Occurence of antibiotic resistant enterococci on skin of teats and teat cups of milking machine


  • Anna Krebs Artimová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Evaluation and Processing Animal Products, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
  • Viera Ducková Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Evaluation and Processing Animal Products, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovaki
  • Miroslav Kročko Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Evaluation and Processing Animal Products, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovaki




enterococci, antibiotic resistance, teat, teat cup


The production of high-quality milk with low bacteriological counts begins at the farm and involves multiple factors related to cows, environment, and hygiene of equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of enterococci in conditions of farmhouse production and antibiotic resistance of 49 strains isolated from skin of teats and 50 strains isolated from teat cups of milking machine. The samples for enumeration and isolation of enterococci were cultured on selective diagnostic Slanetz-Bartley agar. The isolates were phenotypically identified at the species level with EN-COCCUS test. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci to antibiotic (vancomycin 30 μg/disc, ampicillin 10 μg/disc, erythromycin 15 μg/disc, gentamicin 120 μg/disc, teicoplanin 30 μg/disc and tetracycline 30 μg/disc) were tested using the disc diffusion method.  The counts of enterococci from teats reached the average value 2.77 log10 cfu.ml-1 and from teat cups of milking machine average value 2.85 log10 cfu.ml-1. The dominant species isolated from teats (41%) and also from teat cups (36%) were representatives of E. group III - E. durans, E. hirae, E. faecalis asaccharolytic var. The isolates of enterococci obtained from teats showed resistance to tetracycline (4%), erythromycin (4%) and intermediary resistance to tetracycline (8%), erythromycin (25%) and to vancomycin (8%). The isolates of enterococci obtained from teat cups showed resistance to tetracycline (2%) and intermediary resistance to erythromycin (20%) and to vancomycin (6%). No resistance to the antibiotic teicoplanin, ampicillin and gentamicin was found. The most of the isolates of enterococci were sensitive to the tested antibiotics.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Bramley, A. J., McKinnon, C. H. 1990. The microbiology of raw milk. Dairy Microbiology, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 163-208.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2002. Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin – United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 51, no. 26, p. 565-567. PMid:12139181

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2011. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-First Informational Supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 82-87.

Čanigová, M., Ducková, V., Kročko, M., Račková, J., Bezeková, J. 2012. Enterococci and their ability to form a biofilm. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 15-18. https://doi.org/10.5219/200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/200

Dal Bello, B., Rantsiou, K., Bellio, A., Zeppa, G., Ambrosoli, R., Civera, T., Cocolin, L. 2010. Microbial ecology of artisanal products from North West of Italy and antimicrobial activity of the autochthonous populations. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 7, p. 1151-1159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.03.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.03.008

Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP). 2003. Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Food Animals, Foods and Humans in Denmark. DANMAP, Soborg, Denmark.

Ellis, K. A., Innocent, G. T., Mihm, M., Cripps, P., Mclean, W. G., Howard, C. W., Grove-White, D. 2007. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK. Journal of Dairy Research, vol. 74, no. 3,

p. 302-310. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202990700249X PMid:17451622 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202990700249X

Elmosmelany, A. M., Keefe, G. P., Dohoo, I. R., Jayarao, B. M. 2009. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 2: Bacteria count-specific risk factors. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 6, p. 2644-2652. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1813 PMid:19447997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1813

Fabianová, J., Ducková, V., Čanigová, M., Kročko, M. 2010. Presence of enterococci in cow milk and their antibiotic resistance. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 17-21. https://doi.org/10.5219/45 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/45

Franz, C. M. A. P., Stiles, M. E., Schleifer, K. H., Holzaphel, W. H. 2003. Enterococci in foods - a conundrum for food safety. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 88, no. 2-3, p. 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00174-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00174-0

Giraffa, G. 2003. Functionality of enterococci in dairy products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 88, no. 2-3, p. 215-222. http://dx.doiorg/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00183-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00183-1

Hardie, J. M., Whiley, R. A. 1997. Classification and overview of the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus. Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Supplement, vol. 83, no. S1, p. 1S-11S. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.83.s1.1.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.83.s1.1.x

Jackson, C. R., Lombard, J. E., Dargatz, D. A., Fedorka-Cray, P. J. 2010. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from US dairy cattle. Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02964.x PMid:21114506 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02964.x

Jayarao, B. M., Wolfgang. D. R. 2003. Bulk-tank milk analysis. A useful tool for improving milk quality and herd udder health. Veterinary Clinics of North America.: Food Animal Practice, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 75-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(02)00075-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(02)00075-0

Kagkli, D. M., Vancanneyt, M., Hill, C., Vandamme, P., Coga, T. M. 2007. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus contamination of raw milk in a farm dairy environment. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 114, no. 2, p. 243-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro. 2006.09.016 PMid:17189657 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.09.016

Kühm, S., Iversen, A., Burman, L. G., Olsson-Liljequist. B., Franklin, A., Finn, M., Aarestrub, F., Seyfarth, A. M., Blanch. A. R., Taylor, H., Caplin, J., Moreno, M. O., Dominguez, L., Möllby, R. 2000. Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the enviroments. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00146-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00146-1

Lavová, M., Ducková, V., Čanigová, M., Kročko, M. 2011. Enterococci and their ability live out activity of sanitation detergents. Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 42-44. https://doi.org/10.5219/166 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/166

Ma, Y. P., Chang, S. K., Chou, C. C. 2006. Characterization of bacterial susceptibility isolates in sixteen dairy farms in Taiwan. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 89, no. 12, p. 4573-4582. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72507-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72507-3

McKinnon, C. H., Rowlands, G. J., Bramley, A. J. 1990. The effect of udder preparation before milking and contamination from the milking plant on bacterial numbers in bulk milk of eight dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Research, vol. 57, no. 3, p. 307-318. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0022029900026959 PMid:2401758 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900026959

Monsallier, F., Verdier-Metz, I., Agabriel, C., Martin, B., Montel, M. CH. 2012. Variability of microbial teat skin flora in relation to farming practices and individual dairy cow characteristics. Dairy Science & Technology, vol. 92, no. 3, p. 265-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-012-0064-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-012-0064-7

Nam, H. M., Lim, S. K., Moon, J. S., Kang, H. M., Kim, J. M., Jang, K. C., Kim, J. M., Kang, M. I., Joo, Y. S., Jung, S. C. 2010. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Mastitic Bovine Milk Samples in Korea. Zoonoses Public Health, vol. 57, no. 7-8, p. 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01307.x PMid: 20042062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01307.x

National Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). 1999. Performance standards for antimicrobial disc and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. Approved Standard M31 – A. NCCLS. 86 p.

Pradhan, A. K., Van Kessel, J. S., Karns, J. S., Wolfgang, D. R., Hovingh, E., Nelen, K. A., Smith, J. M., Whitlock, R. H., Fyock, T., Ladely, S., Fedorka-Cray, P. J., Schukken, Y. H. 2009. Dynamics of endemic infectious diseases of animal and human importance on three dairy herds in the northeastern United States. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 4, p. 1811-1825. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1486 PMid:19307664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1486

Reneau, J. K., Bey, R. F. 2007. Milk Quality and Free Stall Bedding Management. National Mastitis Council. Reg. Mtg. Proc., Visalia, California. Natl. Mastitis Council Inc., Madison, WI, 2007, p. 10-17.

Reneau, J. K., Seykora, A. J., Heins, B. J., Endres, M. I., Farnsworth, R. J., Bey, R. F. 2005. Association between hygiene scores and somatic cell scores in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 227, no. 8, p. 1297-1301. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005 .227.1297 PMid:16266020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005.227.1297

Todorov, S. D., Dicks, L. M. T. 2005. Characterization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled black olives. Journal of Basic Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 312-322. https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200410532 PMid:16028203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200410532

Ward, W. R., Hughes, J. W., Faull, W. B., Cripps, P. J., Sutherland, J. P., Sutherst, J. E. 2002. Observational study of temperature, moisture, pH and bacteria in straw bedding, and faecal consistency, cleanliness and mastitis in cows in four dairy herds. Veterinary Record, vol. 151, no. 7, p. 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.151.7.199 PMid:12211391 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.151.7.199




How to Cite

Krebs Artimová, A. ., Ducková, V. ., & Kročko, M. . (2013). Occurence of antibiotic resistant enterococci on skin of teats and teat cups of milking machine. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 7(1), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.5219/310

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>