Effects of cross-linking modification with phosphoryl chloride (POCl3) on pysiochemical properties of barley starch


  • Zahra Malekpour Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord
  • Mohammad Hojatoleslamy Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord
  • Hooman Molavi Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord
  • Javad Keramat Department of Food Science and Technology, Isfahan University of Technology, Esfahan
  • Amirpouya Ghandehari Yazdi Department Agriculture Faculty, Tarbiat modares, Tehran
  • Mohammad Ali Shariati Orel State Agrarian University




Barley, starch, modification, cross-linking, physiochemical properties


Chemical methods are one of the comon method in starch modification. This study aimed at investigating of cross-link affection of phosphoryl chloride with two different levels 0.5 and 1g.kg-1 in order to enhance funciotnal proeprties and physiochemical changes on extracted starch from barley variety Bahman which cultivates in Chahr-Mahal Bakhtiari Province of Iran. Obtained results indicated that cross-linking leads to reduce sweeling power of strach granuls compred to natural starch and the amount of reduciton increase via the substitituin level. Powerfull cross-linkingnetween starch chains casue more resistance of granules to seweeling which is increased by means of cross-linking dgree. Additioally,  investigationresults from synersis revealed that releasing water percentage in cross-linked starches increase in comparison to natural starches and this amount depends onthe amount of cross-link surface with a significantly difference in (α <0.05). Gelatinization temperature in both levels negligibly increased by modification where in low level of cross-linking was more. Furthermoe evaluating gelation temperatures of both natural and cross-linked modified starches showed that addition of phosphate groups in starch and creating extra coovalent bonds make granues more compressed reulting in slight increase of To, Tp, Tcin barley starch. Icreasing of temperature observed more in less concentration of cross-links. Evaluation of viscosity changes also revealed that this modification depending on increasing the amount of Phosphoryl Chloride led to increasing peak temperature, diminish peak and setback viscosity. Result also exhibited that in morphological level, cross-link causes to incidence changes in particles' diameter size. The comparison of diameter average and frequency between natural starch and cross-links starch exhibited that in cross-linkd treatment with 0.5% phosphoryl chloride, increase in frequency of granules with diameter of 6 - 10µm and >20 µm obersced. While frequency of granules with diamater size of 2 - 6 µm and 10 - 20 µm has been reduced to 0 which create bigger granules.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abbas, K. A., Khalil, S. K., Hussin, A. S. M. 2010. Modified Starches and Their Usages in Selected Food Products. Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 90-100. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v2n2p90 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v2n2p90

Ackar, D., Babic, J., Subaric, D., Kopjar, M., Milicevic, B. 2010. Isolation of starch from two wheat varieties and their modification with epichlorohydrin. Carbohydrate Polymer, vol. 81, no. 1, p. 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.058

Alvani, K., Qi, X. Tester, R, F. Snape, C, E. 2011. Physico-chemical properties of potato starches. Food Chemistry, vol. 125, no 3, p. 958-965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.088 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.088

Bello-Perez, L. A., Agama-Acevedo, E., Zamudio-Flores, P. B., Mendez-Montealvo, G., Rodriguez-Ambriz, S. L. 2010. Effect of low and high acetylation degree in the morphological, physicochemical and structural characteristics of barley starch. Lwt-Food Science Technology, vol. 43, no. 9, p. 1434-1440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.04.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.04.003

Carmona-Garcia, R., Sanchez-Rivera, M. M., Mendez-Montealvo, G. 2009. Effect of the cross-linked reagent type on some morphological, physicochemical and functional characteristics of banana starch (Musa paradisiace). Carbohydrate Polymer, vol. 76, no. 1, p. 117-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.09.029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.09.029

Das, A. B., Singh, G., Singh, S., Riar, C. S. 2010. Effect of acetylation and dual modification on physico-chemical, rheological and morphological characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) starch. Carbohydrate Polymer, vol. 80, p. 725-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.12.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.12.018

Dubois, I., Picton, L., Muller, G., Audibert- Hayet, A., Doublier, J. L. 2001. Structure/Rheological Properties Relations of Cross-linked Potato Starch Suspensions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 81, no. 10, p. 2480-2489. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1690 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1690

Gujral, H. S., Sharma, P., Kaur, H., Singh, J. 2013. Physiochemical, pasting and thermal properties of starch isolated from different barley cultivars. International Journal of Food propretés, vol. 16, no. 7, 1494-1506. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2011.595863 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2011.595863

Hung, P.V., Morita, N.2005. Effects of Granule Sizes on Physicochemical Properties of Cross-linked and Acetylated Wheat Starches. Starch/Stärk., vol. 57, no. 9, p. 413-420. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200500417 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200500417

Jyothi, A. N., Moorthy, S. N., Rajasekharan, K. N. 2006. Effect of Cross-linking with epichlorohydrin on the Properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch. Starch/Stärke, vol. 58, no. 6, p. 292-299. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200500468 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200500468

Kaur, L., Singh, J., Singh, N. 2006. Effect of cross-linking on some properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) starches. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 86, no. 12, p. 1945-1954. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2568 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2568

Kaur, B., Ariffin, F., Bhat, R., Karim, A. A. 2012. Progress in starch modification in the last decade. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 398-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.02.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.02.016

Kim, B. Y., Yoo, B. 2010. Effects of cross-linking on the rheological and thermal properties of sweet potato starch. Starch/ Starke, vol. 62, no. 11, p. 577-583. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201000035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201000035

Koo, S. H., Lee, K. Y., Lee, H. G. 2010. Effect of cross-linking on the physicochemical and physiological properties of corn starch. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 24, no. 6-7, p. 619-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.02.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.02.009

Leach, H. W., Mccowen, L. D., Schoch, T. J. 1959. Structure of the starch granule: swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Science, vol. 36, p. 534-544.

Lim, W. J., Liang, Y. T., Seib, P. A., Rao, C. S. 1992. Isolation of oat Starch from oat Flour. Cereal Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 3, p. 233-236.

M. Light, J. 1989. Modified Food Starches: Why, What, Where and How. In: Symposium on Modified Food Starches at AACC's74th Annual Meeting in Washington, DC, October 29-November 2.

Majzoobi, M., Sabery, B., Farahnaky, A., Karrila, T. T. 2012. Physicochemical properties of cross-linked-annealed wheat starch. Iran Polymer Journal, vol. 21, no. 8, p. 513-522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13726-012-0056-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13726-012-0056-8

Miyazaki, M., Hung, P. V., Maeda, T., Morte, N. 2006. Recent advances in application of modified starches for breadmaking. Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 11, p. 591-599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.05.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.05.002

Myllärinen, P., Schulman, A. H., Salovaara, H. Poutanen, K. 1998. The Effect of Growth temperature on gelatinization properties of Barley Starch. Acta agric. Scandinavica, Sect. B - Soil and Plant Science, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064719809362484 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09064719809362484

Polnaya, F. J., Haryadimarseno, D. W, Cahyanto, M. N. 2013. Effects of phosphorylation and cross-linking on the pasting properties and molecular structure of sago starch. International Food Research Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 1609-1615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.006

Raina, C. S., Singh, S., Bawa, A. S., Saxena, D. C. 2007. A comparative study of Indian rice starches using different modification model solutions. Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 5, p. 885-892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.03.025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.03.025

Singh, S. N., Singh, N. 2005. Characteristics of acetylated starches prepared using starches separated from different rice cultivars. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 70, p. 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.09.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.09.018

Singh, J., McCarthy, O J. Singh, H. 2006. Physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of New Zealand Taewa (Maori potato) starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 569-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.11.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.11.013

Singh, J., Kaur, L., Mccarthy, O. J. 2007. Factors influencing the physico-chemical, morphological, thermal and rheological properties of some chemically modified starches for food applications. A review. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 21, p. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.02.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.02.006

Sullivan, P., Arendt, E., Gallagher, E. 2013. The increasing use of barley and barley by-products in the production of healthier baked goods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 2, p. 124-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.10.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.10.005

Xiao, H., Lin, Q., Liu, G, Q. 2012. Effect of Cross-Linking and Enzymatic hydrolysis composite Modification on the Properties of Rice Starches. Molecules, vol. 17, no. 7, p. 8136-8146. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17078136 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17078136

Yosif, E. I., Gadallah, M. G. E., Sorour, A. M., 2011. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of modified corn starches and its effect on noodle quality. Annals of Agriculture Science, vol. 57, no. 1, p. 19-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2012.03.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2012.03.008

Zhao, J., Schols, H. A., Chen, Z., Jin, Z., Buwalda, P., Gruppen, H. 2012. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch. Food Chemistry, vol. 133, no. 4, p. 1333-1340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.021




How to Cite

Malekpour, Z. ., Hojatoleslamy, M. ., Molavi, H. ., Keramat, J. ., Yazdi, A. G., & Shariati, M. A. . (2016). Effects of cross-linking modification with phosphoryl chloride (POCl3) on pysiochemical properties of barley starch. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 10(1), 195–201. https://doi.org/10.5219/627

Most read articles by the same author(s)