The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index
Keywords:cardiovascular disease, risk factor, dietary habits, lipid profile, body mass index
In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88%) and 141 men (69.12%), we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI). We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05) in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG) ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05) in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001). We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food consumption, however the difference was not statistically significant. While assessing the nutritional history, we have recorded frequent consumption of meat and meat products which are consumed by 49.21% of women and 60.28% of men (P <0.001) more than four times a week, while more than 30% of women and men consume them daily. On the contrary, women consume fish more often, while 53.97% of women and 48.23% of men consume it 1 to 2 times a week. Although fruit and vegetable are part of daily diet of almost all patients, it is insufficient in portions of one or two pieces a day compared with dietary recommendations. We noticed significantly higher BMI (P <0.05) in men who consume sweetened beverages, than men who consume mostly non-sweetened beverages.
Ambrosini, G. L., Huang, R. C., Mori, T. A., Hands, B. P., O'Sullivan, T. A., de Klerk, N. H., Beilin, L. J., Oddy, W. H. 2010. Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescent. Nutr. Metabol Cardiovasc, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 274-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2009.03.024
Bastien, M., Poirier, P., Lemieux, I., Després, J. P. 2014. Overview of Epidemiology and Contribution of Obesity to Cardiovascular Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 56, no. 4, p. 369-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.10.016
Bazzano, L. 2006. The High Cost of Not Consuming Fruits and Vegetables. J A Diet Assoc., vol. 106, no. 9, p. 1364-1368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.06.021
Boeing, H., Bechthold, A., Bub, A., Ellinger, S., Haller, D., Kroke, A., Leschik-Bonnet, E., Müller, MJ, Oberritter, H., Schulze, M., Stehle, P., Watzl, B. 2012. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr., vol. 51, no. 6, p. 637-663. https://doi.org/10.10.1007/s00394-012-0380-y PMid:22684631
Dixon, J. B., O’Brian, P. E. 2002. Lipid profile in the severely obese. Obes Res., vol. 10, no. 9, p. 903-909. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.124 PMid:12226139
Golzarand, M., Mirmiran, P., Jessri, M., Toolabi, K., Mojarrad, M., Azizi, F. 2012. Dietary trends in the Middle East and North Africa. An ecological study (1961 to 2007). Public Health Nutr., vol. 15, no. 10, p. 1835-1844. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011003673
Hu, F. B. 2013. Resolved: there issufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obesity Rev, vol. 14, no. 8, p. 606-619. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12040
Huang, Z., Willett, C. W., Manson, J. E., Rosner, B., Stampfer, M. J., Speizer, F. E., Colditz, G. A. 1998. Body weight, weight change, and risk for hypertension in women. Ann Intern Med, vol. 128, no. 2, p. 81-88. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-128-2-199801150-00001 PMid:9441586
Jones, D. W., Miller, M. E., Wofford, M. R., Anderson, D. C., Cameron, M. E., Willoughby, D. L., Adair, C. T., King, N. S. 1999. The effect of weight loss intervention on antihypertensive medication requirements in the hypertesion optimal treatment (HOT) study. American Jornal of Hypertension, vol. 153, no. 12, p. 186-208. PMid:10619579
Kamenský, G. 2007. Európska charta zdravia srdca (European chart of hearth healt). Cardiol, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 73-75.
Keller, K., López, S. R., Moreno, M. C., Cantero, P. A. 2014. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults. Appetite, vol. 83, p. 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.08.012
Peeters, A., Barendregt, J. J.,Willekens, F., Mackenbach, J. P., Mamun, A., Bonneux, L. 2003. Obesity of adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med, vol. 138, no. 1, p. 24-32. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-138-1-200301070-00008 PMid:12513041
Pérez, C. E. 2002. Fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Reports, vol. 13, no. 3, p. 23-31. PMid:12743958
Perk, J., De Backer, G., Gohlke, H., Graham, I., Reiner, Ž., Verschuren, W. M. M., Albus, Ch., Benlian, P., Boysen, G., Cifkova, R., Deaton, Ch., Ebrahim, S., Fisher, M., Germano, G., Hobbs, R., Hoes, A., Karadeniz, S., Mezzani, A., Prescott, A., Ryden, L. 2012. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The Fifth Join Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Atherosclerosis, vol. 223, no. 1, p. 1-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.007
Poirier, P., Giles, T. D., Bray, G. A., Hong, Y., Stern, J. S., Pi-Sunyer, F. X., Eckel, R. H. 2006. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, vol. 26, no. 5, p. 968-976. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000216787.85457.f3 PMid:16627822
Popkin, B. M. 2014. Nutrition, agriculture and the global food system in low and middle income countries. Food Policy, vol. 47, August 2014, p. 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.05.001
Reiner, Z., Catapano, A. L., De Backer, G., Taskinen, M. R., Wiklund, O., Agewall, S., Alegria, E., Chapman, M. J., Durrington, P., Erdine, S., Halcox, J., Hobbs, R., Kjekshus, J., Filardi, P. P., Riccardi, G., Storey, R. F., Wood, D. 2011. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J, vol. 32, no. 14, p. 1769-1818. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehr158
Sayon-Orea, C., Bes-Rastrollo, M., Basterra-Gortari, F. J., Beunza, J. J., Guallar-Castillon, P., de la Fuente-Arrillaga, C., Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A. 2013. Consumption of fried foods and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis., vol. 23, no. 2, p. 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2011.03.014
Serdula, M. K., Byers, T., Mokdad, A. H. 1996. The association between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease risk factors. Epidemiology, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 161-165. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199603000-00010 PMid:8834556
Whitney, E. N., Rolfes, S. R. 2002. Understanding nutrition. 9th ed. USA: Wadsworth/Thomson learning, 2002. 697 p., ISBN 0-534-59004-7.
Wilkins, K., Campbell, N. R., Joffres, M. R., McAlister, F. A., Nichol, M., Quach, S., Johansen, H. L., Tremblay, M. S. 2010. Blood pressure in Canadian adults. Health Rep., vol. 21, no.1 p. 37-46. PMid:20426225
Wormser, D., Kaptoge, S., Di, A. E. 2011. Separate and combined association of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9771,
p. 1085-1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60105-0
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).