The production of wine vinegar using different types of acetic acid bacteria
Keywords:vinegar fermentation, wine vinegar, vinegar, Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, spontaneous fermentation
This work aimed to study the properties of acetic fermentation bacteria during the acetic fermentation of wine. Attention was focused on the ability of the bacteria to metabolize selected organic substances and their suitability for wine vinegar production. For the production of wine vinegar, white wine of the variety Veltliner Green was used. Three variants were established for this experiment. The first variant was fermented with Gluconobacter oxydans, the second with Acetobacter aceti, and the third variant of vinegar production was carried out by spontaneous fermentation. During the vinegar fermentation, samples were taken at regular 24-hour intervals and subsequently analyzed. The alcohol, acetic, malic, and tartaric acid contents were monitored. The results showed that all variants showed a strong acetic and malic acid increase. Bacteria Acetobacter aceti produced the most acetic acid within nine days (25 g.L-1). This bacterium also produced the most lactic acid (18 g.L-1). Tartaric acid was also produced in all three variants, but not to the same extent as the previous two organic acids. Acetobacter aceti was found to metabolize ethanol more rapidly than Gluconobacter oxydans.
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