Consumer sensory evaluation of honey across age cohorts in Slovakia
Keywords:consumer research, sensory evaluation, honey, generations, Slovakia,
The growing popularity of honey among consumers has caused many frauds and cases when honey of high quality is adulterated by cheap imported honey of very low quality. The aim of this research paper was to study consumer perception of honey quality based on sensory attributes such as taste, aroma, colour and consistency. The primary research comprised the sensory blind test conducted as a part of questionnaire survey at selected shopping mall and at university. Research sample reached 400 respondents living in the Nitra region between 18 and 70 years. Respondents tested sensory attributes of two samples. Sample A represented Slovak honey from a local beekeeper and sample B was honey purchased from selected supermarket with country of origin „blend of EU and non - EU honeys" and represented imported honey. Besides descriptive statistics, the following statistical tests were applied: Fisher's Exact Test, Chi-Square Test of Independence, Cramer´V coefficient and Mann-Whitney U test. Results showed significant differences in perception of honey quality across age cohorts. Respondents older than 40 years (Generation X and Babyboomers) evaluated better the local honey from a beekeeper (sample A) than younger generations (Generation Y and Generation Z). Imported honey from selected supermarket (sample B) obtained the best evaluation in case of colour in both age cohorts while sample A obtained it in terms of aroma. The majority of respondents in both age cohorts mostly decided their preference according to taste, however there exist some differences. While Generation X and Baby boomers took into consideration also aroma, the generations Y and Z considered consistency. More interesting observation appealed in case of aroma where more than 90% of respondents, who decided according to aroma, preferred sample A - local Slovak honey. According to physico-chemical analysis, both samples fulfilled standard of EU legislation, however better parameters were reached in sample A. All in all, better perception of honey quality through sensory attributes in older age cohorts could be caused by the deeper experience in honey consumption as well as due to the fact that younger cohorts consume more semiproducts and industrial food products characterised by intensive, sweet taste which could confuse their assessments.
Anupama, D., Bhat, K. K., Sapna, V. K. 2003. Sensory and physico-chemical properties of commercial samples of honey. Food Research International, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 183-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00135-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00135-7
Aparna A. R., Rajalakshmi, D. 1999. Honey - its characteristics, sensory aspects, and applications. Food Reviews International, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 455-471. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129909541199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129909541199
Castro-Vázquez, L., Díaz-Moroto, M. C., González-Viñas, M. A., Pérez-Coello, M. S. 2009. Differentiation of monoﬂoral citrus, rosemary, eucalyptus, lavender, thyme and heather honeys based on volatile composition and sensory descriptive analysis. Food Chemistry, vol. 112, no. 4, p. 1022-1030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.036
Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey.
Crittenden, N. A. 2011. The importance of honey consumption in Human Evolution. Food and Foodways, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 257-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/07409710.2011.630618 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07409710.2011.630618
Esti, M., Panﬁli, G., Marconi, E., Trivisonno, M. C. 1997. Valorization of the honeys from the Molise region through physico-chemical, organoleptic and nutritional assessment. Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 1-2, p. 125-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00228-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00228-2
European Commission. 2016. Agriculture and Rural Development, ISAMM CM.
Galán-Soldevilla, H., Ruiz-Pérez-Cacho, M. P., Serrano Jiménez, S., Jodral Villarejo, M., Bentabol Manzanares, A. 2005. Development of a preliminary sensory lexicon for ﬂoral honeys. Food Quality and Preference, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.02.001
Gálová, J., Berčík, J., Vilhanová, L. 2012. Sustainable marketing in the practice of selected brands. Marketing in Practise of Agro-Food Sector, p. 16-30.
Géci, A., Nagyová, Ľ., Rybanská, J. 2017. Impact of sensory marketing on consumer´s buying behaviour. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 709-717. https://doi.org/10.5219/835 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/835
Golian, J., Nagyová, Ľ., Andocsová, A., Zajác, P., Palkovič, J. 2018. Food safety from consumer perspective: health safety. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 313-322. https://doi.org/10.5219/917 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/917
González-Viñas, M. A., Moya, A., Cabezudo, M. D. 2003. Description of the sensory characteristics of Spanish uniﬂoral honeys by free choice proﬁling. Journal of Sensory Studies, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 103-113. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.2003.tb00378.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.2003.tb00378.x
IHC. 2009. Harmonised methods of the International Honey Comission, 63 p.
Kaakeh, W., Gadelhak, G. 2005. Sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of Apis mellifera honey from the Arab Gulf region. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 331-337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2570
Kňazovická, V., Kačániová, M., Miluchová, M., Gábor, M., Dovičičová, M., Melich, M., Trakovická, A. 2011. Honey and Microorganisms: Monitoring of Microorganisms in Slovak Honey by Molecular-Biological Methods in Relation to Physico-Chemical Properties. Saarbrücken : LAP Lampert Academic Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-3-8473-2310-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/110
Kubelaková, A., Košičiarová, I. 2016. Organic food and its position in retail stores in Slovak Republic. In The agri-food value chain: challenges for natural resources management and society, Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture, p. 1036-1042. ISBN 978-80-552-1505-1.
Lorente, G. M., De Lorenzo Carretero, C., Pérez Martin, R. A. 2008. Sensory attributes and antioxidant capacity of Spanish honeys. Journal of Sensory Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.2008.00156.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.2008.00156.x
Martinovski, S., Gulevska, F. 2017. Nutritive Marketing with a Special Review on Honey. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, vol. 6, no. 7, p 05-11.
Nagyová, Ľ., Golian, J., Géci, A., Palkovič, J., Čapla, J., Kádeková, Z. 2018. Food safety from a consumers´point of view: food quality. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 355-363. https://https://doi.org/10.5219/918 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/918
Nagyová, Ľ., Košičiarová, I., Kádeková, Z. 2014. Quality Label: Food Quality Guarantee at National Level of EU Countries. Značka kvality: Garancia kvality potravín na národnej úrovni krajín EÚ. Nitra : Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre. p. 154. ISBN 978-80-552-1283-8. (In Slovak)
Paluchová, J., Prokeinová, R. B. 2013. Sustainable trends in consumer behavior: association rules, sustainable marketing and responsible consumption. Udržateľné tendencie v spotrebiteľskom správaní: asociačné pravidlá, udržateľný marketing a zodpovedná spotreba. Nitra : Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita v Nitre, p. 112. ISBN 978-80-552-1125-1. (In Slovak)
Persano Oddo, L., Piro, R. 2004. Main European uniforal honeys: Descriptive sheets. Apidologie, vol. 35, suppl. no. 1, p. 38-81. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004049
Phipps, R. 2017. International honey market: A Second Point of Inflection has been attained. A Point of Equilibrium is Approaching. The NMR test is gaining international attention and acceptance. American Bee Journal, p. 597-604.
Piana, M. L., Persano Oddo, L., Bentabol, A., Bruneau, E., Bogdanov, S., Guyot Declerck, C. 2004. Sensory analysis applied to honey: State of the art. Apidologie, vol. 35, suppl. no. 1, p. 26-37. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004048 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004048
Pidek, A. 2001. Youth preferences in honey consumption. Journal of apicultural science, vol. 45, p. 115-119.
Pocol, C. B. 2011. Modelling the honey consumption behaviour in Romania by using socio-demographic determinants. African Journal of Agricuture Research. vol. 6, no. 17, p. 4069-4080.
Pocol, C. B., Teselios C. M. 2012. Socio-economic determinants of honey consumption in Romania. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environmen, vol.10, no. 2, p. 18-21.
Popov-Raljic, J., Arsic, N., Zlatkovic, B., Basarin, B., Mladenovic, M. Lalicic-Petronijevic, J., Ivkov, M., Popov, V. 2015. Evaluation of color, mineral substances and sensory uniqueness of meadow and acacia honey from Serbia. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, vol. 20, no. 5, p. 10784-10799.
Stolzenbach, S., Bredie, W. L. P., Byrne, D. V. 2013. Consumer concepts in new product development of local foods: Traditional versus novel honeys. Food Research International, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.02.030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.02.030
Stolzenbach, S., V. Byrne, D., Bredie, W. L. P. 2011, Sensory local uniqueness of Danish honeys, Food Research International, vol. 44, no. 9, p. 2766-2774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.006
Szabó, R. T., Mezes, M., Szalai, T., Zajácz, E., Weber, M. 2016. Colour identification of honey and methodical development of its instrumental measuring. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, vol. 3. no. 1. p. 29-36. https://doi.org/10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2016.3.1.29 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2016.3.1.29
Šánová. P., Nový, J., Svobodová, J., And Šeráková, P. 2015. Pilot analysis of key factors in honey consumption. In Agrarian perspectives XXIV: Global agribusiness and the rural economy. Prague, Czech Republic : Czech University Life Science, p. 416-424. ISBN 78-80-213-2581-4.
Vanyi G. V., Csapo, Z., Karpati, L. 2010. Honey consumption in Europe with especial regard to Hungary. In 45th Croatian & 5th International Symposium on Agriculture: Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. Opatija, Croatia : Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, p. 200-204. ISBN 978-953-6331-80-2.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).