Lutein in food supplements available on the markets of the Viszegrad countries
Keywords:carotenoids, RP-HPLC, Marigold flower, tablets, capsules
RP-HPLC method with UV-VIS detection was implemented for determination of contents of lutein in food supplements available on the markets in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. Altogether, 48 samples of food supplements in three dosage forms (22 samples of tablets, 18 samples of soft capsules, and 8 samples of hard capsules) were analysed. The amounts of lutein specified by the producer complied with their real contents only in 7 samples of the food supplements. Lutein in soft capsules showed the highest stability against oxidation; lutein in tablets was more prone to oxidation and lutein in hard capsules was most susceptible to oxidation process. Out of 21 Czech products, only four fell into the category of satisfactory products, three of them were soft capsules and one was a tablet. Out of 27 products manufactured abroad, only three were evaluated as satisfactory products, all of them were soft capsules, out of 48 analysed food supplement samples just seven fell into the category of satisfactory preparations, eight were evaluated as less satisfactory preparations, five were found inadequate products and 28 samples were labelled unsatisfactory. Only one in six analyzed samples contained the amount of lutein specified by the manufacturer, almost 60% of monitored lutein containing food supplement samples fell into the unsatisfactory product category.
Abdel-Aal, E. S. M., Young, J. C., Rabalski, I., Hucl, P., Fregeau-Reid, J. 2007. Identification and quantification of seed carotenoids in selected wheat species. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 787-794. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062764p PMid:17263475 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062764p
Aman, R., Bayha, S., Carle, R., Schieber, A. 2004. Determination of carotenoid stereoisomers in commercial food supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 20, p. 6086-6090. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049304l PMid:15453670 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf049304l
Garti, N., Amar, I., Yaghmur, A., Spernatha, A., Aserin, A. 2003. Interfacial modification and structural transition induced by guest molecules solubilized in U-type nonionic microemulsions. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology vol. 24, no. 3-4, p. 397-410 https://doi.org/10.1081/DIS-120021797 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/DIS-120021797
Benstein, P. S., Delori, F. C., Richer, S., Kuijk, F. J. M., Wenzel, A. J. 2010. The value of measurement of macular carotenoid pigment optical densities and distribution in age-related macular degeneration and other retinal disordes. Vision Research, vol. 50, no. 7, p. 716-728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2009.10.014 PMid:19854211 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2009.10.014
Calvo, M. M. 2005. Lutein: A valuable ingredient of fruit and vegetables. Critical Rewiews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 7-8, p. 671-696. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408690590957034 PMid:16371334 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408690590957034
Cerón-Garcíam, C., Campos-Pérez, I., Macías-Sánchez, M. D., Bermejo-Román, R., Fernández-Sevilla, J. M., Molina-Grima, E. 2010. Stability of carotenoids in Scenedesmus almensis biomass and extracts under various storage conditions. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 11, p. 6944-6950. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf100020s PMid:20443594 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf100020s
Čopíková, J., Uher, M., Lapčík, O., Moravcová, J., Drašar, P. 2005. Natural colorants. Chemické listy, vol. 99, p. 802-816.
Evans, J. A., Johnson, E. J. 2010. The role of phytonutrients in skin health. Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 8, p. 903-928. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2080903 PMid:22254062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2080903
Kroll, H., Friedrich, J., Menzel, M., Schreiber, P. 2008. Carbon and hydrogen stable isitope, rations of carotenoids and beta-carotene-based food suplements. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 11, p. 4198-4204. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8002575 PMid:18476701 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8002575
Li, B., Vachali, P., Frederick, J. M., Bernstein, P. S. 2011. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina. Biochemistry, vol. 50, no. 13, p. 2541-2549. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi101906y PMid:21322544 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi101906y
Snedecor, G. W., Cochran, W. G. 1967. Statistical Methods. Iowa: 6th Ed. Iowa State University Press, 534 p.
Šivel, M., Fišera, M., Klejdus, B., Kráčmar, S., Kubáň, V. 2015. Lutein content in Marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) concentrates used for production of food supplements. Czech Journal of Food Science, in press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/104/2014-CJFS
Thomas, J. B., Duewer, D. L., Mugenya, I. O., Phinney, K. W., Sander, L. C., Sharpless, K. E., Sniegoski, L. T., Tai, S. S., Welch, M. J., Yen, J. H. 2012. Preparation and value assignment of standard reference material 968e fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 402, no. 2, p. 749-762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5447-8 PMid:22015475 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5447-8
Young, J. C., Abdel-Aal, S. M., Rabalski, I., Blackwell, B. A. 2007. Identification of synthetic regioisomeric lutein esters and their quantification a commercial lutein supplement. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 13, p. 4965-4972. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070357n PMid:17536828 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070357n
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.