Dynamics of lactose changes during ripening of Edam cheese
Keywords:lactose, lactose intolerance, enzymatic method lactose determination, cheese Edam
The published data show that milk and dairy products are an important part of the diet in the European population and the population of North America, where they cover from 20 to 30% of protein, 15% of lipids and about 80% of calcium from food sources. The exclusion of milk and dairy products from human diet due to lactose intolerance (approximately 75% of the global population are lactose malabsorbers) can cause very serious health consequences. From a public health point of view, it is therefore extremely important for diary products to capture all the facts about the fluctuation process or rather reduction of lactose content during dairy production technology. The aim of our study was to determine the lactose in various stages of Edam cheese ripening, to assess its suitability for consumption on the afflicted population. For the determination of lactose (day of production, first, second and sixth month of storage) the reference enzymatic method using the enzymatic set Megazyme International Ireland with a detection limit of 0.00296 g.100 g-1was applied. This set is intended for determination of lactose in samples presented as low-lactose or lactose-free products and is based on the hydrolysis of lactose to D-galactose and D-glucose by the enzyme β-galactosidase. After the subsequent oxidation of galactose, the amount of formed NADH (stoichiometrically related to the amount of lactose contained in the sample) is measured in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. According to current legislation, the lactose-free product must contain less than 10 mg of lactose per 100 g or 100 mL of the consumed product, while a product that contains up to 1 g of lactose in 100 g or 100 mL of the product consumed is considered as a product with low lactose content. The study results showed that even after one month of storage Edam cheese can be, according to current national and EU legislation, designated as a lactose-free food. This means that the consumer receives a lactose-free product whenever buying this type of cheese.
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