Improving the quality of milk dispersion in a counter-jet homogenizer
Keywords:milk, homogenization, homogenizer, counter-jet homogenizers, reflector, degree of dispersion
Homogenization is a necessary process in the production of drinking milk and most dairy products. The specific energy consumption of the most common valve homogenizers reaches 8 kW h.t-1. A promising way to reduce it is the introduction of more effective counter-jet homogenizers. The purpose of these studies is to increase the efficiency of machines of this type through fuller use of their kinetic energy. To achieve this, the design of a ring reflector was developed and experimental studies were carried out to determine its influence on the efficiency of milk fat dispersion in a counter-jet homogenizer. Calculations were made to determine the reflector’s design parameters. An installation for experimental research has been developed, in which the required milk pressure is created with the help of compressed carbon dioxide. The dispersive indices of the milk emulsion were determined by computer analysis of milk sample micrographs obtained with an optical microscope and a digital camera using Microsoft Office Excel and Microsoft Visual Studio C# software using the OpenCV Sharp library. As a result of research, the formula for defining the angle of the reflector top has been determined analytically. Experimental studies proved its validity and allowed determination of the optimal diameter. A comparison of the dependence of the degree of homogenization on the excess pressure in a counter-jet homogenizer proves a 15 – 20% increase in the degree of dispersion when using a reflector. At the same time, specific energy consumption does not increase. Comparison of the distribution curves of milk fat globules by size after counter-jet homogenization and homogenization with a reflector suggests that the average diameter of fat globules for the experimental method decreases from 0.99 to 0.83 μm. This indicates the high quality of the dispersal characteristics of the milk emulsion after processing in a counter-jet homogenizer with a reflector.
Deynichenko, G., Samoichuk, K., Yudina, T., Levchenko, L., Palianychka, N., Verkholantseva, V., Dmytrevskyi, D., Chervonyi, V. 2018. Parameter optimization of milk pulsation homogenizer. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design, vol. 24, p. 63-67.
Dhankhar, P. 2014. Homogenization fundamentals. IOSR Journal of Engineering, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9790/3021-04540108
Di Marzo, L., Cree, P., Barbano, D. M. 2016. Prediction of fat globule particle size in homogenized milk using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectra. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 99, no. 11, p. 8549-8560. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11284
DSTU 8553. 2015. National Standard of Ukraine (DSTU) Raw milk and cream raw materials. Rules for taking, sampling and preparation for testing.
Fialkova, E. A. 2006. Homogenization. A new look. St. Petersburg : GIORD, 392 p. ISBN 5-98879-032-1.
Floury, J., Desrumaux, A., Lardieres, J. 2000. Effect of high – pressure homogenization on droplet size distributions and rheological properties of model oil – in – water emulsions. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 1, p. 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00012-6
Håkansson, A., Fuchs, L., Innings, F., Laszlo, F., Bergenstahl, B., Tragardh, C. 2010. Visual observations and acoustic measurements of cavitation in an experimental model of a high-pressure homogenizers. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 100, no. 3, p. 504-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.04.038
Håkansson, A., Fuchs, L., Innings, F., Revstedt, J., Trägårdh, C., Bergenståhl, B. 2013. Velocity measurements of turbulent two-phase flow in a high-pressure homogenizer model. Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 200, p. 93-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2012.691921
Haponiuk, E., Zander, L., Probola, G. 2015. Effect of the homogenization process on the rheological properties of food emulsions. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, p. 149-158.
Huppertz, T. 2011. Homogenization of Milk: Other Types of Homogenizer (High-Speed Mixing, Ultrasonics, Microfluidizers, Membrane Emulsification). Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences: Second Edition, p. 761-764. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374407-4.00226-0
Hussain, H., Truong, T., Bansal, N., Bhandari, B. 2017. The Effect of Manipulating Fat Globule Size on the Stability and Rheological Properties of Dairy Creams. Food Biophysics, vol. 12, no. 1, p 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-016-9457-0
Innings, F., Trägårdh, C. 2005. Visualization of the drop deformation and break-up process in a high pressure homogenizer. Chemical Engineering & Technology, vol. 28, no. 8, p. 882-891. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200500080
Lawrence, K. D., Klimberg, R. K., Lawrence, S. M. 2009. Fundamentals of forecasting using Excel. New York, N.Y. : Industrial Press, 195 p. ISBN 978-0-8311-3335-1.
Loncin, M., Merson, R. 1979. Food engineering. Principles and selected applications. New York : Academic Press, 279 p. ISBN-10 0124545505.
Nuzhin, E. V., Gladushnyak, A. K. 2007. Homogenization and homogenizers. Odessa : Pechatnyiy dom, 264 p. ISBN 978-966-389-122-4.
Oreshina, M. N. 2010. Pulse dispersion of multicomponent food systems and its hardware implementation : dissertation theses. Moscow, Russia : Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology. 50 p.
Rayner, M., Dejmek, P. 2015. Engineering aspects of emulsification and homogenization in the food industry. London : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 322 р. ISBN 9781466580435. https://doi.org/10.1201/b18436
Rovinsky, L. A. 1994. The analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a homogenizing valve. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 429-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/0260-8774(94)90103-1
Samoichuk, K. 2008. Grounding of parameters and modes of work of opposite-flow stream homogenizator of milk : dissertation theses. Donetsk, Ukraine : The Donetsk National University of Economy and Trade named after Mihaylo Tugan-Baranovskiy. 20 p. Available at: https://revolution.allbest.ru/manufacture/00599306_0.html
Samoichuk, K., Kiurchev, S., Oleksiienko, V., Palyanichka, N., Verholantseva, V. 2016. Investigation of homogenization of milk in a pulsation machine with a vibrating rotor. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, vol. 6, no. 11, p. 16-21. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2016.86974
Samoichuk, K., Kovalyov, O. 2013. Analytical parameters of the process of jet homogenization of milk with separate feeding of cream. Proceedings of the Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 77-81.
Samoichuk, K., Zahorko, N., Oleksiienko, V., Petrychenko, S. 2019. Generalization of factors of milk homogenization. In Nadykto, V. Modern development paths of agricultural production. Cham : Springer, p. 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14918-5_21
Samoichuk, K., Zhuravel, D., Viunyk, O., Milko, D., Bondar, A., Sukhenko, Y., Sukhenko, V., Adamchuk, L., Denisenko, S. 2020. Research on milk homogenization in the stream homogenizer with separate cream feeding. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 14, p. 142-148. https://doi.org/10.5219/1289
Walstra, P., Wouers, J. T. M., Geurts, T. J. 2006. Homogenization. In Dairy science and technology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, London, New York : Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, p. 279. ISBN 0-8247-2763-0. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.01.001
Yong, A. P., Islam, M. A., Hasan, N. 2017. Effect of pressure on homogenization. Sigma Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 1-22.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).