Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial microbiota of freshwater fish
Keywords:bacteria, freshwater fish, MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic
The fish meat is an essential part of human diet. However, fish may be contaminated with different microorganisms, including pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance of fish microbiota may facilitate the spread of resistant microorganisms causing serious consequences for human health. The aim of the present study was to detect bacterial contamination in fish gill, gut and skin and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bream (Abramis bram) were obtained from the market in Jelgava city. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and tench (Tinca tinca) were collected from fishermen. Fish samples were examined for the total bacterial count (TBC), coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. Testing was done in accordance with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. Identification of all bacteria was accomplished with the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method. The disc diffusion method was used for the detection of antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacterial species. TBC ranged from 2.70 to 7.00 log CFU.g-1, coliforms from 0 to 2.67 log CFU.g-1, Enterobacteriaceae from 0 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1. The highest contamination with Pseudomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp. was observed in chub gut samples with 1.60 log CFU.g-1 and 2.23 log CFU.g-1, respectively. Altogether, 16 microbial genera and 31 bacterial species were identified. The dominant bacterial species belonged to Pseudomonas spp. (54%) and Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas spp. were resistant to ticarcillin, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin showed 88% of isolates. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates were susceptible to imipenem. The microbial quality of the fish was acceptable, but the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria may further cause a negative impact on public health.
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