The use of biofortification for production of selenium enriched garden pea
Keywords:biofortification, selenium, garden pea
Biofortification of crops with selenium is one of the possible manners on how to increase selenium intake by humans. The effect of selenium fertilization in relation to selenium enrichment of pea and following the phytotoxicity symptoms in garden pea plants was studied. Pot experiments were established with a control variant without selenium addition and four variants where selenium was applied as sodium selenate into the soil in four different concentrations (1 - 6 mg Se.kg-1) before seeding. Garden pea was grown in pots for 60 days and then plant material was dried and submitted to analysis. The total content of selenium was determined by the ZET-AAS method in the roots, above-ground parts of the plant (stems, leaves, extracted pods), and in seeds of a pea. Dean-Dixon´s test and paired t-test (α = 0.05) were used for statistical evaluation of the results. Transfer factors were calculated as a ratio between selenium content (mg.kg-1) in individual plant material and soil. Transfer indexes were calculated as a ratio between selenium content (mg.kg-1) in seeds and roots. The results showed that with the increasing addition of the Se to the soil, its contents in all parts of the plant proportionally increased. The content of the Se increased in the roots 43 to 173-fold, in the above-ground parts 79 to 372-fold, and in the seeds Se was accumulated 130 to 415 times more compared to control. Transfer factors and transport indexes were expressed. Transfer factors for pea varied from 11.05 to 19.25 in the case of Se transfer to the whole pea biomass. In the case of the Se transfer from soil to pea seeds, the highest transfer showed variant with addition 1 mg Se.kg-1 and the transfer factor gradually decreased with increasing addition of Se. Based on the amount of biomass produced, the experiments statistically confirmed the phytotoxicity of higher doses (4 and 6 mg Se.kg-1) of selenium to plants. The highest transport index values are shown variants with the Se addition 1 and 2 mg Se.kg-1 (2.03 and 1.77, respectively). In these variants, Se was used the most efficiently. Our results showed that the best biofortification results were obtained in experimental variants with the lower selenium additions (1 and 2 mg Se.kg-1).
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