Thermo-degradative changes of rapeseed and sunflower oils during deep-frying French fries
Keywords:plant oil, deep-frying, total polar compound, peroxide and acid value, fatty acid methyl ester, oil deterioration
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in TPCs, acid value and peroxide value as well as fatty acids composition in edible oils during french fries production. Lower TPCs content was found in rapeseed oil (3.3%) and the threshold (24%) was achieved on the fourth day. The total time for the deterioration of deep-frying rapeseed oil was 23½ hours. On the contrary, in fresh sunflower oil at the first day was TPCs content 5.5% and the limit of 24% was reached on the third day. The total time for the deterioration of deep-frying sunflower oil was 17½ hours. The results indicated significant differences (<0.05) in TPCs content between rapeseed and sunflower oils during deep-frying process. At the beginning of deep-frying French fries in rapeseed oil, the acid number was 0.374 mg KOH.g-1 and 1.271 mg KOH.g-1 at the fourth day of deep-frying. The measured peroxide value was 4.3 mEq O2.kg-1 at the beginning and at the end of deep-frying 10.5 mEq O2.kg-1. The initial peroxide and acid values were higher in sunflower oil compared with rapeseed oil, respectively. It should be note, then the acid values and peroxide values, respectively, in the two fresh oils used in this study were below the limit of refined oil according to Slovak legislation (peroxide value - not more than 10 mEq O2.kg-1, acid value - not more than 0.6 mg KOH.g-1). However, detected values varied during deep-frying process. Monounsaturated fatty acids were predominantly observed in fresh rapeseed oil (61.22%) wherever in sunflower oil they were much lower (29.77%). A slight increase of MUFA was found in both oils. The initial content of saturated fatty acids in rapeseed oil was 6.94%, in fresh sunflower oil was observed slightly higher content of SFA (10.37%). The major groups of fatty acids in fresh sunflower oil were polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have in principle a significant effect on oil deterioration. A slight decrease of PUFA was observed in both oils throughout the frying period. The content of PUFA was reduced by about 9.42% in rapeseed oil and by 10.8% in sunflower oil. The initial content was 28.14% and 58.91%, respectively.
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