The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles


  • Mária Angelovičová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Marieta Semivanová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra



iodine, broiler chicken, body weight, breast muscle, protein, fat


Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of  Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04  mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of  the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0,1 g. The breast muscles were analyzed for selected indicators according to the methodology for analytical laboratories (2009). The data were evaluated according to the basic statistical characteristics. The differences in the values of indicators between groups were evaluated by the SAS system program by t-test. The broiler chickens that were included in the experiment were first grade with a balanced average weight of 42 g. Statistical evaluation   of body weight of the broiler chickens at the beginning of the experiment results in not significant difference between the control group and the experimental group – iodine supplement. Average body weight of the chickens was 2183.06 g at end of experiment in the group with the addition of iodine compared to 2145.21 g in control group with a statistically not significant difference (P>0.05). Average weight of the breast muscles was 426.83 g in the group with the addition of iodine compared to 412.11 g in control group with a statistically not significant difference (P>0.05). Average dry matter content    in the breast muscles was 26.13 g per 100 g in the group with the addition of iodine compared to 26.25 g per 100 g in control group with a statistically not significant difference (P>0.05). Average protein contents in breast muscles was 23.63 g per 100 g in the group with the addition of iodine compared to 23.31 g per 100 g in control group with a statistically not significant difference (P>0.05). Average fat contents in breast muscles was 1.05 g per 100 g in the group with the addition of iodine compared to 0.88 g per 100 gin control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The results of the experiment indicated some tendency of the positive effect of the feed mixtures with iodized oil on the quality of production of broiler chickens. Based on results, further research was recommended.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Albuquerque, R., Faria, D. E., Junqueira, O. M., Salvador, D., Faria Filho, D. E., RIZZO, M. F. 2003. Effect of energy level in finisher diets and slaughter age of on the performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens. Review. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 99-104. DOI:

Angelovičová, M., Mrázová, Ľ., Kliment, M., Tkačová, J., Král, M., Alfaig, E. 2012. The Effect of Iodine in Various Forms on the Content of Selected Essential Amino Acids and Their Accumulation into the Broilers Chest Muscles. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 1-6. DOI:

Anke, M., Wenk, G., Heinrich, H., Groppel, B., Bauch, K. 1989. Die Wirkung jodierter Mineralstoffmischungen für Rind und Schwein auf die Jodversorgung und Strumaprophylaxe. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 41-44.

Asadi, H., Eila, N., Shivazad, M., Zarei, A., Akbari, N. 2012. Effect of different calcium iodate levels on performance, carcass traits and concentration of thyroid hormones in broiler chickens. Annals of Biological Research, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 2223-2227.

Azizi, F., Smyth, P. 2009. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 70, no. 5, p. 803-809. DOI:

Baker, D. 2004. Iodine Toxicity and Its Amelioration. Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 229, no. 6, p. 473-478. PMid:15169965 DOI:

Borkovcová, I., Řehůřková, I. 2001. Study of iodine exposure sources in foodstuffs (in Czech). Report of the National Institute of Public Health, vol. 6, p. 5-80.

Březina, P., Hrabě, J. Komár, A. 2001. Technologie, zbožíznalství a hygiena potravin. 1. ed. Vyškov : Vysoká vojenská škola pozemního vojska. 144 p. ISBN 80-7157-253-8.

Corzo, A., Kidd, M. T., Burnham, D. J., Miller, E. R., Branton, S. L., Gonyales-Eequerra, R. 2005. Dietary amino acid density effects on growth and carcass of broilers differing in strain cross and sex. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 14, p. 1-9. DOI:

Čepulienė, R., Bobinienė, R., Sirvydis, V., Gudavičiūtė, D., Miškinienė, M., Kepalienė, I. 2008. Effect of Stabile Iodine Preparation on the Quality of Poultry Products. Veterinarija ir zootechnika, vol. 42, no. 64, p. 38-43.

D-A-CH. 2008. Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr : Jod. Frankfurt a. M. : Umschau Braus Verlag. p. 179-184.

De Benoist, B., Andersson, M., Egli, I., Takkouche, B., Allen, H. 2004. Iodine status worldwide. Geneva : WHO. 58 p.

De Benoist, B., Mclean, E., Anderson, M., Rogers, L. 2008. Iodine deficiency in 2007 : Global progress made since 2003. Journal of Food Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 195-202. PMid:18947032 DOI:

Deutsche gesellschaft für ernährung. 2011. Referenční hodnoty pro příjem živin. 1. ed. Praha : Společnost pro výživu. 192 p. ISBN 978-80-254-6987-3.

Dvořáková, M., Bílek, R., Čeřovská, J., Hill, M., Novák, Z., Vavrejnová, V., Vlček, P. Vrbková, J., Zikmund, J. 2007. Štítná žláza od minulosti k současnosti u dětské a dospělé populace v České republice. Diabetologie, metabolismus, endokrinilogie, výživa, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 43-48.

EFSA. 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iodine compounds (E2) as feed additives for all animal species: calcium iodate anhydrous and potassium iodide, based on a dossier submitted by Ajay Europe SARL. EFSA Journal, vol. 11 no. 2, 34 p. DOI:

European Commission. 2002. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) on the on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Iodine. Brussels : EC. 25 p.

European Commission. 2005. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1459/2005 amending the conditions for authorisation of a number of feed additives belonging to the group of trace elements. Official Journal of the European Union, vol. 233, p. 8-10.

FAO/WHO. 2004. Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition. China: Sun Fung. 341 p. ISBN 92-4-154612-3.

Feng, X., Jiang, Y., Meltzer, P., Yen, P. M. 2000. Thyroid hormone regulation of hepatic genes in vivo detected by complementary DNA microarray. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 14, no. 7, p. 947-965. PMid:10894146 DOI:

Grofová, Z. 2007. Nutriční podpora (praktický rádce pro sestry). 1. ed. Praha : Grada publishing. 248 p. ISBN 978-80-247-1868-2.

Haščík, P., Kačániová, M., Čuboň, J., Bobko, M., Nováková, I., Vavrišinová, K., Arpášová, H., Mihok, M. 2009. Vplyv aplikácie lactobacillus fermentum na chemické zloženie mäsa kurčiat Ross 308. Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica, special issue, p. 197-205.

Herzig, I., Písaříkova, B., Kursa, J., Říha, J. 1999. Defined iodine intake and changes of its concentration in urine and milk of dairy cows. Veterinární medicína, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 35-40.

Hetzel, B. S. 1983. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication. The Lancet, vol. 322, no. 8359, p. 1126-1129. PMid:6138653 DOI:

Herzig, I., Trávniček, J., Kursa, J., Kroupová, V., Řezniček, J. 2007. Content of Iodine in Broiler Meat. Acta veterinary, vol. 76, no. 1, p. 137-141. 10.2754/avb200776010137 DOI:

Kaufmann, S., Wolfram, G., Delange, F., Rambeck, W. A. 1998. Iodine supplementation of laying hen feed : A supplementary measure to eliminate iodine deficiency in humans? Zeitschrift for Ernährungswiss, vol. 37, no. 3, p. 288-293. ISSN 1436-6207. DOI:

Laurberg, P., Nøhr, S. B., Pedersen, K. M., Hreidarsson, A. B., Andersen, S., Pedersen, I. B., Knudsen, N., Perrild, H., Jørgensen, T., Ovesen, L. 2000. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 951-963. PMid:11128722 DOI:

Maroufyan, E., Kermanshahi, H. 2006. Effect of Different Levels of Rapeseed Meal Supplemented with Calcium Iodate on Performance, Some Carcass Traits and Thyroid Hormones of Broiler Chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 5, no. 11, p. 1073-1078. 10.3923/ijps.2006.1073.1078 DOI:

Mc Dowell, L. R. 2003. Minerals in animal and human nutrition. 2nd edition. Amsterdam : Elsevier health Sciences. 660 p. ISBN 978-0-444-51367-0.

Medveď, J., Angelovičová, M. 2010. Protein and fat in breast muscules of broilers in application welfare principles in practical conditions. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 50-52. DOI:

Metodiky k analytickým laboratořím. 2009. UTB, Zlín.

Mindell, E. 2000. Vitamínová bible pro 21. Století. Praha : Knižní klub. 304 p. ISBN 80-242-0406-1.

Nikolova, N., Pavlovsky, Z. 2009. Major carcass parts of broiler chicken from different genotype, sex, age and nutrition system. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, vol. 25, no. 5-6, p. 1045-1054.

Pípek, P. 1995. Technologie masa I. 3rd. edition. Praha : VŠCHT. 334 p. ISBN 80-7080-174-3.

Röttger, A. S., Halle, I., Wagner, H., Breves, G., Flachowsky, G. 2011. The effect of various iodine supplementation and two different iodine sources on performance and iodine concentrations in different tissues of broilers. British Poultry Science, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 115-123. PMid:21337206 DOI:

Ryšavá, L. 2001. Trendy v saturaci dětské populace jódem v okrese Frýdek-Místek : doktorská disertační práce. Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého, Lékařská fakulta. 58 p.

Ryšavá, L. 2010. Jód je nezbytný pro zdraví - máme ho dnes dostatek? In Zásobení jódem a prevence tyreopatií se zaměřením na období těhotenství a kojení : IX. konference u příležitosti Dne jódu [online]. Praha : SZU. p. 36. Available at: _konference_Jod_2010.pdf.

Siegel, P. B. 1984. Factors influencing excessive fat deposition in meat poultry. 1. Genetics : XVII Worlds Poultry Congress. Helsinki. p. 51-52.

Simeonovová, J., Míková, K., Kubišová, S., Ingr, I. 1999. Technologie drůbeže, vajec a minoritních živočišných produktů. 1. ed. Brno : Mendlova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita. 246 p. ISBN 80-7157-405-8.

Stanbury, J. B., Ermans, A. E., Bourdoux, P., Todd, C., Oken, E., Tonglet, R., Vidor, G., Braverman, L. E., Medeiros-Neto, G. 1998. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism: Occurrence and epidemiology. Thyroid [online], vol. 8, no. 1, p. 83-100. PMid:9492158 DOI:

Stanley, V. G., Bailey, J. E., Krueger, W. F. 1989. Effects of Iodine-Treated Water on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Reared Under Various Stocking Densities. Poultry Science, vol. 68, no. 3, p. 435-437. PMid: 2704701 DOI:

Steinhauser, R, L., Beneš, J., Ingr, I. 2000. Produkce masa. 1.ed. Tišnov : LAST. 464 p. ISBN 80-900260-7-9.

Suchý, P., Jelínek, P., Straková, E. 2002. Chemické složení svaloviny masných hybridů brojlerových kuřat při prodlouženém výkrmu. Czech Journal of Animal Science, vol. 47, no. 12, p. 511-518.

Szalkowska, H., Meller, Z. 1997. The influence of age and genotype on the quality and tachnological suitability of from chicken broilers. Poultry Meat Quality, p. 78-82.

Velíšek, J. 2002. Chemie potravin 2. 2. ed. Tábor : OSSIS. 303 p. ISBN 80-86659-01-1.

Vyhláška Mze CZ č. 264/2003, Sb., kterou se mění vyhláška č. 326/2001 Sb., kterou se provádí § 18 písm. a), d), g), h), i) a j) zákona č. 110/1997 Sb., o potravinách a tabákových výrobcích a o změně a doplnění některých souvisejících zákonů, ve znění pozdějších předpisů, pro maso, masné výrobky, ryby, ostatní vodní živočichy a výrobky z nich, vejce a výrobky z nich.

Yahav, S., Straschnow, A., Plavnik, I., Hurwitz, S. 1996. Effects of diurnal cyclic versus constant temperatures on chicken growth and food intake. Journal of British Poultry Science, vol. 37, no. 1, p. 43-54. PMid: 8833526 DOI:

Zamrazil, V. 2004. Problematika optimální saturace jodem. In Diabetologie, metabolismus, endokrinilogie, výživa, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 27-31.

Zamrazil, V. 2007. Profylaxe jodového deficitu a problematika s ní spojená. Diabetologie, metabolismus, endokrinologie, výživa, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 53-55.

WHO. 2009. Iodine and inorganic iodides: human health aspects. Stuttgart : WHO Press. 53 p. ISBN 978-92-4-153072-9.




How to Cite

Angelovičová, M. ., & Semivanová, M. . (2013). The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 7(1), 111–119.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >> 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.