Monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult men

Authors

  • Jana Mrázová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414223 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9540-1530
  • Soňa Bӧtӧšová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
  • Jana Kopčeková Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414225 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0989-7868
  • Petra Lenártová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414246 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2899-7191
  • Martina Gažarová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414210 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8275-7311
  • Marta Habánová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414467
  • Kristína Jančichová Slovak University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Human Nutrition, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421376414249

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/1641

Keywords:

cardiovascular disease, risk factor, nutrition, lipid parameter, dietary habits

Abstract

The study aims to evaluate the monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the young population, which significantly contribute to the origin and development of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral artery diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and others. We focused on a group of young adult men (n = 110) in the age range of 30 to 50 years, which we selected from the database of 800 patients hospitalized in the Cardio Center in Nitra during 2010 – 2020. When evaluating the influence of meat products consumption frequency on biochemical parameters and BMI, we recorded a statistically significant effect at the level of p <0.05 in the evaluation of meat products such as salami, brawn, and sausages. When consuming sausages, BMI values also increased with increasing frequency of consumption. The effect on BMI was also observed when eating salami, between consuming 1 – 2 times a week and not at all. We recorded a statistically significant effect (p <0.05) in frequent consumption of brawn (1 – 2 weeks) on the level of HDL cholesterol. The most frequent fish consumption was 1 – 2 times a month for freshwater (51.8%) and marine fish (56.3%). Daily consumption of fruit was reported in 64.6% of men, while daily consumption of vegetables was recorded in only 44.6% of men. In the lifestyle assessment, we focused on probands' time spent on physical activity. Only 35.5% of men stated that they spend more than an hour a day on physical activity. 40% of men from the surveyed respondents were active smokers. Another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases is stress, which significantly affected up to 42.7% of respondents. Nutrition and lifestyle play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, which significantly affect blood lipid parameters, vascular endothelial elasticity, and factors determining the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abbate, M., Gallardo-Alfaro, L., Bibiloni, M. del M., Tur, J. A. 2020. Efficacy of dietary intervention or in combination with exercise on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 30, no. 7, p.1080-1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.02.020

Alhassan, A., Young, J., Lean, M., Lara, J. 2017. Consumption of fish and vascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Atherosclerosis, vol. 266, p. 87-94 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.09.028

Alwan, A. 2011. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010, World Health Organization.

American Medical Association. 2001. Executive summary of the third report (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (n.d.). Journal of American Medical Association, vol. 285, p. 2486-2497. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486

Bekkering, S., Saner, Ch., Riksen, N. P., Netea, M. G., Sabin, M. A., Saffery, R., Stienstra, R., Burgner, D. P. 2020. Trained Immunity: Linking Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease across the Life-Course? Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 5, p. 378-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2020.01.008

Cocate, P. G., Natali, A. J., Oliveira, A., Alfenas, R. C. G., Peluzio, M. C. G., Longo, G. Z., Santos, E. C., Buthers, J. M., Oliveira, L. L., Hermsdorff, H. H. M. 2015. Red but not white meat consumption is associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in Brazilian middle-aged men. European Jornal of Prevetive Cardiology, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 223-230. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487313507684

Dalhöf, B. 2010. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment. The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, no. 1, p. 3-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.10.007

Delgado, J., Ansorena, D., Hecke, T., Astiasarán, I., Smet, S., Estévez, M. 2021. Meat lipids, NaCl and carnitine: Do they unveil the conundrum of the association between red and processed meat intake and cardiovascular diseases?_Invited Review. Meat Science, vol. 171, 108278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108278

Dzau, V. J., Antman, E. M., Black, H. R., Hayes, D. L., Manson, J. E., Plutzky, J., Popma, J. J., Stevenson, W. 2006. The cardiovascular disease continuum validated: clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes: part I: patho-physiology and clinical trial evidence (risk factors through stable coronary artery disease). Circulation, vol. 114, p. 2850-2870. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.106.655688

Emery, Ch. F., Stoney, C. M., Thayer, J. F., Williams, DeW. 2018. Sex and family history of cardiovascular disease influence heart rate variability during stress among healthy adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 110, p. 54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.04.011

Forouzanfar, M. H., Alexander, L., Anderson, H. R., Bachman, V. F., Biryukov, S., Brauer, M., Burnett, R., Casey, D., Coates, M. M., Cohen, A., Delwiche, K. et al. 2015. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, vol. 386, iss.10010, p. 2287-2323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2

Galiuto, L., Locorotondo, G. 2017. Cardiovascular Aging. Integrative Cardiology, p. 109-120. e Book ISBN 978-3-319-40010-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40010-5

Gan, Y., Tong, X., Li, L., Cao, S., Yin, X., Herath, Ch., Li, W., Jin, Z., Chen, Y., Lu, Z. 2015. Consumption of fruit and vegetable and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 183, p. 129-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.077

Gao, Z., Chen, Z., Sun, A., Deng, X. 2019. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease. Medicine in Novel Technology and Devices, vol. 4, 100025 .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medntd.2019.100025

Ginty, A., Kraynak, T. E., Fisher, J. P., Gianaros, P. J. 2017. Cardiovascular and autonomic reactivity to psychological stress: Neurophysiological substrates and links to cardiovascular disease. Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 12, p. 1086-1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2017.03.003

Hassannejad, R., Moosavian, S. P., Mohammadifard, N., Mansourian, M., Roohafza, H., Sadeghi, M., Sarrafzadegan, N. 2021. Long term association of red meat consumption and lipid profile: A 13-year prospective population-based cohort study. Nutrition, vol. 86, 111144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111144

Juonala, M., Magnussen, C. G., Berenson, G. S., Venn, A., Burns, T. L., Sabin, M. A. et al. 2011. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 365, p. 1876-1885 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1010112

Kaneko, H., Itoh, H., Kiriyama, H., Kamon, T., Fujiu, K., Morita, K., Michihata, N., Jo, T., Takeda, N., Morita, H., Yasunaga, H., Komuro, I. 2021. Lipid Profile and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults Aged < 50 Years. The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 142, p. 59-65 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.11.038

Kataria, N., Panda, A., Singh S., Patrikar, S., Sampath, S. 2020. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a healthy young population: Family matters. Medical Journal Armed Forces India https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2020.07.002

Kontogianni, M. D., Panagiotakos, D. B., Pitsavos, C., Chrysohoou, C., Stefanadis, C. 2008. Relationship between meat intake and the development of acute coronary syndromes: The CARDIO 2000 case – Control study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 62, p. 171-177. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602713

Kopčeková, J., Lorková, M., Habánová, M., Chlebo, P., Ferenčíková, Z., Chlebová, Z. 2015. The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 330-336. https://doi.org/10.5219/491

Kotseva, K., De Bacquer, D., De Backer, G., Rydén, L., Jennings, C., Gyberg, V. et al. 2016. Lifestyle and risk factor management in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. A report from the European Society of Cardiology European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV cross-sectional survey in 14 European regions. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol., vol. 23, no. 18, p. 2007-2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487316667784

Kourlaba, G., Panagiotakos, D. B. 2009. Dietary quality indices and human health: A review. Maturitas, vol. 62, no. 1, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.11.021

Kumar, A. 2014. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., vol. 4, p.1001-1008. https://doi.org/10.12980/apjtb.4.201414b401

Lafarga, T., Hayes, M. 2014. Bioactive peptides from meat muscle and by-products: generation, functionality and application as functional ingredients. Meat Sci., vol. 98, p. 227-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.05.036

Lee, M. S., Chen, C-H. 2015. Myocardial bridging: an up-to-date review. J. Invasive Cardiol., vol. 27, no. 11, p.521-528.

Lin, Ch.Y., Huang, P. Ch., Wu, Ch., Sung F. Ch., Su, T. Ch. 2020. Association between urine lead levels and cardiovascular disease risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 232, no. 1, p. 248-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.08.005

Liu, K., Daviglus, M. L., Loria, C. M., Colangelo, L. A., Spring, B., Moller, A. C., Lloyd-Jones, D. M. 2012. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age the coronary artery risk development in (Young) adults (Cardia) study. Circulation, vol. 125, no. 8, p. 996-1004. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.111.060681

Nayeri, A., Middlekauff, H. 2021. Vaping Instead of Cigarette Smoking: A Panacea or Just Another Form of Cardiovascular Risk? Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 37, p. 690-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.12.008

Pan, A., Lin, X., Hemler, E., Hu, F. B. 2018. Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: Advances and Challenges in Population-Based Studies. Cell Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 489-496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.02.017

Pan, L., Yang, Z., Wu, Y., Yin, R. X., Liao, Y., Wang, J., Gao, B., Zhang, L. 2016. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia among adults in China. Atherosclerosis, vol. 248, p. 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.02.006

Pase, M. P, Grima, N. A, Sarris, J. 2011. The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 93, p. 446-454. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.110.002725

Perk, J., De Backer, G., Gohlke, H., Graham, I., Reiner, Z., Verschuren, M. et al. 2012. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur. Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vol. 19, iss. 4, p. 585-667. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487312450228

Piepoli, M., Hoes, A.W., Agewall, S., Albus, Ch., Brotons, C., Catapano, A.L. et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Atherosclerosis, vol. 252, p. 207-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.05.037

Rhee, J. J., Kim, E., Buring, J. E., Kurth, T. 2017. Fish Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.020

Ross, R. 1999. Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease. N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 340, p. 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199901143400207

Semková, D., Pella, D. 2020. Myocardial infarction in focus: News in ESC / EAS recommendations. Compedium of Medicine, vol. 1, p. 3-5. ISSN 1336-4871.

Sheibani, H., Saberi-Karimian, M., Esmaily, H., Mouhebati, M., Reza Azarpazhooh, M., Divbands, G. et al. 2020. A comparison of body mass index and body fat percentage for predicting cardiovascular disease risk. Translational Metabolic Syndrome Research, vol. 3, p. 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmsr.2020.06.001

Schmid, A., Gille, D., Piccinali, P., Bütikofer, U. 2017. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland. Food. Nutr. Res., vol. 61, p. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1308111

Simpson, E. J., Clark, M., Razak, A. A., Salter, A. 2019. The impact of reduced red and processed meat consumption on cardiovascular risk factors; an intervention trial in healthy volunteers. Food Funct., vol. 10, p. 6690-6698. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00758j

Tarp, J., Brønd, J. Ch., Andersen, L. B., Møller, N. CH., Froberg, K., Grøntved, A. 2016. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and long-term cardiovascular risk inyoung people: A review and discussion of methodology inprospective studies. Journal of Sport and Health Science, vol. 52, no. 2, p. 145-150 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.03.004

Tisdel, D. M., Gadberry, D. P. T., Burke, S. L., Carlini, N. A., Fleenor, B. S., Campbell, M. S. 2021. Dietary Fat and Alcohol in the Prediction of Indices of Vascular Health Among Young Adults. Nutrition, vol. 84, p. 111120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111120

Tripathy, J. P., Thakur, J. S., Jeet, G., Chawla, S., Jain, S., Pal, A. et al. 2017. Burden and risk factors of dyslipidemia-results from a STEPS survey in Punjab India. Diabetes Metab Syndr, vol. 1, suppl. 1, p. S21-S27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.08.015

Tsai, R-Je, Lai, H-Y, Ni, Ch-F, Tsao, S-M, Lan, G-Y, Hsieh, KLi-Ch. 2018. Young adult cardiovascular diseases: a single center coronary computed tomography angiography study. Clinical Imaging, vol. 52, p. 343-349. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2018.09.013

Van der Pol-Harney, E., Turner, R., McCaffery, K., Bonner, C. 2020. The effects of communicating cardiovascular disease risk as 'fitness age' on behavioral intentions and psychological outcomes. Patient Education and Counseling. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.12.030

Villa, A.D, Sammut, E., Nair, A., Rajani, R., Bonamini, R., Chiribiri, A. 2016. Coronary artery anomalies overview: the normal and the abnormal. World Journal of Radiology, vol. 8, no. 6, p. 537. https://doi.org/10.4329/wjr.v8.i6.537

Williamson, T. M., Moran, Ch., McLennan, A., Seidel, S., Ma, P. P., Koerner, M. L., Campbell, T. S. 2021. Promoting adherence to physical activity among individuals with cardiovascular disease using behavioral counseling: A theory and research-based primer for health care professionals. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 64, p. 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.12.007

Wright, C., O’Donnell, K., Brydon, L., Wardle, J., Steptoe, A. 2007. Family history of cardiovascular disease is associated with cardiovascular responses to stress in healthy young men and womwn. International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 63, no. 3, p. 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.11.005

Xing, L., Jing, L., Tian, Y., Yan, H., Zhang, B., Sun, Q., Dai, D., Shi, L., Liu, D., Yang, Z., Liu, S. 2020. Epidemiology of dyslipidemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors in northeast China: A cross-sectional study. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 30, no. 12, p. 2262-2270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.032

Yu, E., Malik, V. S., Hu, F. B. 2018. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention by Diet Modification: JACC Health Promotion Series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 72, no. 8, p. 914-926 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.085

Zheng, H., Echave, P., Mehta, N., Myrskylä, M. 2021. Life-long body mass index trajectories and mortality in two generations. Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 56, p. 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.01.003

Published

2021-09-28

How to Cite

Mrázová, J., Bӧtӧšová S., Kopčeková, J., Lenártová, P., Gažarová M., Habánová M., & Jančichová, K. (2021). Monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult men. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 672–679. https://doi.org/10.5219/1641

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>