Evaluation of nutritional composition and sensory properties of cheese, cheese spreads and traditional butter from Slovak production
Keywords:cheese, cheese spread, butter, chemical composition, sensory analysis, aroma profile
Cheese production is associated with the analysis of its nutritional composition as well as with the sensory evaluation of the acceptance of the products. The paper is aimed at the determination of basic chemical parameters such as the content of proteins, fat, dry matter, salt and, pH and also on the evaluation of sensory properties of hard cheeses by the sensory panel. The GC-MS analysis of cheeses, cheese spreads, and traditional butter was performed to evaluate the aroma profile of the dairy products analyzed. The dry matter in the analyzed cheeses varied between 56.75 and 71.83%, the fat content varied from 18.73 to 30.83%, and the salt from 1.21 to 2.61%. The presence of proteins was found between 27.76 and 32.61% and the pH of the cheeses ranged from 5.21 to 6.01. The results of the sensory analysis were processed using a PCA map. The results showed that sample no. 5 was rated within all attributes as the best. Sample 3, 2, and 1 followed. Sample 4 received the lowest score. The volatile aromatic compounds that contribute to a taste perception were analyzed by GC-MS in dairy products. The aroma profile was built by the volatile compounds that belonged to chemical families of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, amides, amines, imines, and terpenes. In particular, cheeses contained mostly alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol), aldehydes (3-methylbutanal and benzaldehyde), and ketones (acetoin, 2,3,3-trimethylcyclobutanone, 2-heptanone, 2,3-butanedione, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-nonanone, 2- pentanone). The spreads most often contained alcohols (represented by 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and cyclopropane-1,2,3-d3-methanol), aldehydes (2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde) and ketones (acetoin, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and 2,3-butanedione).
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