Applying the principles of welfare and quality of production in the organic farm of the laying hens

Authors

  • Mária Angelovičová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Martin Mellen Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Jana Zdechovanová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/298

Keywords:

organic farm, laying hen, welfare, principle, production, egg quality

Abstract

European Union  banned with Council Directive No. 74/1999/EC use of the conventional battery cages for laying hens in European Union with effect from January 1, 2012. By this time much attention was paid to the assessment of laying hens welfare in the modified breeding system,namely from aspect of behavior and expression fyziological stress. At present are used the enriched cages,   which device is defined by the Code of laying hens living conditions. Quantification of intensity and sequence of the events in different behaviour and a time regime can contribute to knowledge of time spending of the laying hens  in the breeding area and to determining of prioritizing their behavior.The aim of our research was assessment an application of principles laying hens welfare in the farm, their production and egg quality. An object of investigation was ecological farm of laying hens. In the experiment were observed thehousing conditions and nutrition of laying hens in farm, egg production, egg weight at laying hens old 42 weeks and selected indicators of chemical formation of the eggs. In the farm were reared laying hens ISA Brown, which are high-productive and the most   the most widely used in EU. The informations and data on farm, laying hen hall, breeding facility, breeding conditions, the behavior of the laying hens, nutrition, feeding and egg production were obtained by personal visit an organic farm and informations which  the farmer records and stores. The informations about the behavior of laying hens were obtained by observing and comparing with the knowledge and data of the Slovak Government regulation on December 11, 2002, which   minimum standards determine for the protection of laying hens.The informations on feed were obtained  directly from an organic farm and   feed company that followed by accordance  the minimum content of nutrients and energy in accordance with the needs of the laying hens. Egg production was monitored on the base of  collecting eggs two and several times a day, which was recorded daily on an organic farm. Chemical analyzes of samples of eggs were conducted according to the methodology for analytical laboratories (2009). In the farm were application welfare principles.  The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water, ad libitum, free movement in the stable hall on the litter and perches. The laying hens rummaged and ashed in the free-range are of clay. In the free-range area of grassland where was a shelter, they free ranged and explorated environment. The microclimatic conditions, a construction of the perches, nests in the hall and location of the feedersand drinkers in the hall and in the free-range were solution in the accordance with the needs of improved living conditions of the laying hens. The laying hens achieved an intensity of egg-laying 84.60% in the all laying cycle. An egg weight was 62.30 g at laying hens old 42 weeks. The average dry mater contents was in the table eggs 26.21 g per 100 g of egg mass, the proteins 12.34 g per 100 g of egg mass, a fat 11.63 g per 100 g of egg mass and a cholesterol 1.27 g per 100 g of egg yolk. On the base of achivied the results, further research was recommended in the field the welfare of the laying hens intendent for the production of the table eggs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Appleby, M. C., Hughes, B. O., Elson, H. A. 1992. Poultry Production Systems: Behavior, Management and Welfare. Wallingford, UK : CAB International.

Appleby, M. C., Smith, S. F., Hughes, B. O. 1993. Nesting, dust bathing and perching by laying hens in cages: Effect of design on behavior and welfare. In Br. Poult. Sci., vol. 34, p. 835-847. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669308417644 PMid:8156422

Appleby, M. C. 1998. The Edinburgh modified cage: Effects of group size and space allowance on brown laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Resear., vol. 7, p. 152-161.

Appleby, M. C., Walker, A. W., Nicol, C. J., Lindberg, A. C., Freire, R., Hughes, B. O., Elson, H. A. 2002. Development of furnished cages for laying hens. Brit. Poult. Sci., vol. 43, p. 489-500. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166022000004390 PMid:12365505

Baxter, M. R. 1994. The welfare problems of laying hens in battery cages. Vet. Rec., vol. 134, p. 614-619. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.134.24.614 PMid:7941260

Beyer, R. S., Jensen, L. S. 1989. Overestimation of the cholesterol content of eggs. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 917-920. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00088a020

Board, R. G. 1969. The microbiology of the hen's egg. Adv. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 11, p. 245-281. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70612-9

Braden, C. R. 2006. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and eggs: A national epidemic in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis., vol. 43, p. 512-517. https://doi.org/10.1086/505973 PMid:16838242

CEC. 1999. Council Directive No. 74/1999/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 203.

Council of the European Union, 2006. Council Regulation (EC) No. 1028/2006 of 19 June 2006 on marketing standards for eggs.

Daza, A., Mateos, A., Rey, A. I., Ovejero, I., Lopez-Bote, C. J. 2007. Effect of duration of feeding under free-range conditions on production results and carcass and fat quality in Iberian pigs. Meat Sci., vol. 76, p. 411-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.10.004 PMid:22060982

Duncan, I. J. 1998. Thirty years of progress in animal welfare science. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci., vol. 1, p. 151-154.

Elson, H. A., Croxall, R. A. 2006. European study on the comparative welfare of laying hens in cage and non-cage systems. Europ. Poult. Sci., vol. 70, p. 194-198.

Elson, H. A., Tauson, R. 2011. Furnished cages for laying hens. Alternative Systems for Poultry - Health, Welfare and Productivity. Oxford : CABI.

European Communities. 2000. European Communities proposal: Animal welfare and trade in agriculture. WTO Committee on Agriculture, Special Session, Paper G/AG/NG/W/19. Geneva. Switzerland: World Trade Organization.

European Commission, 2003. Commission Regulation No. 2295/2003/EC of December 23, 2003, introducing detailed rules for implementing Council Regulation No. 1907/1990/EEC on certain marketing standards for eggs.

Fredriksson, S., Elwinger, K., Pickova, J. 2006. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of egg yolk as an effect of microalgae addition to feed formula for laying hens. Food Chem., vol. 99, p. 530-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foodchem.2005.08.018

Halachmi, I. 2000. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, part 2: Behavior-based simulation. J. Agric. Eng. Res., vol. 77, p. 67-79. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.2000.0563

Harman, N. L., Leeds, A. R., Griffin, B. A. 2008. Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss. Europ. J. Nutrit., vol. 47, no. 6, p. 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-0730-y PMid:18726564

Harrison, R. 1964. Animal machines. London : Stuart.

Herron, K. L., Fernandez, M. L. 2004. Are the current dietary guidelines regarding egg consumption appropriate? J. Nutrit., vol. 134, no. 1, p. 187-190.

Ingr, I., Simeonová, J. 1983. Rýchle stanovení cholesterolu ve vaječném žloutku Bio-la-testem. Veterinary Medicine - Czech, vol. 28, p. 97-104.

Karadas, F., Wood, ­­N. A. R., Surai, ­­P. F., Sparks, N, H. C. 2005. Tissue specific distribution of carotenoids and vitamin E in tissues of newly hatched chicks from various avian species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol., vol. 140, p. 506-511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb .2005.03.002 PMid:15936711

Koelkebeck, K. W. 1999. What Is Egg Quality and Conserving It? University of Illinois [online]. [cit. 2013-06-14]. Retrieved from the web: http://www.livestocktrail. illinois.edu/poultrynet/ paperDisplay.cfm?ContentID=522.

Koelkebeck, K. W., Anderson, K. E. 2007. Molting layers-alternative methods and their effectiveness. Poult. Sci., vol. 86, p. 1260-1264. PMid:17495103

Kramer, A. 1951. What is quality and how can it be measured: From a food technology point of view. Market Demand and Product Quality. Mktg. Res : Workshop Rept., Michigan State College.

Lymbery, P. 2002. Laid bare: The case against enriched cages in Europe. Petersfield, UK : Compassion World Farming.

Maurice, D. V., Lightsey, S. F., Hsu, K. T., Gaylord, T. G., Reddy, R. V. 1994. Cholesterol in eggs from different species of poultry determined by capillary GLC. Food Chemistry, vol. 50, p. 367-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90206-2

Mench, J. A. 1992. The welfare of poultry in modern production systems. Poult. Sci. Rev., vol. 4, p. 107-128.

Metodiky k analytickým laboratořím. 2009. UTB, Zlín.

Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky č. 736/2002 Z. z. zo dňa 11. decembra 2002, ktorým sa ustanovujú minimálne požiadavky na ochranu nosníc.

Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky o ochrane zvierat chovaných na farmárske účely (v znení č. 368/2007 Z. z.).

Naviglio, D., Gallo, M., Le Grottaglie, L., Scala, C., Ferrara, L., Santini, A. 2011. Determination of cholesterol in Italian chicken eggs. Food Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.002

Nicol, C., Dawkins, M. S. 1990. Homes fit for hens. New Sci., vol. 125, p. 46-51.

Pandey, N. K., Panda, B., Maitra, D. N., Mahapatra, C. M. 1989. The influence of strain, age and season on cholesterol, vitamin A and fatty acid contents of egg. Journal of Food Science Technology, vol. 26, p. 161-163.

Pérez-Bonilla, A., Jabbour, C., Frikha, M., Mirzaie, S., Garcia, J., Mateos, G. G. 2012a. Effect of crude protein and fat content of diet on productive performance and egg quality traits of brown egg-laying hens with different initial body weight. Poult. Sci., vol. 91, no. 6, p. 1400-1405. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01917

Pérez-Bonilla, A., Novoa, S., García, J., Mohiti-Asli, M., Frikha, M., Mateos, G. G. 2012b. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight. Poult Sci., vol. 91, no. 12, p. 3156-3166. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02526

Riad, S. A., Kicka, M. A. M., Osman, M. A., Kamar, G. A. R. 1981. Yolk cholesterol in eggs from various avian species. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 21, p. 51-55.

Scientific Veterinary Committee. 1996. Report on the welfare of laying hens. Brussels, Belgium : Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Agriculture VI/B/II.2.

Sherwin, C. M., Richards, G. J., Nicol, C. J. 2010. Comparison of the welfare of layer hens in four housing systems in the UK. British Poultry Science, vol. 51, p. 488-499. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.502518 PMid: 20924842

Schwabenbauer, K. 1999. Keeping systems of laying hens in the future. The Commission's Proposal for a Council Directive laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens kept in various systems of rearing. Dtsch. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr., vol. 106, p. 157-160. PMid:10354646

Spence, J. D., Jenkins, D. J., Davignon, J. 2010. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: Not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Canadian Journal Cardioloy, vol. 26, no. 9, p. 336-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70456-6 PMid:21076725

Stadelman, W. J., Pratt, D. E. 1989. Factors influencing composition of the hen's egg. World's Poult. Sci. J., vol. 45, p. 247-266. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19890016

Surai, P. F., Sparks, N. H. C. 2001. Designer eggs: from improvement of eggs composition to functional food. Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 12, p. 7-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00048-6

Taylor, A. A., Hurnik. J. F. 1994. The effect of long-term housing in an aviary and battery cages on the physical condition of laying hens: Body weight, feather condition, claw length, foot lesions, and tibia strength. Poult. Sci., vol. 73, p. 268-273. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0730268 PMid:7908429

United Egg Producers. 2011. Historic agreement hatched to set National Standard for nation's egg industry [online]. [cit. 2013-03-27]. Retrieved from the web: http://showbirdbid.proboards.com/thread/2331.

USDA (United Stated Department of Agriculture). 1975. Composition of foods raw, processed, prepared. Agriculture Handbook, no. 8. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service. 146 p.

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 1976. Composition of foodsdairy and egg products: raw, processed and prepared. Agriculture Handbook, no. 8-1. Washington DC, USA : Agricultural Research Service.

Vāisānen, J., Jensen, P. 2003. Social versus exploration and foraging motivation in young red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and White Leghorn layers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., vol. 84, p. 139-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2003.07.001

Wolffram, R., Simons, J., Giebel, A., Bongaerts, R. 2002. Impacts of stricter legal standards in the EU for keeping laying hens in battery cages. World's Poult. Sci. J., vol. 58, p. 365-370. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20020029

Zemková, L., Simeonovová, J., Lichovníková, M., Somerlíková, K. 2007. The effects of housing systems and age of hens on the weight and cholesterol concentration of the egg. Czech Journal Animal Science, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 110-115.

Yue, S., Duncan, I. J. H. 2003. Frustrated nesting behavior: Relation to extra-cuticular shell calcium and bone strength in White Leghorn hens. Br. Poult. Sci., vol. 2, p. 175-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166031000088334 PMid:12828201

Downloads

Published

2013-07-03

How to Cite

Angelovičová, M. ., Mellen, M. ., & Zdechovanová, J. . (2013). Applying the principles of welfare and quality of production in the organic farm of the laying hens. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 7(1), 120–129. https://doi.org/10.5219/298

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>