Transforming livestock by-products into nutritious extruded feed additives: a sustainable approach for modern agriculture
Keywords:cattle slaughter waste, extrusion, heat treatment, technology, chemical composition, protein
The search for a solution to the challenge of providing the agriculture industry with complete feeds is relevant to modern animal husbandry in many countries, and protein is a key limiting component in feed. Along with the growth of food production, the waste it produces, which is also a valuable resource of useful components, can be recycled and used. Thus, in slaughter, butchering and meat production, a large amount of waste is generated, including by-products that can be processed further. The extrusion process is one of the best processing methods to improve the nutritional value of ingredients and feed and improve feed efficiency. In modern feed milling operations, extrusion must be considered as the main process for increasing feed profitability. The benefits of the extrusion process in improving the nutritional value and efficiency of ingredients and feeds depend on many factors, such as the structure and chemical composition of the ingredients, the processing conditions and the equipment used in processing. This article substantiates the need to develop technologies for involving production waste in their further use in medium- and long-term growth in the demand for food. A technology for producing an extruded feed additive based on vegetable feed with the addition of slaughter waste is presented. The formulation of a feed additive in which different percentages of slaughter waste of 5.10% and 15% corn was replaced with by-products was studied. The water activity of the obtained extruded feed additives was studied, where, at a content of 15% slaughter waste, it was low compared with that of the other two samples. Further research will allow procuring fodder products with a high biological value and utilising unclaimed by-products of livestock slaughter.
Kulnev, M. M. (2000). Protein-carbohydrate compound feed from slaughterhouse waste as part of compound feed for rearing and productive use of replacement pigs. The dissertation of the candidate of agricultural sciences. Dubrovitsy: Moscow Region, 120 p.
Acker, R. F., Hartman, P. A., Pemberton, J. R., & Quinn, L. Y. (1959). The nutritional potential of poultry offal. In Poultry Science (Vol. 38, Issue 3, pp. 706–711). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0380706 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0380706
Patterson, P. H., Acar, N., & Coleman, W. C. (1994). Feeding value of poultry by-products extruded with cassava, barley, and wheat middlings for broiler chicks: The effect of ensiling poultry by-products as a preservation method prior to extrusion. In Poultry Science (Vol. 73, Issue 7, pp. 1107–1115). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0731107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0731107
Zubov, I. N. (2014). Processing of slaughter products – Increasing the profitability of production. In Meat Technology (Vol. 2, p. 34). Institute of meat hygiene and technology.
Dentinho, M. T. P., Paulos, K., Costa, C., Costa, J., Fialho, L., Cachucho, L., Portugal, A. P., Almeida, J., Rehan, I., Belo, A. T., Jerónimo, E., & Santos-Silva, J. (2023). Silages of agro-industrial by-products in lamb diets – Effect on growth performance, carcass, meat quality and in vitro methane emissions. In Animal Feed Science and Technology (Vol. 298, p. 115603). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2023.115603 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2023.115603
Adhikari, B., Chae, M., & Bressler, D. (2018). Utilization of slaughterhouse waste in value-added applications: Recent advances in the development of wood adhesives. In Polymers (Vol. 10, Issue 2, p. 176). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020176 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020176
della Malva, A., Santillo, A., Priolo, A., Marino, R., Ciliberti, M. G., Sevi, A., & Albenzio, M. (2023). Effect of hazelnut skin by-product supplementation in lambs’ diets: Implications on plasma and muscle proteomes and first insights on the underlying mechanisms. In Journal of Proteomics (Vol. 271, p. 104757). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2022.104757 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2022.104757
Sanglard, L. P., Snelling, W. M., Kuehn, L. A., Thallman, R. M., Freetly, H. C., Wheeler, T. L., Shackelford, S. D., King, D. A., & Spangler, M. L. (2022). Genetic and phenotypic associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number, SNP, and haplogroups with growth and carcass traits in beef cattle. In Journal of Animal Science (Vol. 101). Oxford University Press (OUP). https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac415 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac415
Tufarelli, V., Passantino, L., Zupa, R., Crupi, P., & Laudadio, V. (2022). Suitability of dried olive pulp in slow-growing broilers: Performance, meat quality, oxidation products, and intestinal mucosa features. In Poultry Science (Vol. 101, Issue 12, p. 102230). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2022.102230 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2022.102230
Toniasso, D. P. W., Giacomelli da Silva, C., de Souza Brum Junior, B., Somacal, S., Emanuelli, T., Hashime Kubota, E., Cristina Prestes Dornelles, R., & Mello, R. (2022). Collagen extracted from rabbit: Meat and by-products: Isolation and physicochemical assessment. In Food Research International (Vol. 162, p. 111967). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111967 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111967
Jerlström, J., Berg, C., Karlsson, A., Wallenbeck, A., & Hansson, H. (2022). A formal model for assessing the economic impact of animal welfare improvements at bovine and porcine slaughter. In Animal Welfare (Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 361–371). Cambridge University Press (CUP). https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.31.4.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.31.4.004
Vidal, A. R., Cansian, R. L., Mello, R. de O., Demiate, I. M., Kempka, A. P., Dornelles, R. C. P., Rodriguez, J. M. L., & Campagnol, P. C. B. (2022). Production of collagens and protein hydrolysates with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity from sheep slaughter by-products. In Antioxidants (Vol. 11, Issue 6, p. 1173). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061173
Fatyanov, E. V., Te, R. E., & Evteev, A. V. (2011). Dependence of water activity on the concentration of salt and carbohydrates. In Scientific Review (Vol. 5, pp. 69–70).
Jayathilakan, K., Sultana, K., Radhakrishna, K., & Bawa, A. S. (2011). Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review. In Journal of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 49, Issue 3, pp. 278–293). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0290-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0290-7
Alekhina, Yu. N., Elizarova, T. I., & Lazarev, B. P. (2014). In Technology of the food and processing industry of the agro-industrial complex – healthy food products (Issue 1, p. 28). Technologies of the food and processing industry of the agro-industrial complex – healthy food products.
Knudsen, K. E. B. (1997). Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. In Animal Feed Science and Technology (Vol. 67, Issue 4, pp. 319–338). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0377-8401(97)00009-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00009-6
Cha, J. Y., Lee, M. H., Yong, H. I., Kim, T.-K., Choi, H.-J., Kim, M.-R., & Choi, Y.-S. (2022). Effects of added cereal fibers on the quality characteristics of black pudding prepared with duck blood. In Poultry Science (Vol. 101, Issue 3, p. 101694). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101694 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101694
Pinto, J., Boavida-Dias, R., Matos, H. A., & Azevedo, J. (2022). Analysis of the food loss and waste valorisation of animal by-products from the retail sector. In Sustainability (Vol. 14, Issue 5, p. 2830). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052830 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052830
Zinina, O., Merenkova, S., & Rebezov, M. (2022). Analysis of modern approaches to the processing of poultry waste and by-products: prospects for use in industrial sectors. In Food Science and Technology (Vol. 42). FapUNIFESP (SciELO). https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.03222 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.03222
Ugnivenko, A., Kos, N., Nosevych, D., Mushtruk, M., Slobodyanyuk, N., Zasukha, Y., Otchenashko, V., Chumachenko, I., Gryshchenko, S., & Snizhko, O. (2022). The yield of adipose tissue and by-products in the course of the slaughter of inbred and outbred bulls of the Ukrainian beef breed. In Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences (Vol. 16, pp. 307–319). HACCP Consulting. https://doi.org/10.5219/1758 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/1758
Rodrigues, T. C. G. C., Santos, S. A., Cirne, L. G. A., dos S. Pina, D., Alba, H. D. R., de Araújo, M. L. G. M. L., Silva, W. P., Nascimento, C. O., Rodrigues, C. S., & de Carvalho, G. G. P. (2021). Palm kernel cake in high-concentrate diets improves animal performance without affecting the meat quality of goat kids. In R. Jacob (Ed.), Animal Production Science (Vol. 62, Issue 1, pp. 78–89). CSIRO Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1071/an21129 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/AN21129
Karwowska, M., Łaba, S., & Szczepański, K. (2021). Food loss and waste in meat sector—Why the consumption stage generates the most losses? In Sustainability (Vol. 13, Issue 11, p. 6227). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116227 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116227
Salami, S. A., Valenti, B., Luciano, G., Lanza, M., Umezurike-Amahah, N. M., Kerry, J. P., O’Grady, M. N., Newbold, C. J., & Priolo, A. (2021). Dietary cardoon meal modulates rumen biohydrogenation and bacterial community in lambs. In Scientific Reports (Vol. 11, Issue 1). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95691-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95691-3
Lukashenko, V. S., Saleeva, I. P., Ismailova, D. Y., Volik, V. G., & Fedorova, T. V. (2021). Functional properties of the protein feed additives based on the wastes and by-products of slaughter and processing of poultry. In Modern synthetic methodologies for creating drugs and functional materials (MOSM2020): Proceedings of the IV international conference. modern synthetic methodologies for creating drugs and functional materials (MOSM2020): Proceedings of the iv international conference. AIP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0068830 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0068830
Canali, M., Amani, P., Aramyan, L., Gheoldus, M., Moates, G., Östergren, K., Silvennoinen, K., Waldron, K., & Vittuari, M. (2016). Food waste drivers in Europe, from identification to possible interventions. In Sustainability (Vol. 9, Issue 1, p. 37). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010037 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010037
Conrad, Z., Niles, M. T., Neher, D. A., Roy, E. D., Tichenor, N. E., & Jahns, L. (2018). Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability. In B. Marelli (Ed.), PLOS ONE (Vol. 13, Issue 4, p. e0195405). Public Library of Science (PLoS). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195405 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195405
Martins, A. A., Andrade, S., Correia, D., Matos, E., Caetano, N. S., & Mata, T. M. (2021). Valorization of agro-industrial residues: Bioprocessing of animal fats to reduce their acidity. In Sustainability (Vol. 13, Issue 19, p. 10837). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910837 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910837
Hamilton, S. F., & Richards, T. J. (2019). Food policy and household food waste. In American Journal of Agricultural Economics (Vol. 101, Issue 2, pp. 600–614). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aay109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aay109
Verschuren, L. M. G., Schokker, D., Bergsma, R., van Milgen, J., Molist, F., Calus, M. P. L., & Jansman, A. J. M. (2021). Variation in faecal digestibility values related to feed efficiency traits of grower-finisher pigs. In Animal (Vol. 15, Issue 9, p. 100211). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100211 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100211
Balandrán-Quintana, R. R., Mendoza-Wilson, A. M., Ramos-Clamont Montfort, G., & Huerta-Ocampo, J. Á. (2019). Plant-based proteins. In Proteins: Sustainable Source, Processing and Applications (pp. 97–130). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-816695-6.00004-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816695-6.00004-0
Leal, E. S., Ítavo, L. C. V., Ítavo, C. C. B. F., Nogueira, É., Franco, G. L., de Nadai Bonin Gomes, M., dos Santos Difante, G., Dias, A. M., Pereira, M. W. F., Gurgel, A. L. C., & de Mello, J. A. T. (2021). Combinations of by-products from biodiesel production included in the supplement for finishing heifers on deferred pastures. In Tropical Animal Health and Production (Vol. 53, Issue 2). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02712-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02712-4
Mosna, D., Bottani, E., Vignali, G., & Montanari, R. (2021). Environmental benefits of pet food obtained as a result of the valorisation of meat fraction derived from packaged food waste. In Waste Management (Vol. 125, pp. 132–144). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.02.035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.02.035
Jayeola, C. O., Adebowale, B. A., Yahaya, L. E., Ogunwolu, S. O., & Olubamiwa, O. (2018). Production of bioactive compounds from waste. In Therapeutic, Probiotic, and Unconventional Foods (pp. 317–340). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-814625-5.00017-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814625-5.00017-0
Carvalho, S., Manzoni, V. G., Minuzi, C. F., Teixeira, W. S., Costa, V. R. da, Barbosa, L. L., Corrêa, P. M. da F., Uliana, D., Moraes, C. M. de, Ozorio, A. de L., … Oliveira, M. de. (2021). Characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed wet brewery waste as a roughage feed. In Semina: Ciências Agrárias (Vol. 42, Issue 3, pp. 1773–1784). Universidade Estadual de Londrina. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n3supl1p1773 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n3Supl1p1773
Artemova, E. I., Kochieva, A. K. & Kapustkin, A. V. (2011). Efficiency of the organization of on-farm production of animal feed. In Multi-Topic Network Electronic Scientific Journal of the Kuban State Agrarian University (Vol. 69, pp. 258-269). Kuban State Agrarian University.
Romali, V. S. & Kartashov, S. G. (2015). Carbohydrate-protein feed based on plant materials. In Bulletin of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Animal Husbandry Mechanization (Vol. 4, Issue 20, pp. 15–18). All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Animal Husbandry Mechanization.
dos Santos, M. A., Cordeiro, A. E., da Silva, D. J. M., Queiroz, M. A. A., Gois, G. C., Menezes, D. R., de Moraes, S. A., Voltolini, T. V., Busato, K. C., & de Souza Rodrigues, R. T. (2019). Use of bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in goat rations for meat production. In Tropical Animal Health and Production (Vol. 51, Issue 8, pp. 2465–2471). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01965-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01965-4
Glatz, P., Miao, Z., & Rodda, B. (2011). Handling and treatment of poultry hatchery waste: A review. In Sustainability (Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 216–237). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su3010216 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su3010216
Lilburn, M., Barbour, G., Nemasetoni, R., Coy, C., Werling, M., & Yersin, A. (1997). Protein quality and calcium availability from extruded and autoclaved turkey hatchery residue. In Poultry Science (Vol. 76, Issue 6, pp. 841–848). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.6.841 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.6.841
Sobota, A., Zarzycki, P., Sykut-Domańska, E., Wirkijowska, A., Rzedzicki, Z., & Pawlas, A. (2018). A study on the twin screw extrusion-cooking of plant-meat pet food mixtures. In Acta Agrophysica (Vol. 25, Issue 4, pp. 421–435). Institute of Agrophysics Polish Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.31545/aagr/99634 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31545/aagr/99634
Alqadami, A. A., Wabaidur, S. M., Jeon, B.-H., & Khan, M. A. (2023). Co-hydrothermal valorization of food waste: process optimization, characterization, and water decolorization application. In Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03711-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03711-7
Wang, C., Wang, Z., Wang, X., Li, N., Tao, J., Zheng, W., Yan, B., Cui, X., Cheng, Z., & Chen, G. (2022). A Review on the Hydrothermal Treatment of Food Waste: Processing and Applications. In Processes (Vol. 10, Issue 11, p. 2439). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112439 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112439
Chavez-Jauregui, R. N., Cardoso-Santiago, R. A., Silva, M. E. M. P. e, & Areas, J. A. G. (2003). Acceptability of snacks produced by the extrusion of amaranth and blends of chickpea and bovine lung. In International Journal of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 38, Issue 7, pp. 795–798). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00734.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00734.x
Petukhova, E. A., Bessarabova, R. F., Khaleneva, L. D., Antonova, O. A. (1981). Zootechnical analysis of feed. M: Kolos, 256 p.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.