The composition and content of phenolic compounds in tea, grown in humid subtropics of Russia
Keywords:Camellia sinensis, cultivar, black tea, green tea, hydrothermal condition, tannin, extractive compounds, flavonoid, catechin
The article presents the results of studies on the dynamics, qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds of tea raw materials and tea of new forms of selection of the Institute. The regularity in their synthesis by months is determined, which affects the quality indicators of the end product and necessitates blending to the repaired tea. The accumulation of tannins in tea raw materials depends on hydrothermal conditions, in particular, the amount of precipitation. The content of tannin increases from May to June, then there is some decline in their content, due to hydrothermal stress, slowing the synthesis of tannins in the tea leaf. The content of the water-soluble fraction gradually increases from May to July, and then there is a slight decline. It is shown that the accumulation of phenolic compounds in tea raw materials varies during the collection season. The contents of theaflavins increased from the beginning of the collecting sheet to its completion. The content of thearubigins showed peaks: the lowest rate in June, the highest in August. It was revealed that a sharp drop in the synthesis of thearubigins in June is associated with the onset of the summer dormancy of growth and synthetic processes. The synthesis of both indicators depends on meteorological conditions. The comparative analysis of the samples of tea raw materials collected from experimental plants is carried out. It is shown that the content of tannin and extractive substances in the raw materials of the studied varieties and mutant forms is high. In terms of the ratio of theaflavins and thearubigins, tea made from experienced raw materials meets international requirements. Determination of the qualitative composition of the catechin group of green tea, produced from raw materials of new forms, showed a high level of accumulation of the main groups of catechins.
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