Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk
Keywords:milk, retinol, season, small ruminant
Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm) in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.
EFSA, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin A and contribution to normal development and function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 [online] s. a. [cit. 2015-02-19] Available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3334.htm
Andrés, V., Villanueva, M. J., Tenorio, M. D. 2014. Simultaneous determination of tocopherols, retinol, ester derivatives and β-carotene in milk- and soy-juice based beverages by HPLC with diode-array detection. J. Food Sci. Technol, vol 58, no. 2, p. 557-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.03.025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.03.025
CFIA, 2013. Diary vitamin A addition [online] s. a. [cit. 2015-02-23] Available at: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/dairy-products/manuals-inspection-procedures/dairy-vitamin-addition/eng/1378179097522/1378180040706
Debier, C., Pottier J., Goffe, Ch. Larondelle Y. 2005. Present knowledge and unexpected behaviours of vitamins A and E in colostrum and milk. Livestock Production Science, vol. 98, no. 1-2, p. 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.10.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.10.008
Fedele, V., Claps, S., Rubino, R., Manzi, P., Marconi, S., Pizzoferrato, L. 2004. Seasonal variation in retinol concentration of goat milk associated with grazing compared to indoor feeding. South Afr. J. Anim. Sci. vol. 34 (Suppl. 1), p. 148-150. [cit. 2015-02-18]. Available at: http://www.sasas.co.za/seasonal-variation-retinol-concentration-goat-milk-associated-grazing-compared-indoor-feeding.
Hulshof, P. J. M., Roekel-Jansen, T., Bovenkamp, P., West, C. E. 2006. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in The Netherlands. J. Food Composit. Anal., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.04.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.04.005
Klemm, R. D., West, K. P. Jr., Palmer, A. C., Johnson, Q., Randall, P., Ranum, P., Northrop-Clewes, C. 2010. Vitamin A fortification of wheat flour: considerations and current recommendations. Food Nutr. Bull., vol. 31, Suppl.1, p. 47-61. PMid:20629352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/15648265100311S105
Kondyli, E., Svarnas, C., Samelis, J., Katsiari, M. C. 2012. Chemical composition and microbiological quality of ewe and goat milk of native Greek breeds. Small Rum. Res. vol. 103, p. 194-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.043
Lidén, M., Erisson, U. 2006. Understanding retinol metabolism: structure and function of retinol dehydrogenyses. J. Biologic. Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 19, p. 13001-13004. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.R500027200 PMid:16428379 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.R500027200
López-Cervantes, J., Sánchéz-Machado, D. I., Ríos_Vázquez, N. J. 2006. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of retinol, α-tocopherol and cholesterol in shrimp waste hydrolysate. J. Chromatogr. A., vol. 1105, no. 1-2, p. 135-139. PMID:16439259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.08.010
Morand-Fehr, P., Fedele V., Decandia M., Le Frileux Y. 2007. Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Rum. Res., vol. 68, no. 1-2, p. 20-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.019
Park Y. W., Haenlein, H. F. W. 2013. Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition: Production Composition and Health. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell & Sons, 728 p. ISBN: 978-0-470-67418-5.
Ramalho, H. M. M., Santos, J., Casal, S., Alves, M. R., Oliveira, M. B. P. P. 2012. Fat soluble vitamin (A, D, E and β-carotene) contents from a Portuguese autochthonous cow breed-Minhota. J. Dairy Sci. vol. 95 no. 10, p. 5476-5484. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3975 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3975
Raynal-Ljutovac, K., Lagriffoul, G. Paccardb P., Guillet, I., Chilliardc Y. 2008. Composition of goat and sheep milk products: An update. Small Rumin. Res., vol. 79, no. 1, p. 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.07.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.07.009
Regulation (EC) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers. OJ L 304/18, 22.11.2011, p. 1-46.
Revilla, I., Lobos-Ortega, I., Vivar-Quintana, A., González-Martín, M. I., Hernández-Hierro J. M., González-Pérez C. 2014. Variations in the contents of vitamins A and E during the ripening of cheeses with different compositions. Czech J. Food Sci. vol. 32, no. 4, p. 342-347. [cit. 2015-02-03]. Available at: http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/137020.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/518/2012-CJFS
Salo-Väänänen, P., Ollilainen, V., Mattila, P., Lehikoinen, K., Salmela-Mölsä, E., Piironen, V. 2000. Simultaneous HPLC analysis of fat-soluble vitamins in selected animal products after small-scale extraction. Food Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 535-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00155-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00155-2
Sauvant, P., Grolier, P., Azais-Braesco, V. 2002 Vitamin A, Nutritional significance. In Roginski, H., Foquay, J., W., Fox, P. F.. Encyclopedia of dairy sciences. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press, p 2657-2664. ISBN: 978-0-12-227235-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227235-8/00495-8
Weber, P., Bendich, A., Machlin, L. J. 1997. Vitamin E and human health: Rationale for determining recommended intake levels. Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 5, p. 450-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00110-X PMid:9225339 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00110-X
WHO, 2009. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995–2005. [online] s. a. [cit. 2015-02-04] Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598019_eng.pdf?ua=1
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.