The nutritional profile of indonesian salmon van Java mahseer T. soro species
Keywords:amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, Indonesian T. soro, minerals, proximate composition
T. soro, in Indonesia called salmon van Java is of high economic value, and due to high demand, its culture has been intensively studied and developed. This study aimed to assess the nutritional value of wild and cultured T. soro. The fish’s proximate compositions, minerals, as well as amino and fatty acid profiles were analyzed. A t-test analysis was used to identify differences between treatments. Results showed that the fat content of wild T. soro was higher than that of cultured fish, but the protein, water, and ash contents between the two groups were not significantly different (p >0.05). T. soro was considered a lean fish with higher concentrations of PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) than MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids). The amino acid profile was dominated by lysine, phenylalanine, and allo-isoleucine. Both groups of fish were a good source of macro- (Na, K, Ca) and microminerals (Zn, Fe), except for selenium (Se). The two groups were not significantly different (p >0.05) in ω3, ω6, and PUFAs, indicating that culturing T. soro in proper ways could substitute for wild T. soro.
Abouel-Yazeed, A. M. 2013. Fatty acids profile of some marine water and freshwater fish. Journal of the Arabian Aquaculture Society, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 283-292.
Alasalvar, C., Taylor, K. D. A., Zubcov, E., Shahidi, F., Alexis, M. 2002. Differentiation of cultured and wild Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Total lipid content, fatty acid and trace mineral composition. Food Chemistry, vol. 79, no. 2, p. 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00122-X
Ana, L. S. S., Iwamoto, A. A., Crepaldi, D. V, Boaventura, T. P., Teixeira, L. V, Teixeira, E. A., Luz, R. K. 2019. Comparative study of the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and nutritional quality of Lophiosilurus alexandri (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae), a Brazilian carnivorous freshwater fish, grown in lotic, lentic, and aquaculture environments. Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 17, no. 4, p. e190050. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20190050
Arifin, O. Z., Subagja, J., Asih, S., Kristanto, A. H. 2019. Budidaya Ikan Dewa. Bogor, Indonesia : IPB Press, 122 p. ISBN: 978-602-440-756-8. (in Indonesian)
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC). 2000. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (17th ed.). Arlington, USA : AOAC International.
Basumatary, S., Sarkar, A. P., Das, S. 2017. Amino acid composition of ten fish species from Hel River, North-East India. Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 10, p. 2163-2166. https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20666.
Chasanah, E., Nurilmala, M., Purnamasari, A. R., Fithriani, D. 2015. Chemical composition, albumin content and bioactivity of crude protein extract of native and cultured Channa striata. JPB Kelautan dan Perikanan, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 123-132.
Coutinho, N. M., Canto, A. C. V. da C. S., Mársico, E. T., da Silva, F. A., Keller, L. A. M., Conte-Junior, C. A., Monteiro, M. L. G. 2019. Fatty acid composition and influence of temperature on the lipid stability of Arapaima gigas meat. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, vol. 22, no. e2018132, p. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-6723.13218.
Csapo, J., Kiss-Csapo, Z. S., Albert, C., Loki, K. 1997. Hydrolysis of proteins performed at high temperatures and for short times with reduced racemization, in order to determine the enantiomers of D- and L-amino acids. Analytica Chemica Acta, vol. 339, no. 1997, p. 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00452-7
El-zaeem, S. Y., Ahmed, M. M. M., Salama, M. E., El-kader, W. N. A. 2012. Flesh quality differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 17, p. 4086-4089. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3392
FAO. 2004. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland : WHO.
Gonzales, S., Flick, G. J., O’Keefe, S. F., Duncan, E S., McLean, E., Craig, S. R. 2006. Composition of farmed and wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 19, no. 6-7, p. 720-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.01.007
Gustiano, R., Kontara, E., Wahyuningsih, H., Subagja, J., Asih, S., Saputra, A. 2013. Domestication of mahseer (Tor soro) in Indonesia. Communications In Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, vol. 78, no. 4, p. 165-168.
Haryono, Tjakrawidjaja, A. H. 2006. Morphological study for identification improvement of Tambra Fish (Tor spp: Cyprinidae) from Indonesia. Biodiversitas, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 59-62. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d070115
Iordache, A., Culea, M., Horj, E., Cozar, O. 2011. Determination of amino acids and selenium in fish plasma. Romanian Journal of Physics, vol. 56, no. 7-8, p. 963-970.
Islam, A., Mondal, S., Bhowmik, S., Islam, S., Begum, M. 2017. A comparative analysis of the proximate composition of wild and cultured prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, vol. 5, no. 4, p. 59-62.
Jaya-ram, A., Fuad, F., Zakeyuddin, M. S., Sah, A. S. R. S. 2018. Muscle fatty acid content in selected freshwater fish from Bukit Merah reservoir, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, vol. 29, no. 2, p. 103-117. https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2018.29.2.8
Job, B. E., Antai, E., Inyang-Etoh, A. P., Otogo, G., Ezekei, H. S. 2015. Proximate composition and mineral content of cultured and wild Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (Pisces: Cinhlidae) (Linnaeus, 1758). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 195-200. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2015.195.200.
Kristanto, A. H., Asih, S., Winarlin. 2007. Karakterisasi reproduksi dan morfometrik ikan Batak dari dua lokasi (Sumatera Utara dan Jawa Barat). Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 59-65. https://doi.org/10.15578/jra.2.1.2007.59-65
López-Huerta, J. M., Vega-Villasante, F., Viana, M. T., Carrillo-Farnés, O., Badillo-Zapata, D. 2018. First report of nutritional quality of the native fish Dormitator latifrons (Richardson, 1844) (Perciformes: Eleotridae). Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, vol. 46, no. 4, p. 849-854. https://doi.org/10.3856/vol46-issue4-fulltext-24
Marinda, P. A., Genschick, S., Khayeka-Wandabwa, C., Kiwanuka-Lubinda, R., Thilsted, S. H. 2018. Dietary diversity determinants and contribution of fish to maternal and under-five nutritional status in Zambia. PLoS One. vol. 13, no. 9, p. e0204009. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204009
Merriam-Webster. 2020 Maple syrup urine disease. Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. 2017. Marine and Fisheries in Figures, Center for Data, Statistics and Information., Indonesia.
Mohanty, B. P., Singh, S. 2018. Fish and human nutrition. In Tripathi, S. D. Lakra W. S. Chadha, N. K. Aquaculture in India. Delhi, India : Narendra Publishing House, p. 561-581.
Mohanty, B., Mahanty, A., Ganguly, S., Sankar, T. V, Chakraborty, K., Rangasamy, A., Paul, B., Sarma, D., Mathew, S., Asha, K. K., Behera, B., Aftabuddin, Md., Debnath, D., Vijayagopal, P., Sridhar, N., Akhtar, M. S., Sahi, N., Mitra, T., Banerjee, S., Paria, P., Das, D., Das. P., Vijayan, K. K., Laxmanan, P. T., Sharma, A. P. 2014. Amino acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition. Journal of Amino Acids, vol. 2014, 7 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/269797
Muchlisin, Z. A., Nazir, M., Fadli, N., Adlim, M., Hendri, A., Khalil, M., Siti-Azizah, M. 2017. Efficacy of commercial diets with varying levels of protein on growth performance, protein and lipid contents in carcass of Acehnese mahseer, Tor tambra. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sience, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 557-566.
Nettleton, J. A., Elmhurst, I. 2000. Fatty acids in cultivated and wild fish: Microbehavior and Macroresults. Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, July 10-14, 2000, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
Ngaisyah, R. D., Rohman, A. 2019. Effect of fish consumption as a local food alternative for the reduction of stunting in toddlers. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 18, p. 496-500. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.496.500
Olson, K. C., Chen, G., Xu, Y., Hajnal, A., Lynch, C. J. 2014. Alloisoleucine differentiates the branched‐chain aminoacidemia of Zucker and dietary obese rats. Obesity, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 1212-1215. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20691
Philibert, A., Vanier, C., Abdelouahab, N., Chan, H. M., Mergler, D. 2006. Fish intake and serum fatty acid profiles from freshwater fish. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 6, p. 1299-307. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1299
Pinder, A. C., Britton, J. R., Harrison, A. J., Nautiyal, P., Bower, S. D., Cooke, S. J., Lockett, S., Everard, M., Katwate, U., Ranjeet, K., Walton, S., Danylchuk, A. J., Dahanukar, N., Raghvan, R. 2019. Mahseer (Tor spp.) fishes of the world: status, challenges, and opportunities for conservation. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, vol. 29, no. 2, p. 417-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-019-09566-y
Radona, D., Subagja, J., Arifin, O. Z. 2015. Performa reproduksi induk dan pertumbuhan benih ikan tor hasil persilangan (Tor soro dan Tor douronensis) secara resiprokal. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 335-343. https://doi.org/10.15578/jra.10.3.2015.335-343
Robert, A., Mfilinge, P., Limbu, S. M., Mwita, C. J. 2014. Fatty acid composition and levels of selected polyunsaturated fatty acids in four commercial important freshwater fish species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Journal of Lipids, vol. 2014, 7 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/712134
Sarma, D., Puspita, D., Das, P., Akhtar, M. 2015. Nutritional composition of Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora) in coldwater Himalayan Region of India. SKUAST Journal of Research, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 23-28.
Sharma, S., Singh, D. 2020. Nutritional Status of Crossocheilus latius latius (Hamilton, 1822) and Garra lamta (Hamilton, 1822) from Alaknanda River of Central Himalaya. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, vol. 29, no. 4, p. 350-359. https://doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2020.1737999
Skibnieswka, K. A., Zakrzewski, J., Kłobukowski, J., Białowiąs, H., Mickowska, B., Guziur, J., Walczak, Z. Szarek, J. 2013. Nutritional value of the protein of consumer carp Cyprinus carpio L. Czech Journal of Food Science. vol. 31, p. 313-317. https://doi.org/10.17221/337/2012-CJFS
Susilowati, R., Sugiyono, Chasanah, E. 2016. Nutritional and albumin content of swamp fishes from Merauke, Papua, Indonesia. Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries. Postharvest and Biotechnology, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 107-116.
Swanson, D., Block, R., Mousa, S. A. 2012. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: Health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000893.
Taşbozan, O., Gökçe, M. A. 2017. Fatty acids in fish. In Catala, A. Fatty Acids. Vienna, Austria : IntechOpen, 246 p. ISBN 978-953-51-3302-5. https://doi.org/10.5772/68048
Thilsted, S. H., James, D., Toppe, J., Subasinghe, R., Karunasagar, I. 2014. Maximizing the contribution of fish to human nutrition. Paper printed in Second International Conference on Nutrition, 19-21 November 2014 FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy.
Williams, M. C. W., Murphy, E. W., Mccarty, H. B., Snyder, B. D., Schrank, C. S., Mccann, P. J., Crimmins, B. S. 2017. Variation in the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA in fillets of fish from the Great Lakes region. Journal of Great Lakes Research, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 150-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2017.03.001
Wu, G. 2010. Functional amino acids in growth. Advances Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 31-37. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.110.1008.1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).