The variability of acrylamide content in potato French fries depending on the oil used and deep-frying conditions
Keywords:French fries, Oil, Acrylamide, Deep-frying, Liquid chromatography
The research aimed to investigate the variability of the acrylamide content in French potato fries depending on the type of oil and the length and conditions of deep-frying. Deep-frozen pre-fried potato French fries primarily intended for catering establishments were deep-fried parallel in two oils (multi-component oil and rapeseed oil) at the same conditions (175 °C/4 min and 200 °C/3 min) until the limit for total polar compounds (TPCs) content (24%) was reached. The samples were analysed immediately after removal from the package, after the first frying and when the TPCs was exceeded. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to determine acrylamide. Mathematical and statistical evaluation of the results was according to the indicators of descriptive characteristics, i.e., arithmetic mean, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups, i.e., the assumption of agreement of variance was verified by the F test (F). All pairwise differences in means were tested using Tukey's HSD test (Honest Significantly Different) and Scheffe´s test. The critical value of α, compared to the standardized difference between the means, was established using our chosen risk of 5%. The highest acrylamide values were measured in samples deep-fried in rapeseed oil at 200 °C/3 min in sample 2b (451.13 µg/kg when deep-fried immediately) and in sample 2d (383.24 µg/kg after exceeding TPCs). The lowest values of acrylamide were found in samples deep-fried in multi-component oil at a temperature of 200 °C/3 min in sample 1d (183.35 µg/kg after exceeding TPCs) and at a temperature of 175 °C/4 min in sample 1c (240.75 µg/kg after exceeding TPCs). The decreased tendency of acrylamide in both types of oils and variants of temperature after exceeding TPCs compared to the state immediately after frying is confirmed for all samples. Potato-based products are a significant source of acrylamide production and subsequent consumption. Monitoring its presence in food is, therefore, an important legislative requirement.
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