The effect of raw pearl millet flour inclusion on the quality and formulation cost of beef sausages


  • Frederick Adzitey University for Development Studies, Department of Animal Science, Box TL 1882, Tamale, Ghana, Tel.: +233249995310
  • Joseph Yaro University for Development Studies, Department of Animal Science, Box TL 1882, Tamale, Ghana, Tel.: +233243461131
  • Joseph Kudadam Korese University for Development Studies, Department of Agricultural Mechanization and Irrigation Technology, Box TL 1882, Tamale, Ghana. Tel.: +233243491424
  • Mohammad Halim Jeinie Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Service, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Nurul Huda Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Universitas Sebelas Maret, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, Jln. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java, 57126, Indonesia



beef sausages, nutrient composition, physicochemical properties, sensory analysis, pearl millet flour


This study investigated the sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics as well as formulation cost of beef sausages formulated with raw pearl millet flour (RaPMF) as an extender. Four treatments were formulated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% RaPMF. Ash, carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of the beef sausages were not influenced (p <0.05) by the RaPMF. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH contents were highest (p <0.05) in the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Cooking loss was at least (p <0.05) for the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Formulation of beef sausages with RaPMF did not affect (p >0.05) the sensory properties (week 1), water holding capacity, peroxide value, lightness (week 1), and yellowness (week 1). The formulation cost was least for 15% RaPMF beef sausages and highest for 0% RaPMF beef sausages. As a general conclusion, RaPMF improved the mineral composition of the beef sausages and reduced production costs without compromising its physicochemical and sensory properties.


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How to Cite

Adzitey, F., Yaro, J., Korese, J. K., Jeinie, M. H., & Huda, . N. (2021). The effect of raw pearl millet flour inclusion on the quality and formulation cost of beef sausages. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 1039–1048.

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