Comparison of selected sensory properties of wholemeal breads
Keywords:wholemeal wheat flour, blue aleuron, firmness, sensory evaluation
The aim of this study was to compare textural (firmness) and sensory properties (surface colour, crumb colour, crumb texture, appearance, appearance and colour preferences) between whole breads made from conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) and whole breads made from unconventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., winter variety Skorpion, grains with blue aleuron). Wholemeal breads (control samples with marks C1, C2 and C3) were prepared of 100, 90 and 80 % amount of conventional wholemeal wheat flour to 0, 10 and 20% amount of smooth white flour made from conventional wheat using baker's experiment. Wholemeal breads (experimental samples with marks S1, S2 and S3) were prepared of unconventional wholemeal wheat flour to smooth white wheat flour in same ratio as control samples of breads. Our results showed, that negative evaluation of some sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat correlated with increasing addition of wholemeal flour of this wheat. It was found that breads made from conventional wheat (100, 90 and 80% amount of conventional wholemeal flour) were more acceptable in surface colour, colour and appearance preferences than these sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour). Appearance and crumb colour of breads made from conventional wheat (100 and 90% amount of wholemeal flour) were evaluated better than these attributes of breads made from blue coloured wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour). Appearance and crumb colour of both groups of whole wheat breads (80:20) was similarly evaluated. Crumb texture of breads made from conventional wheat (90% and 80% amount of wholemeal flour) was worse than crumb texture of breads produced of same ratio of flour, but made from unconventional wheat. Breads with addition of 80% of wholemeal flour milled of blue coloured wheat were most acceptable in all of sensory attributes for evaluators. Significant difference (p <0.05) of crumb fimness of breads were demonstrated between samples of breads (80:20) made from conventional or unconventional wheat. Crumbs of breads (100:0 and 80:20) made from blue coloured wheat had higher firmness than crumbs of breads (100:0 and 80:20) made from conventional wheat. But crumbs of breads (90:10) made from conventional wheat were firmer than crumbs of breads (90:10) made from unconventional wheat. Breads produced of blue coloured wheat were also more friable than breads made from conventional wheat. Although evaluation of wholemeal breads made from unconventional wheat had not better scores than evaluation of wholemeal breads made from conventioval wheat, but evalution of breads produced of unconventional wheat wholemeal flour were not below average and its market position could be very high in the future, due to the content of health benefit substances, which will be the subject of further research.
AACC. 1996. Bread Firmness by Universal Testing Machine. AACC Method 74-09.
Baik, B. K., Ullrich, S. E. 2008. Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 233-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.02.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.02.002
Balestra, F., Cocci, E., Pinnavaia, G. G., Romani, S. 2011. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and bread containing ginger powder. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 700-705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.10.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.10.017
Challacombe, C. A., Seetharaman, K., Duizer, L. M. 2011. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat. Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 5, p. 337-346. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02200.x PMid:22417450 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02200.x
Chaturvedi, N., Sharma, P., Shukla, K., Singh, R., Yadav, S. 2011. Cereals nutraceuticals, health enoblement and diseases obviation: A comprehensive review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 1, no. 7, p. 6-12 [cit. 2015-01-25]. Available at: http://www.japsonline.com/past-articles.php?issueid=10
Chen, L., Opara, U. L. 2013. Texture measurement approaches in fresh and processed foods - A review. Food Research International vol. 51, no. 2, p. 823-835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.046 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.046
Duchoňová, L., Vargovičová, M., Šturdík, E. Nutritional profile of untraditional colored wheat grains and their bread making utilisation 2012. Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 6,
no. 12, p. 1008-1015. ISSN: 1934-7391.
Martinek, P., Škorpík, M., Chrpová, J., Fučík, P., Schweiger, J. 2013. Development of the new winter wheat variety Skorpion with blue grain. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breedings, vol. 49, no. 2, p. 90-94 [cit. 2015-01-10]. Available at: http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/web/cjgpb.htm?volume=49&type=volume. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/7/2013-CJGPB
Onyango, C., Mutungi, C., Unbehend, G., Lindhauer, M. G. 2010. Rheological and baking characteristics of batter and bread prepared from pregelatinised cassava starch and sorghum and modified using microbial transglutaminase Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 97, no. 4, p. 465-470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.11.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.11.002
Pasqualone, A., Bianco, A. M., Paradiso V. M., Summo, C., Gambacorta, G., Caponio, F., Blanco, A. 2015. Production and characterization of functional biscuits obtained from purple wheat. Food Chemistry, In Press, [cit. 2015-02-15]. Retrieved from the web: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.025
Peressini, D., Sensidoni, A. 2009. Effect of soluble dietary fibre addition on rheological and breadmaking properties of wheat doughs. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 49, no. 2,
Rosell, C. M., Santos, E., Sanz Penella, J. M., Haros, M. 2009. Wholemeal wheat bread: A comparison of different breadmaking processes and phytase addition. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 272-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.06.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.06.007
Shepherd, R., Dean, M., Lampila, P., Arvola, A., Saba, A., Vassallo, M., Claupein, E., Winkelmann, M., Lähteenmäki, L. 2012. Communicating the benefits of wholegrain and functional grain products to European consumers. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 25, no. 2., p. 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.01.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2012.01.002
Yu, L., Nanguet, A.-L., Beta, T. 2013. Comparison of antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and bread. Antioxidants, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 370-383. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox2040370 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox2040370
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.