Heavy metals determination in edible wild mushrooms growing in former mining area - Slovakia: Health risk assessment
Keywords:edible wild mushroom, heavy metal, contamination, bioaccumulation, health risk assessment, Slovakia
The aim of the paper is to assess a contamination level of forest substrates and aboveground parts of edible wild mushroom (M. procera (Scop.) Singer, B. recitulatus Schaeff., C. cibarius Fr., S. grevillei (Klotzsch) Singer, A. campestris L., R. xerampelina (Schaeff.) Fr., L. salmonicolor R. Heim & Leclair, C. gibba (Pers. Ex Fr.) Kumm., X. chrysenteron (Bull.) Quél., M. oreades (Bolton) Fr.; n = 70) by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn). The studied location was a broader surroundigs of the historical mining and metal processing area of Banská Bystrica. The collected mushroom samples and underlying substrate samples were analysed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry and Flame Absorption Spectrophotometry with graphite furnace. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for individual species and their anatomical parts were calculated from the results obtained. In order to assess a health risk resulting from regular consumption of the mushrooms, provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was calculated from the results of the monitored heavy metal concentration. Limit values for the studied contaminants (Cd: 0.49 mg.kg-1 and Pb: 1.75 mg.kg-1 for an individual with an average weight of 70 kg) are defined by FAO and WHO. Our results indicate that S. grevillei has a high bioaccumulation ability of Cd. It was confirmed by bioaccumulation factors (BAFH = 3.47 and BAFRFB = 2.30). The PTWICd value was exceeded by 4.11 times. A similar situation occurred in the case of Pb where the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAFH = 0.24 and BAFRFB = 0.19) was also recorded in the samples of S. grevillei and the PTWIPb value was exceeded by 1.35 times. In general, it can be stated that a consumption of edible wild mushrooms represent a relatively small risk of negative impact on the health of consumers.
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