The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index
Keywords:cardiovascular disease, risk factor, dietary habits, lipid profile, body mass index
In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88%) and 141 men (69.12%), we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI). We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05) in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG) ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05) in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001). We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food consumption, however the difference was not statistically significant. While assessing the nutritional history, we have recorded frequent consumption of meat and meat products which are consumed by 49.21% of women and 60.28% of men (P <0.001) more than four times a week, while more than 30% of women and men consume them daily. On the contrary, women consume fish more often, while 53.97% of women and 48.23% of men consume it 1 to 2 times a week. Although fruit and vegetable are part of daily diet of almost all patients, it is insufficient in portions of one or two pieces a day compared with dietary recommendations. We noticed significantly higher BMI (P <0.05) in men who consume sweetened beverages, than men who consume mostly non-sweetened beverages.
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