The content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in red beetroot


  • Petra Kavalcová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Judita Bystrická Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Ján Tomáš Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Jolana Karovičová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava
  • Ján Kovarovič Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Marianna Lenková Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra



red beetroot, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, soil, locality


Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) is an important raw material of plant origin with proven positive effects on the human body. They can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed and roasted. Red beetrooot is a rich source of minerals substances (manganese, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper). Beetroot contains a lot of antioxidants, vitamins (A, C, B), fiber and natural dyes. Red beetroot is also rich in phenol compounds, which have antioxidant properties. These colorful root vegetables help protect against heart disease and certain cancers (colon cancer). In this work we evaluated content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in red beetroot. Samples of plant material were collected at full maturity stages from areas of Zohor, Sihelné, and Sliač. Zohor, Sihelné, and Sliač are areas without negative influences and emission sources. Samples of fresh red beetroot were homogenized and were prepared as an extract: 50 g cut beetroot extracted by 100 ml 80% ethanol for sixteen hours. These extracts were used for analyses. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wavelength against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) at 515.6 nm in the    spectrophotometer. In the present experiment it was detected, that total polyphenols content in samples ranges from 820.10 mg/kg to 1280.56 mg/kg. Statistically significant highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in beetroot in variety of Renova from locality of Sliač (1280.56 ±28.78 mg/kg). Statistically significant the lowest content of total polyphenols was recorded in beetroot in variety of Renova from the village Sihelné (820.10 ±37.57 mg/kg). In this experiment the antioxidant activity in beetroot was evaluated and compared. The values of antioxidant activity were in interval from 19.63% to 29.82%.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Becker, E. M., Nissen, L. R., Skibsted, L. H. 2004. Antioxidant evaluation protocols: Food quality or health effects. European Food Research and Technology, vol. 219, no. 6, p. 561-571. DOI:

Birt, D. F., Hendrich, S., Wang, W. 2001. Dietary agents in cancer prevention: Flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 90, no. 2-3, p. 157-177. DOI:

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 25-30. DOI:

Brat, P., Georgé, S., Bellamy, A., Du-Chaffaut, L., Scalbert, A., Mennen, L., Arnault, N., Amiot, M. J. 2006. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables. J. Nutr., vol. 136, p. 2368-2373. PMid:16920856 DOI:

Castellar, M. R., Solano, F., Obón, J. M. 2012. Betacyanin and other antioxidants production during growth of Opuntiastrictastricta (Haw.) fruits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr., vol. 67, no. 4, p. 337-343. PMid:23065426 DOI:

Čanadanović-Brunet, J. M., Savatović, S., Ćetković, G.,Vulić, J. J., Markov, M., Cvetković, D. 2011.Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Beet Root Pomace Extracts. Journal Food Science, vol. 29, no. 6, p. 575-585. [cit. 2015-02-10]. Available at: DOI:

Číž, M., Čížová, H., Denev, P., Krachtová, M., Slavov, A., Lojek, A. 2010. Different methods for control and comparison of the antioxidant properties of vegetables. Food Control, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 518-521. DOI:

Escribano, J., Pedreno, M. A. García-Carmona, F., Monuz, R. 1998. Characterization of the antiradical activity of betalains from Beta vulgaris L. roots. Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 124-127.<124::AID-PCA401>3.3.CO;2-S DOI:<124::AID-PCA401>3.0.CO;2-0

Georgiev,V., Weber, J., Kneschke, E., Denev, P., Bley, T., Pavlov, A. 2010. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Betalain Extracts from Intact Plants and Hairy Root Cultures of the Red Beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit Dark Red. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 2, p. 105-111. DOI:

Halliwell, B., Rafter, J., Jenner, A. 2005. Health promotion by flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: direct or indirect effects? Antioxidant or not? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 1, p. 268-276. [cit. 2015-02-10] Available at: DOI:

Harbone, J. B., Williams, C. A., 2000. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 481-504. PMid:11130659 DOI:

Holasová, M., Fiedlerová, V. 2011. Porovnání metod stanovení antioxidační aktivity v ovocných a zeleninových šťavách (Comparison of methods antioxidant activity determination in the fruit and vegetable juice). Chemické listy, vol. 105, p. 766-772.

[cit. 2015-02-10] Available at:

Chen, H., Yoshioka, H., Kim, G. S., Jung, J. E., Okami, N., Sakata, H., Maier, C. M., Narasimhan, P., Goeders, Ch. E., Chan, P. H. 2011. Oxidative Stress in Ischemic Brain Damage: Mechanisms of Cell Death and Potential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotection. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 14, no. 8, p. 1505-1517. PMid:20812869 DOI:

Kapadia G. J., Azuine, M. A., Sridhar, R., Okuda, Y., Tsuruta, A., Ichiishi, E., Mukainake, T., Takasaki, M., Konoshima, T., Nishino, H., Tokuda, H. 2003. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced UV-B promoted, NOR-1-induced TPA promoted skin carcinogenesis, and DEN-induced phenobarbital promoted liver tumors in mice by extract of beetroot. Pharmacological Research, vol. 47, no. 2, p. 141-148. PMid:12543062 DOI:

Kaur, Ch., Kapoor, H. C. 2002.Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. & Technology, vol. 37, p. 153-161. DOI:

Kugler, F., Graneis, S., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R. 2007. Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae. Journal of biosciences, vol. 62, p. 311-8. [cit. 2015-02-10] Available at: DOI:

Kujala, T. S., Loponen, J. M., Klika, K. D., Pihlaja, K. 2000. Phenolics and Betacyanins in Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Root: Distribution and Effect of Cold Storage on the Content of Total Phenolics and Three Individual Compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 48, no. 11, p. 5338-5342. PMid:11087483 DOI:

Lachman, J., Proněk, D., Hejtmánková, A., Pivec, V., Faitová, K. 2003. Total polyphenol and main flavonoid antioxidants in different onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 30, p. 142-147. [cit. 2015-02-10] Available at: DOI:

Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, Ch., Rémésy, Ch., Jiménez, L. 2004. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 5, p. 727-747. [cit. 2015-02-10] Available at: DOI:

Ninfali, P., Bacchiocca, M. 2003. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 51, no. 8, p. 2222-2226. PMid:12670160 DOI:

Ninfali, P., Angelino, D. 2013. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris ciclaand rubra. Fitoterapia, vol. 89, p. 188-199. PMid:23751216 DOI:

Pham-Huy, L. A., He, H., Pham-Huy, C. 2008. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biom. Sci., vol. 4, no. 2, p. 89-96. PMid:23675073

Ratnam, D. V., Ankola, D. D., Bhardwaj, V., Sahana, D. K., Kumar, M. N. 2006. Role of antioxidants in prophylaxis and therapy: A pharmaceutical perspective. Journal of controlled release, vol. 113, no. 3, p. 189-207. PMid:16790290 DOI:

Ravichandran, K., Thaw Saw, N. M. M., Mohdaly, A. A. A., Gabr, A. M. M., Kastell, A., Riedel, H., Cai, Z., Knorr, D., Smetanska, I. 2013. Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Research International, vol. 50, no. 2 p. 670-675 DOI:

Ruales, J., Nair, B. M. 1994. Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 223-246. [cit. 2015-02-10] Available at: DOI:

Stintzing, F. C., Reinhold, C. 2004. Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition. Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 19-38. DOI:

Váli, L., Stefanovits-Bányai, E., Szentmihályi, K., Fébel, K., Sárdi, E., Lugasi, A., Kocsis, I., Blázovics, A. 2007. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion. Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 172-178. PMid:17234508 DOI:

Wootton-Beard, P. C., Ryan, L. 2011. A beetroot juice shot is a significant and convenient source of bioaccessible antioxidants. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 329-334. DOI:

Vulić, J., Čanadanović-Brunet, J., Ćetković, G., Tumbas, V., Djilas, S., Četojević-Simin, D., Čanadanović, V. 2012. Antioxidant and cell growth activities of beet root pomace extracts. Journal of Functional Foods [online] vol. 4, no. 3, p. 670-678. DOI:

Winkler, Ch., Wirleitner, B., Schroecksnader, K. 2005. In vitro effects of beet root juice on stimulated and unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 180-185. DOI:

Williamson, G. 1996. Protective effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Nutrition and Food Science, vol. 96, no. 1, p. 6-10. DOI:




How to Cite

Kavalcová, P. ., Bystrická, J. ., Tomáš, J. ., Karovičová, J. ., Kovarovič, J. ., & Lenková, M. . (2015). The content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in red beetroot. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1), 77–83.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>