Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters
Keywords:stomata, barley, phytoextraction, cadmium, heavy metals
Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass) and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata) characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots) were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was performed by atomic absorption spectrometer Varian 240 Z with GTA120 graphite furnace. The effect of contamination by cadmium to germination, length of leaves and number of stomata on abaxial side of leaf was confirmed. The contaminated soil by cadmium does not pose a risk of heavy metal entry into the feed and food chain by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).
Akpor, O. B., Ohiobor, G. O., Olaolu, T. D. 2014. Heavy metal pollutants in wastewater effluents: Sources, effects and remediation. Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering. vol. 2, no. 4, p. 37-43. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.abb.20140204.11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.abb.20140204.11
Akher, M. F., Macfie S. M. 2012. Species-Specific relationship between Transpiration and Cadmium Translocation in Lettuce, Barley and Radish. Journal of Plant Studies. vol. 1, no. 1, p. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v1n1p2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v1n1p2
Akher, M. F., Omelon, Ch. R., Gordon, R. A., Moser, D., Macfie S. M. 2014. Localization and chemical speciation of cadmium in the roots of barley and lettuce. Environmental and Experimental Botany. vol. 100, no. 1, p. 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.12.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.12.005
Wani, A. S., Ahmad, A., Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q. 2013. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 183-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.01.006 PMid:23961235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.01.006
Cohen, C. K., Fox, T. C., Garvin, D. F., Kochian, L. V. 1998. The role of iron-deficiency stress responses in stimulating heavy-metal transport in plants. Plant Physiology. vol. 116, p. 1063-1072. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.116.3.1063 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.116.3.1063
Gardea-Torresdey, J. I., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Rosa, G. D., Parsons, J. G. 2005. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and study of the metal coordination by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. vol. 249, no. 17-18, p. 1797-1810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2005.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2005.01.001
Hoagland, D. R., Arnon, D. I. 1950. The water - culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular, vol. 347, p. 1-32.
Ivanišová, E., Ondrejovič, M., Dráb, Š., Tokár, M. 2011. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of milling fractions of selected cereals grown in the year 2010. Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 28-33. https://doi.org/10.5219/163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/163
Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H. 2001. Trace Metals in Soils and Plants, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420039900
Kherbani, N., Abdi, N., Lounici, H. 2015. Effect of cadmiumand zinc on growing barley. Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 160-172. https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2015.62018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2015.62018
Kocková, M., Valík, Ľ. 2011. Potencial of cereals and pseudocereals for lactic acid fermentations. Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, no. 2, s. 27-40. https://doi.org/10.5219/127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/127
Lachman, J., Dudjak, J., Miholová, D., Kolihová, D., Pivec. V. 2004. Effect of cadmium stress on the uptake and distribution of microelements copper and zinc in plant parts of barley (Hordeum sativum L.). Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, vol. 35, no. 3, p. 81-86.
Lachman, J., Kotíková, Z., Zámečníková, B., Miholová, D., Száková, J., Vodičková, H. 2015. Effect of cadmium stress on barley tissue damage and essential metal transport into plant. Open Life Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 30-39. https://doi.org/10.1515/biol-2015-0004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/biol-2015-0004
Lasat, M. M., Pence, N. S., Garvin, D. F., Ebbs, S. D., Kochian, L. V. 2000. Molecular physiology of zinc transport in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Journal of Experimental Botany. vol. 51, no. 342, p. 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.342.71 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/51.342.71
Maslin, P., Maier, R. M. 2000. Rhamnolipid-enhanced mineralization of phenanthrene in organic-metal co-contaminated soils, Bioremediation Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 295-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/10889860091114266 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10889860091114266
Munns, R., Tester, M., 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology. vol. 59, no. 1, p. 651-681. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911
Ochonogor, R. O., Atagana, H. I. 2014. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil by Psoralea Pinnata. International Journal of Environmental Science and Developement, vol. 5, no. 5, p. 440-443. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijesd.2014.v5.524 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.524
Pence, N. S., Larsen, P. B., Ebbs, S. D., Letham, D. L., Lasat, M. M., Garvin, D. F., Eide, D., Kochian, L. V. 2000. The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 97, no. 9, p. 4956-4960. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.9.4956 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.9.4956
Perfus-Barbeoch, L., Leonhardt, N., Vavasseur, A., Forestier, C. 2002. Heavy metal toxicity: cadmium permeates through calcium channels and disturbs the plant water status. The Plant Journal. vol. 32, no. 4, p. 539-548. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313x.2002.01442.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01442.x
Piršelová, B., Lukáč, P., Dobroviczká, T., Mészáros, P., Libantová, J., Moravčíková, J., Matušíková, I. 2010. Vplyv iónov kadmia na vybrané morfologicko-fyziologické charakteristiky bôbu obyčajného cv. Aštar. (Effects of cadmium ions on selected morphological and physiological characteristics of faba bean cv. Aštar). Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, special issue, p. 337-341. Available at: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/mc_februar_2010/pdf/3/Pirselova.pdf
Puertas-Mejía, M. A., Ruiz-Díez, B., Fernández-Pascual, M. 2010. Effect of cadmium ion excess over cell structure and functioning of Zea mays and Hordeum vulgare. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 285-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2010.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2010.02.001
Saladin, G. 2015. Phytoextraction of heavy metals: The potential efficiency of conifers. Soil Biology. vol. 44. p. 333-353. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14526-6_18 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14526-6_18
Sharma, S. S., Kaul, S., Metwally, A., Goyal, K. C., Finkemeier, I., Dietz, K. J. 2004. Cadmium toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) as affected by varying Fe nutritional status. Plant Science, vol. 166, no. 5, p. 1287-1295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.01.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.01.006
Sharma, S. S., Dietz K. J. 2008. The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends in Plant Science, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.10.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.10.007
Stanbrough, R., Chuaboonmee, S., Palombo E. A., Malherbe, F., Bhave, M. 2013. Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Potential of a Heavy Metal Resistant Soil Bacterial Isolate, Achromobacter sp. Strain AO22.
Trebichalský, P., Molnárová, J., Musilová, J., Bystrická, J., Bajčan, D. 2010. Obsah kadmia a olova v zrne jačmeňa siateho s ohľadom na dodržanie ekologickej rovnováhy pestovateľského prostredia. (Cadmium and lead contents in barley grains from the view point of ecologicla balance cultivation environment). Potravinarstvo, vol. 4,
special issue, p. 358-363. Available at: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/mc_februar_2010/pdf/3/Trebichalsky.pdf
Tyokumbur, E. and Okorie, T. 2014. Toxic trace metal contamination (Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead) of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rupell, 1852) from Alaro stream in Ibadan. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 258-261. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jfns.20140206.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jfns.20140206.13
Wuana, R. A., Okieimen, F. E. 2011. Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation. ISRN Ecology. vol. 2011, p. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/402647 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/402647
Zhang, H. J., Dong, H. Z., Li, W. J., Zhang, D. M. 2011. Effects of soil salinity and plant density on yield and leaf senescence of field - grown cotton. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. vol. 198, no. 1, p. 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037x.2011.00481.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2011.00481.x
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.