Substantiation of foamy structure formation in a gluten-free biscuit


  • Igor Stadnyk Ternopil Ivan Puluj National Technical University, Department of Food Biotechnology and Chemistry, Ukraine, Ternopil 46001, Hohol str. 6, Tel.: +380975454829
  • Olena Kolomiiets Khmelnitskyi cooperative trade and economic institute, Department of Hotel and Restaurant and Tourism Business, Ukraine, Khmelnitskyi 29000, Kamjanetska str. 3, Tel.:+380687863278
  • Oksana Dziana Khmelnitskyi cooperative trade and economic institute, Department of Hotel and Restaurant and Tourism Business, Ukraine, Khmelnitskyi 29000, Kamjanetska str. 3, Tel.: +380671360900



dough, adhesion, adhesive, substrate, forming channel, deformation, stress


A promising way to create gluten-free foods based on purposeful use of ingredients with a wide range of technological properties is analyzed. Steps to regulate the structural and mechanical properties of gluten-free dough have been determined. These steps allow to improve the structural-mechanical and organoleptic characteristics of the biscuit semi-finished product, to adjust the nutritional value. To determine the technological effect, we considered the connection between the recipe components and the properties of the dough when forming a foamy structure of gluten-free cupcake products. The influence of the design parameters of the mixer (independent factors xi) on the foaming process (Q) has been determined, that is, determining the productivity magnitude from the changes of three main factors: from the attack angle of the frontal surface of the plate working body α, the distance between the plates (step) t and the rotation frequency of working body n. The stability of the foam formed and the rate of its settling and the role of the liquid phase of the dough during short storage before baking were investigated. The comparative characteristics of the microstructure of wheat flour (WF) and extruded corn flour (ECF) in the ratios are presented: a) WF – 100 wt.%; b) WF: ECF – 80:20 wt.%; c) ECF – 100 wt.%. In the tested mixtures, the moisture-holding capacity increases for the sample containing 20% by weight of extruded corn flour two and a half times, and three times for the sample with extruded flour to 100% by weight. With an increasing proportion of extruded corn flour in the flour mixture, the dough density increases and the optimum value is in the range of 0.444 – 0.446 kg.m-3. The comparative characteristic of the microstructure of the samples is given, which has the appearance of foam with the existing and even distribution of air bubbles which later form the porous structure of the biscuit of the semi-finished product. Thus, the size of the formed bubbles of air with the content of wheat flour and starch have a large difference in diameters, in the sample of biscuit dough using ECF 100 wt.% – almost the same size, and between the channels are formed that promote the equalization of air pressure in the middle of the foam system of biscuit dough. It was found that the use of 20 wt.% and 100 wt.% of corn extruded flour contributes to the formation of a fine porous structure of biscuit dough.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Brekhov, A., Riazhskykh, V. 2012. Prohnozyrovanye byolohycheskoi y pyshchevoitsennosty v hotovoi produktsy ypryekstruzyonnoi obrabotke rastytelnoho Syria. (Pronunciation of belonic and nutritional value in hot production by extrusion processing of vegetable raw materials). Khranenye y pererabotka selkhoz syria, no. 3, p. 38-42. (In Russian)

Dickinson, E. 2015. Colloids in food: ingredients, structure, and stability. Annual review of food science and technology, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 211-233. DOI:

Dorohovych, V., Hrytsevich, М., Isakova, N. 2018. Effect of gluten-free flour on sensory, physicochemical, uctural and mechanical properties of wafer batter and waffles. Ukrainian Food Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, р. 253-263. DOI:

Drobot, V., Pysarets, O., Kravchenko, I. 2013. Vykorystannia kukurudzianoi krupy u vyrobnytstvi pshenychnoho khliba (The use of corn grits and the production of wheat bread). Storage and processing (Khranenye y pererabotkazerna), no. 9. (In Ukrainian)

DSTU 3355-96. 1996. Agricultural products. Methods of sampling during quarantine examination and expertise.

DSTU ISO 9001. 2015. Quality Management Systems. Requirements (ISO 9001: 2015, IDT), Research Institute of Metrology of Measuring and Control Systems (SE “Sistema”).

Egorova, E., Reznichenko, І. 2018. Development of food concentrate – semi-finished product with amaranth flour for gluten-free cupcakes. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 36-45. DOI:

Haliasnyi, I., Gavrish, T., Shanina, O. 2018. Research of surface properties of water-flour suspensions in the presence of hydrocolloids and protein supplements. Technology Audit and Production Reserves, vol. 1, no. 3 (39), p. 58-63. DOI:

Holovchenko, V., Lopatin, H., Kovbasa, V. 2001. Ekstrudaty, shrot i kontsentratyi z zernobobovykh mozhna vykorystovuvaty dlia stvorennia novykh vydiv kharchovykh produktiv (Extrudates, meal and concentrates from leguminous plants can be vikoristovuvati for the production of new products). Kharchova i pererobnapromt, no. 1, p. 23-25. (In Russian)

Kobets, О., Dotsenko, V, Arpul, О., Dovgun, І. 2015. Wheat fibre impact on flour quality of confectionery products. Journal of Faculty of Food Engineering, Ştefancel Mare University - Suceava, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 391-398. Available at:

Lamacchia, C., Camarca, A., Picascia, S., Di Luccia, A., Gianfrani, C. 2014. Cereal-based gluten free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 575-590. DOI:

Lisovska, T., Chorna, N., Dyakov, A. 2016. Research of rheological properties of egg sponge with extruded corn flour. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, vol. 2, no. 11 (80), р. 19-23. DOI:

Lisovska, T., Stadnik, I., Piddubnyi, V., Chorna, N. 2020. Effect of extruded corn flour on the stabilization of biscuit dough for the production of gluten-free biscuit. Ukrainian Food Journal, vol 9, no. 1, р. 159-175. DOI:

Liu, J., Willför, S., Xu, C. 2015. A review of bioactive plant polysaccharides: Biological activities, functionalization, and biomedical applications. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 31-61. DOI:

Mancebo, C. M., Rodriguez, P., Gómez, M. 2016. Assessing rice flour-starch-protein mixtures to produce gluten-free sugar-snap cookies. LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 67, p. 127-132. DOI:

Murray, B. S. 2007. Stabilization of bubbles and foams. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, vol. 12, no. 4-5, p. 232-241. DOI:

Murray, B. S., Ettelaie, R. 2004. Foam stability: Proteins and nanoparticles. Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 314-320. DOI:

Murtini, E. S., Putri, D. A. 2017. Potensi edamame sebagai pengganti kuning telur dalam pembuatan donat mengandung kentang (The potential of edamame as a substitute for egg yolk in making donuts containing potatoes). Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 102-110. (In Indonesian) DOI:

Renzjaeva, T., Bakirova, M. 2017. Pechen'ei z risovoj muki dlja specializirovannogo pitanija (Rice flour biscuits for specialized meals). Tehnologii pishhevoj i pererabatyvajushhej promyshlennosti APK-produkty zdorovogo pitanija, p. 49-54. (In Russian)

Rochow, T. G., Rochow, E. G. 2012. An Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X-Rays, or ultrasound. New York, USA : Plenum press, 367 р. ISBN 978-1-4684-2454-6.

Ruskina, A. A., Popova, N. V., Naumenok, N. V., Ruskin, D. V. 2017. Analiz sovremennyh sposobov modifikacii krahmala kak instrumenta povyshenija ego tehnologicheskih svojstv (Analysis of Modern Methods for Starch Modification as a Tool for Increasing its Technological Properties). Bulletin of the South Ural State University, Food and Biotechnology, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 12-20. (In Russian) DOI:

Sandri, L. T. B., Santos, F. G., Fratelli, C., Capriles, V. D. 2017. Development of gluten-free bread formulations containing whole chia flour with acceptable sensory properties. Food Science & Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 5, p. 1021-1028. DOI:

Stadnyk, I. Y., Pankiv, J., Havrylko, P., Karpyk, H. 2019. Researching of the concentration distribution of soluble layers when mixed in the weight condition. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 581-592 DOI:

Stadnyk, I., Dobrotvor, I., Derkach, A., Vasyliv, V. 2015. Methods and results of the study of pore formation in Podilsky bagel, SWorld. Proceedings, vol. 3, no. 2(39), p. 9-15.

Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., İbanoğlu, Ş. 2010. The advantage of using extrusion processing for increasing dietary fibre level in gluten-free products. Food Chemistry, vol. 121, no. 1, p. 156-164. DOI:

Szwedziak, K., Stadnyk, I., Golyachuk, S., Grzywacz, Ż. 2019. Justification of the rheological model of process of plastic material injection by the rollers. Agricultural Engineering, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 101-114. DOI:

Yehorov, B., Mardar, M., Bordun, T. 2014. Formuvannia spozhyvnykh vlastyvostei kharchovykh produktiv novoho pokolinnia shliakhom ekstruzii (Formation of the living authorities of the grub production of the novoho pokolinnya by the way of extrusion). Khranenye y pererabotkazerna, vol. 5, no. 182, p. 64-67. (In Russian)

Zhou, Z., Zheng, Р., Wang, Z., Yang, R., Chu, Y. 2015. Enhanced thermal and antibacterial properties of crosslinked waxy maize starch granules by chitosan via dry heart treatment. Internetional Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 50, no. 4, p. 899-905. DOI:

Zip diagnostic. N. d. Sovremennye tekhnolohyy kontrolia kachestva (Modern technology of quality control). Available at:



How to Cite

Stadnyk, I., Kolomiiets, O., & Dziana, O. . (2020). Substantiation of foamy structure formation in a gluten-free biscuit. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 1008–1019.

Most read articles by the same author(s)