Food adulteration and safety regarding detected market cases and consumer opinions
Keywords:food fraud, KCFFQ, consumers, adulteration, questionnaire
Food fraud is one of the long-standing causes of scandals attracting particular attention for a long time. This study aimed to monitor food fraud in the European Union and to identify the relationships among the countries where the cases were reported, adulterated commodities (seafood, eggs, milk, meat, fish, and their products) and types of fraud. The secondary data were covered by the survey focused on consumer knowledge about fraudulent activities, ingredient substitution, masking of origin, mislabeling, placing on the market of foods not fit for human consumption within Slovak inhabitants. Primary and secondary data were used to achieve this aim. Primary data were obtained from the Food Fraud and Quality Knowledge Center (KCFFQ) and secondary data from the questionnaire survey from 354 respondents. During the period from 2017 to 2019, 163 cases of food fraud were reported, most of which originated from Italy and mainly concerned fish and fish products. Based on primary data and one-way ANOVA statistical tests, we confirmed five hypotheses. There was found no statistical impact of the country on the type of food fraud (p = 0.0067), but the significant effect was determined on which food was adulterated (p = 0.000001). There was no statistical correlation among years and countries where the cases were reported (p = 0.110), but the statistically significant correlation was confirmed among years and commodities (p = 0.0043) and types of fraud reported (p = 0.009). Based on the processed secondary data from the questionnaire, we can conclude some information or public interest in food fraud problems.
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