acta Horticulturae 840. ISBN 978-90-66055 92-6. ISSN 0567-7572. Boading, China.

KUNDI, A. H. K., WAZIR, F. K., ABDUL, G., WAZIR, Z. D. K. 1989. Physico-chemical characteristics and organoleptic evaluation of different ber (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) cultivars. In Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 5, 1989, no. 2, p. 149-155.

LANG, X. C., LI, M. X., JIA, B. Y., WU, S. X., LI, L. F., ZHAO, S. Y. 1988. Effects of the seeds of Ziziphus spinosa hu on the immune function of mice. In Zhong Yao Tong Bao, vol. 13, 1988, no. 11, p. 43-45. PMid:3242941

LEE, S. M., PARK, J. G., LEE, Y. H., LEE, C. G., MIN, B. S., KIM, J. H., LEE, H. K. 2004. Anti-complementary activity of triterpenoides from fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. In Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 27, 2004, no. 11, p. 1883-1886. PMid:15516743

LIAU, B. C., JONG, T. T., LEE, M. R., CHANG, C. M. 2007. Supercritical fluid extraction and quantification of aflatoxins in Zizyphi Fructus by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In Rapid Comunications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 21, 2007, no. 5, p. 667-673. PMid:17279608

MACIUK, A., GHEDIRA, K., THEPENIER, P., LAVAUD, C., ZECHES-HANROT, M. 2003. A new flavonol glycoside from leaves of Zizyphus lotus. In Pharmazie, vol. 58, 2003, no. 2, p. 158-159. PMid:12641340

MAREČEK, F. et al. 2001. Zahradnický slovník naučný 5 R-Ž. Praha: Ústav zemědelských a potravinářských informací. 2001. p. 174-175. ISBN 80-7271-075-3.

PARK, J. H., LEE, H. J., KOH, S. B., BAN, J. Y., SEONG, Y. H. 2004. Protection of NMDA-induced neuronal cell damage by methanol extract of zizyphi spinosi semen in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. In Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 95, 2004, no. 1, p. 39-45. PMid:15374605

PRASAD, R. N. 2005. Effect of N and P on growth, yield and quality of ber grown under rainfed conditions of Indian arid zone. In Indian Journal of Horticulture, vol. 62, 2005, no. 4, p. 404-406.

SINGH, S., PANDEY, M. B., SINGH, J. P., PANDEY, V. B. 2006. Peptide alkaloids from Zizyphus sativa bark. In Journal of Asian Natural Products, vol. 8, 2006, no. 8, p. 733-737. PMid:17145662

SINKO, L. T. 1976. Rastit Resur. 12, 303 (1976).

SIVAKOV, L., GEORGIEV, D., RISTEVSKI, B., MITRESKI, Z. 1988. Pomological and technological characteristics of Chinese jujube (Zyziphus jujuba) in Macedonia, 1998. In Jugoslovensko Vocarstvo, vol. 22, 1998, no. 4, p. 387-392.

SUKSMARARN, S., PANSEETA, P., KUNCHANAWATTA, S., DISTAPORN, T., RUKTASING, S., SUKSMARARN, A. 2006. Ceanothane- and lupane-type triterpenes with antiplasmodial and antimycobacterial activities from Ziziphus cambodiana. In Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 54, 2006, no. 4, p. 535-537. PMid:16595959

ZHANG, L., LIU, J., LI, Z., ZHAI, Y., SUN, X., MIAO, F., XIAO, J. 2011. Selection of Jujube variety Cangjin NO.1 in cracking resistance of high quality. In Hebei Journal of Forestry and Orchard Research, 2011.

ZHAO, J., LI, S. P., YANG, F. Q., LI, P., WANG, Y. T. 2006. Simultaneous determination of saponins and fatty acids in Ziziphus jujuba (Suanzaoren) by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and pressurized liquid extraction. In Journal of Chromatography, vol. 1108, 2006, no. 2, p. 188-194. PMid:16458908

WU, S. X., LANG, X. C., JIA, B. Y., ZHAO, S. X., LI, M. X., LAN, M. Y. 1989. Effects of Ziziphus spinosa Hu on serum lipoprotein and experimental atherosclerosis. In Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol. 14, 1989, no. 7, p. 434-451, 448. PMid:2610883

WU, Y., DING, A., BAO, B. 2005. Studies on the extraction and purification of total saponins from Parched Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. In Zhong Yao Cai, vol. 28, 2005, no. 3, p. 219-223. PMid:16107032




How to Cite

Brindza, J. ., Karmatovská, M. ., Grygorieva, O. ., Vietoris, V. ., Kucelová, L. ., & Erdélyová, G. . (2011). Morphological and organoleptic nature of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 5(4), 1–11.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>