Sensitivy to antibiotics in strains of S. aureus isolated from cow´s milk


  • Jana Pukáčová Regional Veterinary and Food Administration Dolný Kubí­n, Pelhřimovská 2055/7, 02601 Dolný Kubí­n, Slovakia.
  • Lucia Poľaková Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Institute of Milk Hygiene and Technology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
  • Eva Dudriková Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Institute of Milk Hygiene and Technology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia



milk, antibiotic resistance, mecA gene, PCR


Strains of S. aureus were isolated from individual milk samples of 500 lacting cows from different areas in Slovakia (PH 1 - Košice region, 300 samples; PH 2 - Žilina region, 200 samples). The statistical significance between both dairy farms included in the experiment in the presence of genus Staphylococcus isolated on Baird-Parker agar from milk samples was p < 0,0001(***) . Totally, 122 milk samples were positive for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (83 Košice regions, 52 Žilina regions). All 122 isolates of S. aureus were sensitive for the methicilin as detected by interpretative criteria developed by NCCLS (2002). For 122 S. aureus isolates, we compared antibiotic susceptibility results determined by the standardized agar diffusion assay with the PCR assay for the detection of antibiotic resistance mecA gene. For all isolates, we found a correlation between the results of the PCR and those of classical resistance testing. The obtained results were confirmed by PCR analysis, according to which, any of our tested isolate of S. aureus from all 122 individual milk samples from both experimental dairy farms were not positive for the presence of mecA gene coding  the methicilin resistance.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


ANDERSON, J. C. 1990. Staphylococcus. In Gyles. C. L. and Thoen, C. O. (eds) Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 1990, 2nd edn, p. 14-20.

ARCHER, G. L., NIEMEYER, D. M., THANASSI, J. A., PUCCI, M. J. 1994. Dissemination among staphylococci of DNA sequences associated with methicillin resistance. In Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 38, 1994, p. 447-454. DOI:


BALL, D. 2002. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus now a major patogen in PEG site infections. In Am. J. Gastroent., 97, (7) 2002, p. 1713-1716. DOI:

BEEKHUIZEN, H., GEVEL, J. S., OLSSON, B., BENTEN, I. J., FURTH, R. 1997. Infection of human vascular endothelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus induces hyperadhesiveness for human monocytes and granulocytes. In 38, J. Immunol., 158 (2), 1997, p. 774-782.

PMid: 8992994

BERGER-BÄCHI, B., ROHRER, S. 2002. Factors influencing methicillin resistance in staphylococci. In Arch. Microbiol., 178, 2002, p. 165-171. DOI:

BRADLEY, A. J. 2002. Bovine mastitis: An Evolving Disease. In Veterinary J., 164, 2002, p. 116-128. DOI:


BRADLEY, A. J., GREEN, M. J. 2002. The Changing of E. coli Mastitis. Satelit Symposium, XXII WBC. Hannover: Novel Aspects of Mastitis Therapy, 2002, p. 4-11.

BRAMLEY, A. J., MCKINNON, C. H., STAKER, R. T., SIMPKIN, D. L. 1984. The effect of udder infection on the bacterial flora of the bulk milk of ten dairy herds. In J.Appl. Bacteriol., 57, 1984, p. 317-323. DOI:


BURDOVÁ, O. 2001. Hygiena a technológia mlieka a mliečnych výrobkov. Košice: UVL, 2001, 342 p.

CARDOSO, H. F., SILVA, N., SENA, M. J., CAMARO, L. S. 1999. Production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Brazil. In Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 29, (5) 1999, p. 347-349. DOI:

PMid: 10664976

CROSSLEY, K. B., ARCHER, G. L. 1997. The staphylococci in human disease. New York: Churchil Liviingstone. 1997.

CUNNINGHAM, R., COCKAYNE, A., HUMPHREYS, H. 1996. Clinical and molecular aspects of the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus bone and joint infections. In J. Med. Microbiol., 44, 1996, p. 157-164. DOI:


DESMASURES, A., BAZIN, F., GUEGUEN, M. 1997. Microbiological composition of raw milk from selected farms in the Camembert region of Normandy. In J. Appl. Microbiol., 83, 1997, p. 53-58. DOI:


EN ISO 6888-1:1999, Mikrobiológia - Stanovenie počtu koagulázapozitívnych stafylokokov (Staphylococcus aureus a ďalšie druhy), horizontálna metóda s použitím Baird-Parkerovho agarového média.

FIRINU, A., VIRGILIO, S., MULA, G., POGGIO, A., ZUCCON, D., PIRINO, T., SIAS, S., NORMANNO, G., DAMBROSIO, A., QUAGLIA, N. C. et al. 2003. Presenza e caratterizzazione enterotossica di Staphylococcus aureus in alimenti di origine animale. Industrie Alimentari XLII, 2003, p. 613-617.

FOSTER, T. J. 2004. The Staphylococcus aureus „superbug".In J. Clinin. Invest., 114, (12) 2004, p. 1693-1696. DOI: DOI:

GARCIA, M. L., MORENO, B., BERGDOLL, M. S. 1980. Characterization of staphylococci isolated from mastitic cows in Spain. In Appl. Environm. Microbiol., 1980, p. 548-553. DOI:


GOSBELL I. B., MERCER J. L., NEVILLE S. A., CRONE, S. A., CHANT, K. G., JALALUSIN, B.B., MUNRO, R. 2001. Non-multiresistant and multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired infections. In Med. J., 174, 2001, p. 627-630. DOI:

PMID: 11480682

HAGE, K., TRAN, T. N. 2004. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from raw and pasteurised milk. In California State Sci. Fair J., 2004, p. 1311,

HARTMAN, B., TOMASZ, A. 1981. Altered penicillin-binding proteins in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. In Agents Chemother., 19, 1981, p. 726-735. DOI:

HEIN, I., JORGENSEN, H. J., LONCAREVIC, S., WAGNER, M. 2005. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus in unpasteurised bovine and caprine milk by real-time PCR. In Res. Microbial., vol. 156, no. 4, 2005, p. 554-563. DOI:


HATTORI, M., OGASAWARA, N., HAYASHI, H., HIRAMATSU, K. 2001. Whole genome sequencing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Lancet, 357, 2001, p. 1225-1240. DOI:

HIRAMATSU, K., HANAKI, H., INO, T., YABUTA, K., OGURI, T., TNOVER, F.C. 1997. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. In J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 40, 1997, p. 135-136. DOI:


HIRAMATSU, K., CUI, L., KURODA, M., ITO, T. 2001. The emergence and evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Trends Microbiol., 9, 2001, p. 486-493. DOI:

HOFÍREK, B., HAAS, D. 2003. Kategorizace zdraví mléčné žlázy, klinické formy mastitid a jejich terapie. In Sborník referátů odborného semináře Mastitidy skotu. Brno 3. 5. 2003, 31, p. 10-23.

HUTTON, C. T., FOX, L. K., HANCOCK, D. D. 1990. Mastitis control practices: Differences between herds with high and low milk somatic cell counts. In J. Dairy Sci., 73, 1990, p. 1135. DOI:


CHOI, C. S., YIN, C. S., BAKAR, A. A. 2006. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults. In J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect., 39, 2006, p. 458-464.


INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FEDERATION 1971. A monograph on bovine mastitis. Part 1. Economist, aetiology and diagnosis, International Dairy Federation Annual Bulletin, 1971.

ITO, T., KATAYAMA, Y., HIRAMATSU, K. 1999. Cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the entire mec DNA of pre-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus N315. In Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43, 1999, p. 1449-1458. DOI:



JEVONS, M. P. 1961. 'Celbenin'- resistant staphylococci. In Br. Med. J., 1, 1961, p. 124-125. DOI:


JOHNSTON, C. P., STOKES, A. K., ROSS, T. 2007. Staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital. In Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., 28, 2007, p. 1404-1407. DOI:

JONES, T. F., KELLUM, M. E., PORTER, S. S., BELL, M., SCHAFFNER, W. 2002. An outbreak of community-acquired foodborne illness caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 2002, p. 82-84. DOI:


JØRGENSEN, H. J., MØRK, T., HØGÅSEN, H. R., RØRVIK, L. M. 2005. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk in Norway. In J. Appl. Microbiol., 99, (1) 2005, p. 158-166. DOI:


JUHÁSZ-KASZANYITZKY, E., JANOSI, S., SOMOGYI, P., DAN, A., GRAAF-VAN, BLOOIS, L., DUIJKEREN, E., WAGENAAR, J.A. 2007. MRSA transmission between cows and humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 2007, p. 630-632. DOI:

KARPÍŠKOVÁ, R., ŠŤÁSTKOVÁ, Z., KARPÍŠKOVÁ, S. 2009. Nálezy meticilin rezistentních Staphylococcus aureus u zvířat. In Veterinářství, 59, 2009, p. 34-38.

KATAYAMA, Y., ITO, T., HIRAMATSU, K. 2000. A new class of genetic element, staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec, encodes methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 44, 2000, p. 1549-1555. DOI:


KEROUANTON, A. , HENNEKINNE, J. A., LETERTRE, C., PETIT, L., CHESNEAU, O., BRISABOIS, A., DEBUYSER, M. L. 2007. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France. In Int. J. Food Microbiol. 115, 2007, 3, p. 369-375. DOI:


KIŠŠOVÁ, M. 2008. Molekulárna podstata rezistencie kmeňov Staphylococcus aureus na meticilín: Bakalárska práca, Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008, 57 p.

KRASUSKI, A., MICHNOWSKA-SWINCOW, E., JARZEMBOWSKI, T. 2007. Cytidine deamination assay to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from other staphylococci. In Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 45, (5) 2007, p. 497-503. DOI:


LEE, J. H. 2003. Methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. In Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69, 2003, p. 6489-6494. DOI:


LE LOIR, Y., BARON, F., GAUTIER, M. 2003. Staphylococccus aureus and food poisoning. In Genet. Mol. Res., 312, (1) 2003, p. 63-76.

LEMBO, A., KALIS, C., KIRSCHNING, C. J., MITOLO, V., JIRILLO, E., WAGNER, H., GALANOS, C., FREUDENBERG, M. A. Differential contribution of Toll - like receptors 4 and 2 to the cytokine response to Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococccus aureus in mice. In Infect. Immun., 71, (10), 2003, p. 6058-6062. DOI:


LÍŠKOVÁ, A., DUBAJOVÁ, V., GLOSOVÁ, L., HANZEN, J., HUPKOVÁ, H., MAĆEKOVÁ, Ľ., MOLOKÁČOVÁ, M., NOVÁKOVÁ, E., PURGELOVÁ, A. 2004. Mení sa stav citlivosti najčastejších respiračných patogénov na antiinfekčné liečivá? In Lekársky Obzor, 53 (10), 2004, p. 369-371. DOI:

MARTINEAU, F., PICARD, F. J., ROY, P. H., QUELLETTE, M., BERGERON, M. G. 1998. Species-specific and ubiquitous-DNA-based assays for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus. In J. Clin. Microbiol., 36, 3, 1998, p. 618-623. DOI:


MINOR, T. E., MARTH, E. H. 1976. Staphylococci and their significance in food. Elsevier Scient. Publ. Inc., Amsterdam, 1976, p. 99-125.

MINOR, T. E., MARTH, E. H. 1972. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food intoxications. A rewiew III. Staphylococci in dairy food. In J. Milk Food Technol., 35, 1972, p. 77-81. DOI:

NATIONAL COMMITTEE for CLINICAL LABORATORY STANDARDS (NCCLS) M31-A2. 2002. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals approved standards. NCCLS, Wayne, Pa, USA, 2002.

NORMANNO, G., CORRENTE, M., SALANDRA, G., DAMBROSIO, A., QUAGLIA, N. C., PARISI, A., GRECOC, G., BELLACICCO, A. L., VIRGILIO, S., CELANO, G. V. 2007. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in foods of animal origin product in Italy. In International J. Food Microbiology, 117, 2007, p. 219-222. DOI:


OLIVEIRA, D. C., MILHEIRICO, C., DE LENCASTRE, H. 2006. Redefining a structural variant of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, SCCmec type VI. Antimicrob. In Agents Chemother. 50, 2006, p. 3457-3459. DOI:


OMBUI, J. N., ARIMI, S. M., KAYIHURA M. 1992. Raw milk as a source of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxins in consumer milk. In East. Afr. Med. J., 69, 1992, p. 123-125.


PINHO, M., DE LENCASTRE, H., TOMASZ, A. 2001. An acquired and a native penicillin-binding protein cooperate in building the cell wall of drug-resistant staphylococci. In Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 2001, p. 10886-10891. DOI:


PYÖRÄLÄ, S. 2002. New strategies to prevent mastitis. In Reprod. Domest. Anim., 37, (4) 2002, p. 211-216. DOI:


SAMBROOK, J., FRITSCH, E. F., MANIATIS. T. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor. New York, 253 p.

SHOSHANI, E., LEITNER, G., HANOCHI, B., SARAN, A., SHPIGEL, N. Y., BERMAN, A. 1999. Mammary infection with Staphylococcus aureus in cows: progress from inoculation to chronic infection and its detection. In J. Dairy Res., 97, (2) 1999, p. 155-169. DOI:


SILVA, F. R. 2001. Isolation and molecular characterization of methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci from nasal flora of healthy humans at three community institutions in Rio de Janeiro City. In Epidemiology and Infection, 127, 2001, p. 57-62. DOI:


SMITANDI, A., STERNESJÖ, A. 2004. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk from large-and small-scale producers in Kenya. In J. Dairy Sci., 87, 2004, p. 4145-4149. DOI:


SOOMRO, A. H., ARAIN, M. A., KHASKHELI, M., BHUTTO, B., MEMON, A.Q. 2003. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from milk products sold at sweet-meat shops of Hyderabad (Pakistan). In On Line J. Biol. Sci., 3, (1), 2003, p. 91-94. DOI:

STROMMENGER, B., KETTLITZ, C., WERNER, G. WITTE, W. 2003. Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detction of nine clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus. In J. Clin. Microbiol., 41. (9) 2003, p. 4089-4094. DOI:


TSEN, H. Y., Yu, G. K., HU, H. H. 1997. Comparison of type enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from geographically far distant locations by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In J. Appl. Microbiol., 82, (4), 1997, p. 485-493. DOI:


VAN LOO, I. H., DIEDEREN, B. M., SAVELKOUL, P. H., WOUDENBERG, J. H., ROOSENDAAL, R., VANBELKUM, A., LEMMENS-DEN TOOM, N., VERHULST, C., VANKEULEN, P. H., KLUYTMANS, J. A. 2007. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat products, the Netherlands. In Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 2007, p. 1753-1755. DOI:


VASIĽ, M. 2001. Mastitídy. In. Choroby hovädzieho dobytka. Prešov: Vydavateľstvo M & M, 2001, s. 673-717.

VASIĽ, M. 2007. Comparison of etiology of environmental mastities in two herds of dairy cows. In Slovak J. Anim. Sci., 40, (3), 2007, p. 132-140.

VASIĽ, M., ELEČKO, J., FOTTA, M., BÍREŠ, J. 2008. Možnosti ovplyvnenia výskytu mastitíd u dojníc chovaných vo veľkovýrobných podmienkach. In. Zb. Ekológia a veterinárna medicína. UVL Košice, 2008, p. 303-308. ISBN 978-80-8077-084-6.

WANG, Y., WU, C. M., LU, L. M., REN, G. W., CAO, X. Y., SHEN, J. Z. 2008. Macrolide-lincosamide-resistant phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. In Vet. Microbiol., 130, (1-2), 2008, p. 118-125. DOI:





How to Cite

Pukáčová, J. ., Poľaková, L. ., & Dudriková, E. . (2010). Sensitivy to antibiotics in strains of S. aureus isolated from cow´s milk. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 4(4), 56–64.