Garlic (Allium sativum L.) - the content of bioactive compounds
Keywords:antioxidant activity, garlic, sulfur compounds, total polyphenols
Genus Allium belongs to the family Alliaceae, which contains more than 600 species. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the most popular food ingredient widely used all over the world. During the last few decades, garlic has received tremendous attention for their wide range of therapeutic properties and great health benefits. Garlic has possessed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, antioxidant, anticholesteremic, anti-cancerous, and vasodilator characteristics. In this work the total polyphenols content, total sulfur content and antioxidant activity was compared and evaluated in four studied varieties of garlic (Mojmír, Lukan, Záhorský and Makoi). The analyzed samples of garlic were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area Bardejov. The total polyphenols content was measured using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. The total polyphenols content in studied varieties of garlic were determined in the range 612.23 mg.kg-1 (Mojmír) to 566.01 mg.kg-1 (Lukan). The total polyphenols content in garlic can be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Makoi >Záhorský >Lukan. The determination of the total sulfur content is based on dry combustion in the presence of oxygen and allows for the quantitative conversion of sulfur to SO2. Statistically significant highest level of total sulfur content was recorded in 0.638% (Mojmír) and the lowest level was in 0.421% (Makoi). According to determined values of total sulfur content the studied varieties of garlic can be arranged in the following order: Mojmír >Lukan >Záhorský >Makoi. Antioxidant activity was determined by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl). The highest value of antioxidant activity was measured in Mojmír (15.24%). The lowest level was observed in Makoi (11.73%). The antioxidant activity in garlic declined in the following order: Mojmír >Lukan >Záhorský >Makoi. In all studied samples of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the total polyphenols content, total sulfur content and antioxidant activity.
Act No. 220/2004 Coll. Of Laws of Slovak Republic. On the conservation and use of agricultural land, amending the Act No. 245/2003 Coll. on integrated pollution prevention and control, amending and supplementing of certain acts, as amended.
Bayili, R. G., Abdoul-Latif, F., Kone, O. H., Diao, M., Bassole, I. H. N., Dicko, M. H. 2011. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in some fruits and vegetables from Burkina Faso. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 62, p. 13543-13547.
Benkeblia, N. 2005. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 753-759. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132005000600011
Benkeblia, N., Lanzotti, V. 2007. Allium Thiosulfinates: chemistry, biological properties and their potential utilization in food preservation. Food, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 193-201.
Bisen, P. S., Emerald, M. 2016. Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Garlic and Onion (Allium sp.). Current Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 190-199. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573401312666160608121954
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Boonpeng, S., Siripongvutikorn, S., Sae-Wong, Ch., Sutthirak, P. 2014. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts. Food Science & Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 792-801. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.164 PMid:25493198
Capasso, A. 2013. Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L. Molecule, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 690-700. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18010690 PMid:23292331
Chekki, R. Z., Snoussi, A., Hamrouni, I., Bouzouita, N. 2014. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and ethanol extract. Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 947-956. https://doi.org/10.13171/mjc.3.4.2014.09.07.11
Chen, S., Shen, X., Cheng, S., Li, P., Du, J., Chang, Y., Meng, H. 2013. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties. Plos One, vol. 8, no. 11, p. e79730. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079730 PMid:24232741
Choi, S., Cha, H. S., Lee, Y. S. 2014. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic. Molecules, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 16811-16823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016811 PMid:25335109
Dalaram, I. S. 2016. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in varieties of onion and garlic. Potravinárstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 444-451. https://doi.org/10.5219/658
Kavalcová, P., Bystrická, J., Tomáš, J., Karovičová, J., Kuchtová, V. 2014. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in onion, garlic and leek. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 272-276. https://doi.org/10.5219/394
Lachman, J., Proněk, D., Hejtmanková, A., Dudjak, J., Pivec, V., Faitová, K. 2003. Total polyphenol and main flavonoid antioxidant in different onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties. Horticultural Science, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 142-147. https://doi.org/10.17221/3876-HORTSCI
Lachowicz, S., Kolniak-Ostek, J., Oszmiański, J., Wiśniewski, R. 2016. Comparison of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Bear Garlic (Allium ursinum L.) in Different Maturity Stages. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 95-129.
Lenková, M., Bystrická, J., Vollmannová, A., Tóth, T., Kovarovič, J. 2017. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Potravinárstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 65-70.
Mahmutovic, O., Mujic, E., Toromanovic, J., Mustovic, F., Muradic, S., Huseinovic, S., Sofic, E. 2009. Comparative analysis of total phenols and sulfur content in some plant organs of ramsons and two garlic species. Planta Medica, vol. 75, p. 43. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1234522
Mahmutovic, O., Tahirovic, I., Copra, A., Karic, L. 2014. Correlation of Total Secondary Sulfur Compounds, Total Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in the Ramsons and Garlic. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 4, no. 23, p. 2662-2669. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJPR/2014/13977
Manjunathagowda, D. C., Gopal, J., Archana, R., Asiya, K. R. 2017. Virus-Free Seed Production of Garlic (Allium sativum L): Status and Prospects. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 2446-2456.
Martins, N., Petropoulos, S., Ferreira, I. C. 2016. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review. Food Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 211, p. 41-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.029
Mills, S., Bone, K., Phyto, D. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. 1st ed. USA : Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, p. 704. ISBN 9870443071713.
Mitek, M., Gasik, A. 2007. Polyphenols in food. The antioxidant properties. Przemysł Spozywczy, vol. 9, p. 36-44.
Muradic, S., Karacic, D., Mahmutovic, O., Mutovic, F., Sofic, E., Kroyer, G. 2010. Total sulphur and organosulphur and organosulphur compounds in garlic and ramsons plant organs at the end of vegetative period. Planta Medica, vol. 76, p. 292. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1264590
Narendhirakannan, R. T., Rajeswari, K. 2010. In vitro antioxidant properties of three varieties of Allium sativum L. extracts. Journal of Chemistry, vol. 7, p. 573-579.
Osman, S. A. M., Ata, A. T. M., El-Hak, S. E.H. G. 2007. Morphological, germination, bolting and cytogenetical characteristics of fourteen promising garlic genotypes. African Crop Science Society, vol. 8, p. 2005-2012.
Oszmianski, J., Kolniak-Ostek, J., Wojdyło, A. 2013. Characterization and content of flavonol derivarives of Allium ursinum L. plant. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 1, p. 176-184. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf304268e PMid:23249145
Rai, Ch., Bhattacharjee, S., Nandi, N., Bhattacharyya, S. 2015. Influence of blanching on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of raw garlic (Allium sativum). Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 1071-1076.
Ramkissoon, J. S., Mahomoodally, M. F., Ahmed, N., Subratty, A. H. 2012. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potencial, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices. Journal of Medical Food, vol. 15, no. 12, p. 1116-1123. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2012.0113 PMid:23134460
Sayin, F. K., Alkan, S. B. 2015. The effect of pickling on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of 10 vegetables. Journal of Food and Health Science, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 135-141. https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS15013
Šapčanin, A., Jancan, G., Pazalja, M., Kresic, D., Pehlic, E., Uzunovic, A. 2013. Determination of total sulphur content in biological samples by using high performance ion chromatography and elemental analysis. Bulletiin of the Chemists and Technologists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, vol. 41, p. 11-14.
Tattelman, E. 2005. Health Effects of Garlic. American Family Physician, vol. 72, no. 1, p. 103-106.
Tsao, R. 2010. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols. Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 12, p. 1231-1246. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2121231 PMid:22254006
Ugwu, C. E., Suru, S. M. 2016. The Functional Role of Garlic and Bioactive Components in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Health: What We do Know. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, vol. 4, no. 10, p. 28-42. https://doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2016.410004
Zakarova, A., Seo, J. Y., Kim, H. Y., Kim, J. H., Shin, J. H., Cho, K. M., Lee, Ch. H., Kim, J. S. 2014. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 8, p. 1875-1880. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500603v PMid:24512482
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).