Milk thistle flour effect on dough rheological properties


  • Tatiana Bojňanská Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Technology and Quality of Plant Products, Trieda A. linku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.:+421376414703
  • Alena Vollmannová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trieda A. linku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.:+421376414374
  • Janette Musilová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trieda A. linku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.:+421376414606



wheat-rye-milk thistle composite, Chopin protocol, rheofermentometer, bread quality


The influence of the addition of partially defatted milk thistle seed flour was studied by analyzing the rheological properties of dough in order to further exploit the functionality of partially defatted milk thistle flour in bakery products. The rheological properties of dough were monitored using Mixolab 2 (Chopin Technologies, France). A rheofermentometer F4 (Chopin Technologies, France) was used to check the dough fermentation, and for the baking trials wheat flour, rye flour, and milk thistle flour were kept in the portion: 50:50:0 (control flour); 50:45:5; 50:40:10 and 50:35:15. The addition of different milk thistle flour in the mixtures resulted in a difference in the viscoelastic properties of the dough. The results showed a weakening of the gluten network in all trial mixtures evaluated. The dough development time values of the control flour were 1.20 min, while an addition of milk thistle flour in portions of 5, 10, and 15% increased these values to 1.30 min, 1.90 min, and 2,80 min, respectively. In addition to higher dough development time values, all trial mixtures exhibited also higher stability (5.07 min; 6.25 min and 8.03 min), when compared to the control flour (4.63 min). The trial mixture with 15% milk thistle flour had different characteristics of gelatinization and retrogradation. The rheofermentometer measured the dough characteristics during proofing, and the trial mixtures with the addition of MTF had a retention volume at approximately the same level as the control flour (WRF). The Volscan profiler was used to determine the bread volume and other parameters. All breads had high volume and specific volume values and can be rated as good, with good porosity and ratio. Mixtures containing 5%, 10% and 15% milk thistle flour added to wheat flour + rye flour maintained rheological parameters within the recommended limits for good technological behavior and, consequently, good quality of bakery products. From all of the above data, it can be stated that, with regard to their baking characteristics, these flour mixtures fall into the category of flours suitable for bakery products.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


AACC. 2000. Approved Methods of Analysis, 11th Edition – AACC Method 89-01.01. Cereals  Grains Association. Yeast Activity, Gas Production. Available at:

Abenavoli, L., Izzo, A. A., Milić, N., Cicala, C., Santini, A., Capasso, R. 2018. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum): A concise overview on its chemistry, pharmacological, and nutraceutical uses in liver diseases. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 2202-2213. DOI:

Anthony, K., Subramanya, G., Uprichard, S., Hammouda, F., Saleh, M. 2013. Antioxidant and Anti-Hepatitis C Viral Activities of Commercial Milk Thistle Food Supplements. Antioxidants, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 23-36. DOI:

Apostol, L., Iorga, S., Mosoiu, C., Racovita, R. C., Niculae, O. M., 2017. The effects of partially defatted milk thistle (Silibum marianum) seed flour on wheat flour. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Agriculture & Food, vol. 5, p.74-84.

Biedermann, D., Vavříková, E., Cvak, L., Křen, V. 2014. Chemistry of silybin. Natural Product Reports, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 1138-1157. DOI:

Bijak, M. 2017. Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.) – Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism. Molecules, vol. 22, no. 11, 11 p. DOI:

Bortlíková, V., Kolarič, L., Šimko, P. 2019. Application of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in functional biscuits formulation. Acta Chimica Slovaca, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 192-199, DOI:

Bosch-Barrera, J., Menendez, J. A. 2015. Silibinin and STAT3: A natural way of targeting transcription factors for cancer therapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 41, no. 6, p. 540-546. DOI:

Çeribaşı, S., Türk, G., Özçelik, M., Doğan, G., Çeribaşı, A. O., İflazoğlu Mutlu, S., Erişir, Z., Güvenç, M., Güngören, G., Acısu, T. C., Akarsu, S. A., Özer Kaya, S., Sönmez, M., Yüce, A., Çiftçi, M., Çambay, Z., Bağcı, E., Azman, M. A, Şimşek, Ü. G. 2020. Negative effect of feeding with high energy diets on testes and metabolic blood parameters of male Japanese quails, and positive role of milk thistle seed. Theriogenology, vol. 144, p. 74-81. DOI:

Choe, U., Li, Y., Gao, B., Yu, L., Wang, T. T. Y., Sun, J., Chen, P., Yu, L. 2019. The chemical composition of a cold-pressed milk thistle seed extract, and its potential health beneficial properties. Food & Function, vol. 10, no. 5, p. 2461-2470. DOI:

Dapčević-Hadnađev, T., Dokić, L. P., Hadnađev, M. S., Pojić, M. M., Torbica, A. M. 2014. Rheological and Breadmaking Properties of Wheat Flours Supplemented with Octenyl Succinic Anhydride-Modified Waxy Maize Starches. Food and Bioprocess Technology, vol. 7, p. 235-247. DOI:

Dapčevič-Hadnađev, T., Pojić, M., Hadnađev, M., Torbica, A. 2011. The Role of Empirical Rheology in Flour Quality Control. In Akyar, I. Wide Spectra of Quality Control. London, UK : IntechOpen, 546 p. ISBN 978-953-307-683-6. DOI:

El-haak, M. A., Atta, B. M., Abd Rabo, F. F. 2015. Seed yield and important seed constituents for naturally and cultivated milk thistle (Silibum marianum) plants. The Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology (Botany), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 141-146.

Eskandari Nasrabadi, S., Ghorbani, R., Moghaddam, P. R., Mahallati, M. N. 2014. Phenological response of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.) to different nutrition systems. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 148-151. DOI:

Fendri, L. B., Chaari, F., Maaloul, M., Kallel, F., Abdelkafi, L., Chaabouni, S. E., Ghribi-Aydi, D. 2016. Wheat bread enrichment by pea and broad bean pods fibers: Effect on dough rheology and bread quality. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 73, p. 584-591. DOI:

Gao, J., Lyn Tay, S., Hui Si Koh, A., Zhou, W. 2017. Dough and bread made from high- and low-protein flours by vacuum mixing: Part 2. Yeast activity, dough proofing and bread quality. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 77, p. 275-293. DOI:

Jedlinszki, N., Kálomista, I., Galbács, G., Czupor, D. 2016. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) products in Wilson´s disease: a treatment or a threat? Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 157-159. DOI:

Jirsa, O., Hrušková, M., Švec, I., 2007. Bread features evaluation by NIR analysis. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 25, p. 243-248. DOI:

Kaur, A., Shevkani, K., Katyal, M., Singh, N., Ahlawat, A. K., Singh, A. M. 2016. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 2127-2138. DOI:

Kohajdova, Z., Karovicova, J., Jurasova, M., Kukurova, K. 2011. Effect of the addition of commercial apple fibre powder on the baking and sensory properties of cookies. Acta Chimica Slovaca, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 88-97. Available at:

Kondakci, T., Wenjuan Zhang, J., Zhou, W. 2015 Impact of Flour Protein Content and Freezing Conditions on the Quality of Frozen Dough and Corresponding Steamed Bread. Food and Bioprocess Technology, vol. 8, p. 1877-1889. DOI:

Kvasnička, F., Bíba, B., Ševčík, R., Voldřich, M., Krátká, J. 2003. Analysis of the active components of silymarin. Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 990, no. 1-2, p. 239-245. DOI:

Li, F., Yang, L., Zhao, T., Zhao, J., Zou, Y., Wu, X. 2012. Optimization of enzymatic pretreatment for n-hexane extraction of oil from Silybum marianum seeds using response surface methodology. Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 90, no. 2, p. 87-94. DOI:

Menasra, A., Fahloul, D. 2019. Quality characteristics of bisquit prepared from wheat and milk thistle seeds (Silybum marianum (L) GAERTN) flour. Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 5-19. DOI:

Rahal, N. B., Barba, F. J., Barth, D., Chevalot, I. 2015. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 83, p. 275-282. DOI:

Rosell, C. M., Collar, C., Haros, M. 2007. Assessment of hydrocolloid effects on the thermos-mechanical properties of wheat using the Mixolab. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 452-462. DOI:

Saad-Allah, K. M., Fetouh, M. I., Elhaak, M. A. 2017. Induction of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn) growth and phytochemicals production by natural stimulants. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, vol. 6, p. 101-110. DOI:

Salomone, F., Godos, J., Zelber-Sagi, S. 2016. Natural antioxidants for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular and clinical perspectives. Liver International, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 5-20. DOI:

Schmiele, M., Ferrari Felisberto, M. H., Pedrosa Silva Clerici, M. T., Chang, Y. K. 2017. MixolabTM for rheological evaluation of wheat flour partially replaced by soy protein hydrolysate and fructooligosaccharides for bread production. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 76, p. 259-269. DOI:

Shahat Mohamed, S., Hassein Ahmed, S., Hady Essam, A. 2016. Preparation of Bread Supplemented with Milk Thistle Flour and its Effect on Acute Hepatic Damage Caused by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 531-540.

Surai, P. F. 2015. Silymarin as a Natural Antioxidant: An Overview of Current Evidence and Perspectives. Antioxidants, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 204-247. DOI:

Švec, I., Hrušková, M. 2015. The Mixolab parameters of composite wheat/hemp flour and their relation to quality features. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 623-629. DOI:

Torbica, A., Belović, M., Tomić, J. 2019. Novel breads of non-wheat flours. Food Chemistry, vol. 282, p. 134-140. DOI:

Tuğba-Çelik, H., Gürü, M. 2015. Extraction of oil and silybin compounds from milk thistle seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 100, p. 105-109. DOI:

Wang, L., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E. M., Blunder, M., Liu, X., Malainer, C., Blazevic, T., Schwaiger, S., Rollinger, J. M., Heiss, E. H., Schuster, D., Kopp, B., Bauer, R., Stuppner, H., Dirsch, V. M., Atanasov, A. G. 2014. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review. Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 92, no. 1, p. 73-89. DOI:

Ziobro, R., Witczak, T., Juszczak, L., Korus, J. 2013. Supplementation of gluten-free bread with non-gluten proteins. Effect on dough rheological properties and bread characteristic. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 32, no. 2, p. 213-220. DOI:



How to Cite

Bojňanská, T., Vollmannová, A., & Musilová, J. (2020). Milk thistle flour effect on dough rheological properties. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 788–797.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 > >>