Determination of the fatty acid composition and fatty acids trans-isomers in the horse, stall horse, mutton, beef and pork meat
Keywords:meat, lipids, trans fatty acids, analysis, chromatography
In this study, we have focussed on the fatty acid composition of the meat of various animals raised in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We have analyzed pasture horse meat, stall horse meat, lamb, beef, and pork meat. Samples from four carcass muscles (back, hip, rib, and neck) were tested. Comparative analysis of the content of trans isomers of fatty acids (TFA) was performed. The analysis of the obtained samples showed that the TFA content is significantly (p <0.05) different in different parts of the carcasses of all animals. Their highest content was observed in the mutton sample, which reached 79.56-82.04%. The beef was next after mutton (6.20-9.64%). Less than in mutton and beef, but more than in pork and TFAs were contained in stall horse meat (2.75-5.52%). Of the two types of horse meat, there was less TFA in horse meat of pasture content (1.85-3.46%). Compared to all studied samples, the lowest level of trans fatty acids was in pork (0.91-1.39%). In horse meat of both types, TFAs were present in trans-9-C16: 1. More types of TFA were found in the meat of other animals: in mutton (trans-9-C14: 1; trans-9-C16: 1; trans-9-C18: 1; trans-11 C18: 1; trans-9-trans- 12-C18: 2), in beef (trans-9-C16: 1; trans-9-C18: 1; trans-11-C18: 1; trans-9-trans-12-C18: 2), in pork (trans-9-C16: 1). In addition to TFA, an analysis was made of the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 (ω-6: ω-3). Considering that the lower the ratio of ω-6: ω-3 in fat, the healthier it is for the human body, the most optimal among the studied samples in terms of the ratio of ω-6: ω-3 fatty acids was mutton (1.83-2.35) and horse meat of stall keeping (1.76-6.53). The most unfavourable ratios were in the pork samples (17.46-35.69). The ratio ω-6: ω-3 in other animals was within the following limits: beef (5.35-9.13), horse meat of pasture content (7.08-10.50).
Dhaka, V., Gulia, N., Ahlawat, K. S., & Bhupender, S. K. (2011). Trans fats-sources, health risks and alternative approach – a review. In Journal of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 48, Issue 5, pp 534–541). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8
de Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., Cozma, A. I., Ha, V., Kishibe, T., Uleryk, E., Budylowski, P., Schünemann, H., Beyene, J., & Anand, S. S. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. In The BMJ (Vol. 351, Issue 8, h3978). BMJ Publishing Group. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978
Oteng, A. B., & Kersten, S. (2020). Mechanisms of Action of trans Fatty Acids. In Advances in nutrition (Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 697–708). American Society for Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz125 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz125
Chen, Z. Y., Ratnayake, W. M. N., Fortier, L., Ross, R., & Cunnane, S. C. (1995). Similar distribution of trans fatty acid isomers in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and adipose tissue of Canadians. In Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology (Vol. 73, Issue 6, pp.718–723). Canadian Science Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1139/y95-093 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/y95-093
Bessonov, V. V., & Zaitseva, L. V. (2016). Trans fatty acid isomers: health risks and ways to reduce intake. In VoprosyPitaniia (Vol. 85, Issue 3, pp. 6–17). Geotar Media Publishing Group. https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2016-00030
Nagpal, T., Sahu, J. K., Khare, S. K., Bashir, K., & Jan, K. (2021). Trans fatty acids in food: A review on dietary intake, health impact, regulations and alternatives. In Journal of Food Science (Vol. 86, Issue 12, pp. 5159–5174). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15977 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15977
Allen, K., Pearson-Stuttard, J., Hooton, W., Diggle, P., Capewell, S., & O’Flaherty, M. (2015). Potential of trans fats policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from coronary heart disease in England: cost effectiveness modelling study. In The BMJ (Vol. 351, Issue 9, h4583). BMJ Publishing Group. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h4583 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h4583
Ferlay, A., Bernard, L., Meynadier, A., & Malpuech-Brugère, C. (2017). Production of trans and conjugated fatty acids in dairy ruminants and their putative effects on human health: A review. In Biochimie (Vol. 141, Issue 10, pp. 107–120). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.08.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.08.006
Visioli, F., & Poli, A. (2020). Fatty acids and cardiovascular risk. Evidence, lack of evidence, and diligence. In Nutrients. (Vol. 12, Issue 12, 3782). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123782 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123782
Ali Abd El-Aal, Y., Mohamed Abdel-Fattah, D., & El-Dawy Ahmed, K. (2019). Some biochemical studies on trans fatty acid-containing diet. In Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews (Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 1753–1757). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.029
Cheng, N., Zhang, J., Yin J., & Li С. (2018). Computational and experimental research on mechanism of cis/trans isomerization of oleic acid. In Heliyon (Vol. 4, Issue 9, e00768). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00768 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00768
Islam, Md. A., Amin, M. N., Siddiqui, S. A., Hossain, Md. P., Sultana, F., & Kabir, Md. R. (2019). Trans fatty acids and lipid profile: A serious risk factor to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. In Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews (Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 1643–1647). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.033
Nestel, P. (2014). Trans Fatty Acids: Are Its Cardiovascular Risks Fully Appreciated? In Clinical Therapeutics (Vol. 36, Issue 3, pp. 315–321). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.020
Purchas, R. W., Wilkinson, B. H. P., Carruthers, F., & Jackson, F. (2015). A comparison of the trans fatty acid content of uncooked and cooked lean meat, edible offal and adipose tissue from New Zealand beef and lamb. In Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (Vol. 41, pp. 151–156). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.01.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.01.016
Guillocheau, E., Penhoat, C., Drouin, G., Godet, A., Catheline, D., Legrand, Ph., & Rioux, V. (2020). Current intakes of trans-palmitoleic (trans-C16:1 n-7) and trans-vaccenic (trans-C18:1 n-7) acids in France are exclusively ensured by ruminant milk and ruminant meat: A market basket investigation. In Food Chemistry:X (Vol. 5, Issue 3, 100081) Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2020.100081 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2020.100081
Bravo-Lamas, L., Barron, L. J. R., Kramer, J. K. G., Etaio, I., & Aldai, N. (2016). Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile. In Meat Science (Vol. 117, pp. 108–116). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.02.043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.02.043
Martins, T. da S., Lemos, M. V. A. de, Mueller, L. F., Baldi, F., Amorim, T. R. de, Ferrinho, A. M., Muñoz, J. A., Fuzikawa, I. H. de S., Moura, G. V. de, Gemelli, J. L., & Pereira, A. S. C. (2018). Fat Deposition, Fatty Acid Composition, and Its Relationship with Meat Quality and Human Health. In Meat Science and Nutrition. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.77994 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.77994
Aldai, N., de Renobales, M., Barron, L. J. R., & Kramer, J. K. G. (2013). What are the trans fatty acids issues in foods after discontinuation of industrially produced trans fats? Ruminant products, vegetable oils, and synthetic supplements. In European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology (Vol. 115, Issue 12, pp. 1378–1401). Wiley-VCH GmbH, Weinheim. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300072 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300072
Belaunzaran, X., Bessa, R. J., Lavín, P., Mantecón, A. R., Kramer, J. K., & Aldai, N. (2015). Horse-meat for human consumption - Current research and future opportunities. In Meat science (Vol. 108, Issue 10, pp. 74–81). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.006
Ushanskaya, E. Yu., Khasenova, G. Kh., Sukenova, D. A., Tarakova, G. A., Bakirova, M. A., Nurzhanova, K. S., & Batagoeva, Z. Zh. (2014). The problem of trans-isomers of fatty acids in the world and the Republic of Kazakhstan. In Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University (Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 181–185). Kazakh National Medical University.
Frank, D., Pat, S., & Allen, K. V. (2005). Column selection for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. In Food analysis application (Vol. 19, p. 19). Agilent Technologies Inc.
GOST 31754-2012. Vegetable oils, animal fats and products of their processing. Methods for determining the mass fraction of trans fatty acids.
Zaitseva, L. V., Yudina, T. A., Ruban, N. V., Bessonov, V. V., & Mekhtiev, V. S. (2020). Modern approaches to the development of recipes for gluten-free bakery products. In Voprosy Pitaniia (Vol. 89, Issue 1, pp. 77–85). Geotar Media Publishing Group. https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10009
Okuskhanova, E., Caporaso, N., Yessimbekov, Z., Assenova, B., Smolnikova, F., Rebezov, M., Shariati, M. A., Usman Khan, M., & Thiruvengadam, M. (2021). Functional and physical properties of oil-in-water emulsion based on sodium caseinate, beef rumen and sunflower oil and its effect on nutritional quality of forcemeat. In Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology (pp. 1–9). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2021.1950008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2021.1950008
Triaux, Z., Briard, L., Petit, O., Marchioni, E., & Julien-David, D. (2021). Effect of simulated foregut digestion on the antioxidant capacity of plants naturally consumed by horses. In Animal Feed Science and Technology (Vol. 282, Issue 12, 115121). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115121 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115121
Zewdie, A. K. (2019). The different methods of measuring feed digestibility: A review. In EC Nutrition (Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 68–74). ECronicon.
Belaunzaran, X., Lavín, P., Barron, L. J. R., Mantecón, A. R., Kramer, J. K. G., & Aldai, N. (2017). An assessment of the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail level in northern Spain. In Meat Science (Vol. 124, Issue 2, pp. 39–47). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.10.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.10.014
Igenbayev, A., Okuskhanova, E., Nurgazezova, A., Rebezov, Y., Kassymov, S., Nurymkhan, G., Tazeddinova, D., Mironova, I., & Rebezov, M. (2019). Fatty Acid Composition of Female Turkey Muscles in Kazakhstan. In Journal of World’s Poultry Research (Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 78–81). Journal of World’s Poultry Research. https://doi.org/10.36380/jwpr.2019.9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36380/jwpr.2019.9
Waszkiewicz – Robak, B., Szterk, A., Rogalski, M., Rambuszek, M., Kruk, M., & Rokowska, E. (2015). Nutritional value of raw pork depending on the fat type contents in pigs feed. Acta scientiarumpolonorum. In Acta ScientiarumPolonorum, Technologia Alimentaria (Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 153–163). WydawnictwoAkademiiRolniczej w Poznaniu https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2015.2.17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.17
Balji, Y., Knicky, M., & Zamaratskaia, G. (2019). Perspectives and safety of horsemeat consumption. In International Journal of Food Science & Technology (Vol. 55, Issue 3, pp. 942–952). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14390 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14390
Mouratidou, T., Livaniou, A., Martin Saborido, C., Wollgast, J., & LouroCaldeira, S. (2014). Trans fatty acids in Europe: where do we stand. a synthesis of the evidence: 2003-2013. In Publications Office. Retrieved from https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2788/13543.
Wanders, A. J., Zock, P. L., & Brouwer, I. A. (2017). Trans fat intake and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide: a systematic review. In Nutrients (Vol. 9, Issue 8, pp. 840). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080840 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080840
Rudakov, O. B., & Rudakova, L. V. (2019). Trans isomeric fatty acids in meat products. In Meat Technologies (Vol. 3, Issue 195, pp. 18–21). Institute of Meat Hygiene and Technology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33465/2308-2941-2019-3-18-21
Pipoyan, D., Stepanyan, S., Stepanyan, S., Beglaryan, M., Costantini, L., Molinari, R., & Merendino, N. (2021). The Effect of Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Regulation and Consumption Patterns. In Foods (Vol. 10, Issue 10, p. 2452). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102452 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102452
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.