The improvement of insulin resistance and the antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with whiteleg shrimp shell powder (Litopenaeus vannamei)


  • Risya Ahriyasna Universitas Diponegoro and Universitas Perintis Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Nutritional Science, Adinegoro Lubuk Buaya, 25586, Padang, Indonesia, Tel.: +62751481992
  • Tri Winarni Agustini Universitas Diponegoro, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Department of Fish Product Technology, Prof. H. Soedarto, 50275 , Semarang, Indonesia, Tel.: +62247474698
  • Kis Djamiatun Universitas Diponegoro, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Prof. Soedarto, 50275, Semarang, Indonesia, Tel.: +622476928010
  • Def Primal Universitas Perintis Indonesia, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Adinegoro Lubuk Buaya, 25586, Padang, Indonesia, Tel.: +6281348305867



astaxanthin, HOMA-IR, antioxidant, T2DM, whiteleg shrimp shell powder


As estimated having an increased incidence of about 50% until 2040, the diabetic condition could be augmented primarily from astaxanthin contained in carotenoids. This research examines and compares the influence of WSSP and AST complement on Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) level and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) induced high-fat diet streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) in T2DM rats. WSSP 0.89gr/200gr/d (X1) and 1.77gr/200gr/d (X2) groups; and AST supplement 0.09mg/200gr/d (X3) groups were compared with both of positive (K1) and negative (K2) groups. The treatments were administered orally for 21 days to 25 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 5 rats. HOMA-IR and TAC levels were measured by ELISA and ABTs method respectively. TAC levels significantly increased in treatment groups than K1 group (p = 0.008). The increase in the TAC level of the X2 group was greater than the X1 group (p = 0.017). HOMA IR levels were significantly lower in treatment groups than K1 group (p = 0.009). X2 group had a greater decrease in HOMA IR levels compared to X1 (p = 0.016). In consequence, the research findings show a utilitarian effect of WSSP in increasing TAC and decreasing the HOMA-IR index.


Download data is not yet available.


Affandi, M. M., Julianto, T., Majeed, A. 2012. Enhanced oral bioavailability of astaxanthin with droplet size reduction. Food Science and Technology Research, vol. 18, p. 549-554.

Al-Bulish, M. S. M., Xue, C., Waly, M. I., Xu, J., Wang, Y., Tang, Q.J. 2017. The Defensive Role of Antioxidants Astaxanthin against Oxidative Damage in Diabetic Rats Injected with Streptozotocin. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 191-196.

Al-Goblan, A. S., Al-Alfi, M. A., Khan, M. Z. 2014. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity : Targets and Therapy, vol. 7, p. 587-591.

Ambati, R. R., Phang, S. M., Ravi, S., Aswathanarayana, R. G. 2014. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review. Marine Drugs, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 128-152.

Antunes, L. C., Elkfury, J. L., Jornada, M. N., Foletto, K. C., Bertoluci, M. C. 2016. Validation of HOMA-IR in a model of insulin-resistance induced by a high-fat diet in Wistar rats. Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 138-142.

Aouacheri, O., Saka, S., Krim, M., Messaadia, A., Maidi, I. 2015. The investigation of the oxidative stress-related parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 44-49.

Asmat, U., Abad, K., Ismail, K. 2016. Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress-A concise review. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society, vol. 24, no. 5, p. 547-553.

Ayudiarti, D. L. 2011. Ekstraksi Karotenoid Dari Kepala Udang Secara Enzimatis Dan Karakterisasi Profil Karotenoid Sebagai Antioksidan (Enzymatic Extraction of Carotenoids from Shrimp Heads and Characterization of Carotenoid Profiles as Antioxidants). Bogor: Teknologi Hasil Perairan, Universitas Pertanian Bogor; (in Indonesia). Available at:

Benarroch, M. M., Hugot, C., Rhazi, L., Niamba, C. N., Depeint, F. 2016. The Bioavailability of Astaxanthin Is Dependent on Both the Source and the Isomeric Variants of the Molecule. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca: Food Science and Technolog., vol. 73, no. 2, p. 61-69.

Cahú, T. B., Santos, S. D., Mendes, A., Córdula, C. R., Chavante, S. F., Carvalho, L. B. 2012. Recovery of protein, chitin, carotenoids and glycosaminoglycans from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) processing waste. Elsevier: Process Biochemistry, vol. 47, p. 570-577.

Chan, K. C., Pen, P. J., Yin, M. C. 2012. Anticoagulatory and antiinflammatory effects of astaxanthin in diabetic rats. Journal of food science, vol. 77, no. 2, p. H76-H80.

Choi, H. D., Kim, J. H., Chang, M. J., Kyu-Youn, Y., Shin, W. G. 2011. Effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 12, p. 1813-1818.

Corrêa, N. C. F, Macedo, C. D. S., Moraes, J. D. F. C., Machadoa, N. T., Franc, L. F. D. 2012. Characteristics of the extract of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp obtained from the cephalothorax using pressurized CO2. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 66, p. 176-180.

Ghasemi, A., Khalifi, S., Jedi, S. 2014. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes (review). Acta physiologica Hungarica, vol. 101, no. 4, 408-420.

Hodgkin, M. N., Hills, C. E., & Squires, P. E. 2008. The calcium-sensing receptor and insulin secretion: a role outside systemic control 15 years on. The Journal of endocrinology, vol. 199, no. 1, p. 1-4.

Hue, H. T., Chien, N. Q., Anh, L. L., Thuy, T. T. T. 2008. Determination of Astaxanthin and other Carotenoids in Vietnamese Crustaceans by HPLC.: Tap Chi Khoa Hoc Cong Nghe: Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 47-58.

International Diabetes Federation. 2017. IDF Western Pacific Member (Indonesia). Available at:

Khan, M., Nowsad, A. 2013. Development of protein enriched shrimp crackers from shrimp shell wastes. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 367-374.

Kupsal, K., Mudigonda, S., Gundapaneni, K. K, Tupurani, M. A., Galimudi, R. K., Nyayapathi, V. B. K. S., et al. 2015. Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced beta-cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Analytical Bio-Science, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 84-89.

Li, X., Qi, Z., Zhao, L., Yu, Z. 2016. Astaxanthin reduces type 2 diabetic associated cognitive decline in rats via activation of PI3K/Akt and attenuation of oxidative stress. Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 13, p. 973-979.

Liu, S. H., Chang, Y. H., Chiang, M. T. 2010. Chitosan reduces gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 9, p. 5795-5800.

Mitri, J., Dawson-Hughes, B., Hu, F. B., Pittas, A. G. 2011. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 2, p. 486-494.

Miyata, T., Notoya, K., Yoshida, K., Horie, K., Maeda, K., Kurokawa, K., Taketomi, S. 1997. Advanced glycation end products enhance osteoclast-induced bone resorption in cultured mouse unfractionated bone cells and in rats implanted subcutaneously with devitalized bone particles. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 260-270.

Nair, S., Gagnon, J., Pelletier, C., Tchoukanova, N., Zhang, J., Ewart, H. S., Ewart, K. V., Jiao, G., Wang, Y. 2017. Shrimp oil extracted from the shrimp processing waste reduces the development of insulin resistance and metabolic phenotypes in diet-induced obese rats. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme, vol. 42, no. 8, p. 841-849.

Nikooyeh, B., Neyestani, T. R., Farvid, M., Alavi-Majd, H., Houshiarrad, A., Kalayi, A., Shariatzadeh, N., Gharavi, A., Heravifard, S., Tayebinejad, N., Salekzamani, S., Zahedirad, M. 2011. Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 4, p. 764-771.

Nolan, C. J., Damm, P., Prentki, M. 2011. Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management. Lancet (London, England), vol. 378, no 9786, p. 169-181.

Primal, D., Putri, T. and Meiriza, W. 2021. Asupan Karbohidrat Harian terhadap Risiko Kejadian Diabetes Melitus Gestasi (GDM) melalui Glyco-Hemoglobin Ibu Hamil (Daily Carbohydrate Intake on the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) through Glyco-Hemoglobin in Pregnant Women). Jurnal Keperawatan Silampari, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 510-518. (in Indonesia)

Samuel, V. T., Shulman, G. I. 2012. Mechanisms for insulin resistance: common threads and missing links. Cell, vol. 148, no. 5, p. 852-871.

Sathananthan, M., Shah, M., Edens, K. L., Grothe, K. B., Piccinini, F., Farrugia, L. P. 2015. Six and 12 Weeks of Caloric Restriction Increases b Cell Function and Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Concentrations in People with Type 2 Diabetes. The Journal of Nutrition: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions, vol. 145, no. 9, p. 2046-2051.

Savu, O., Ionescu-Tirgoviste, C., Atanasiu, V., Gaman, L., Papacocea, R., Stoian, I. 2012. Increase in total antioxidant capacity of plasma despite high levels of oxidative stress in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 709-716.

Sears, B., Perry, M. 2015. The role of fatty acids in insulin resistance. Lipids Health Dis., vol. 14, p. 121.

Shiloah, E., Witz, S., Abramovitch, Y., Cohen, O., Buchs, A., Ramot, Y., et al. 2003. Effect of Acute Psychotic Stress in Nondiabetic Subjects on -Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity. Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 5, p. 1462-1467.

Shofian, N. M., Hamid, A. A., Osman, A., Saari, N., Anwar, F., Dek, M. S., Hairuddin, M. R. 2011. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 7, p. 4678-4692.

Sila, A., Kamoun, Z., Ghlissi, Z., Makni, M., Nasri, M., Sahnoun, Z., Nedjar-Arroume, N., Bougatef, A. 2015. Ability of natural astaxanthin from shrimp by-products to attenuate liver oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Pharmacological reports : PR, vol. 67, no. 2, p. 310-316.

Suptijah, P., Jacoeb, A. M., Deviyanti, N. 2012. Karakterisasi dan bioavailabilitas nanokalsium cangkang udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei). (Characterization and bioavailability of calsium nanoparticless vannamei shell (Litopenaeus vannamei)). Jurnal Akuatika., vol. 3, no. 1, p. 63-73 (in Indonesia).

Yang, S., Zhou, Q., Yang, L., Xue, Y., Xu, J., Xue, C. 2015. Effect of thermal processing on astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 64, no. 3, p. 243-253.

Ye J. 2013. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity. Frontiers of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 14-24.



How to Cite

Ahriyasna, R., Agustini, T. W., Djamiatun, K., & Primal, D. (2021). The improvement of insulin resistance and the antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with whiteleg shrimp shell powder (Litopenaeus vannamei). Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 703–711.

Most read articles by the same author(s)