Fatty acids, their proportions, ratios, and relations in the selected muscles of the thigh and roast beef


  • Michal Angelovič The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Transport and Bioenergetics, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 6414795 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9562-2547
  • Jozef Čapla The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 6414371 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9475-6359
  • Peter Zajác The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 6414371 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4425-4374
  • Jozef Čurlej The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 5825 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0039-5332
  • Lucia Benešová The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, AgroBio Tech research centre, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 4608 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2321-6627
  • Silvia Jakabová The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 641 4608
  • Mária Angelovičová The Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Food Sciences, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 37 6415805




beef muscle, fatty acid, proportion, ratio, correlation


The study aimed to examine, compare, and statistically evaluate the quality of the beef thigh and roast beef muscle in terms of the profile of fatty acids in relation to human health. Musculus semimembranosus and m. quadriceps femoris of the thigh and m. longissimus dorsi of the roast beef were used for analysis to evaluate the fatty acid profile. Chemical analysis of the thigh and roast beef muscle samples was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The measured data were statistically processed according to descriptive characteristics, analysis of variance, and differences were tested using Scheffe´s test at a = 0.05. The SAS program package, version 8.2, was used to evaluate the results statistically. A statistically significant difference (p ≤0.05) was recorded in the dry matter proportion between m. quadriceps femoris and m. longissimus dorsi. A statistically significant difference was found in the intramuscular fat proportion, polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as between m. semimembranosus and m. longissimus dorsi and between m. quadriceps femoris and m. longissimus dorsi. Strong, statistically significant (p ≤0.01, p ≤0.001) correlations were found mainly between intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids, between intramuscular fat and the ratio of the polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, between intramuscular fat and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, it was stated that the muscles of the thigh and roast beef of the young cattle are characterized by statistically significant differences in the proportion of fatty acids. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids meets the recommended values concerning maintaining the health of the food consumer. Still, the ratio of the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids poses a risk concerning cardiovascular diseases.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


OECD-FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2021). Agricultural Outlook 2018 – 2027. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/I9166EN.

Henchion, M. M., McCarthy, M., & Resconi, V. C. (2017). Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives. In Meat Science (Vol. 128, pp. 1–7). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.01.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.01.006

Janßen, D., & Langen, N. (2017). The bunch of sustainability labels – Do consumers differentiate? In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 143, pp. 1233–1245). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.171

Miranda-de la Lama, G. C., Estévez-Moreno, L. X., Sepúlveda, W. S., Estrada-Chavero, M. C., Rayas-Amor, A. A., Villarroel, M., & María, G. A. (2017). Mexican consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products. In Meat Science (Vol. 125, pp. 106–113). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.12.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.12.001

Sievert, K., Lawrence, M., Parker, C., Russell, C. A., & Baker, P. (2021). Who has a beef with reducing red and processed meat consumption? A media framing analysis. In Public Health Nutrition (Vol. 25, Issue 3, pp. 578–590). Cambridge University Press (CUP). https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980021004092 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021004092

Giovanelli, G., Buratti, S., Laureati, M., & Pagliarini, E. (2015). Evolution of physicochemical, morphological and aromatic characteristics of Italian PDO dry-cured hams during processing. In European Food Research and Technology (Vol. 242, Issue 7, pp. 1117–1127). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2616-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2616-6

Kelley, S. F. (2000). Meat Processing Technology (adapted: Gibson, A. 2019). Retrieed from https://slideplayer.com/slide/13185094/.

Badr, H. M. (2012). Infrared Spectroscopy for the Detection of Irradiated Meats. In Journal of American Science (Vol. 8, Issue 6, pp. 208–2014). Yale University.

Amamcharla, J. K., Panigrahi, S., Logue, C. M., Marchello, M., & Sherwood, J. S. (2010). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as a tool for discriminating Salmonella typhimurium contaminated beef. In Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety (Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 1–12). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-009-9090-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-009-9090-4

AOAC 983.18. (1983). Meat and Meat Products; Preparation of Test Sample Procedure.

Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203771587 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203771587

Komiya, Y., Mizunoya, W., Kajiwara, K., Yokoyama, I., Ogasawara, H., & Arihara, K. (2020). Correlation between skeletal muscle fiber type and responses of a taste sensing system in various beef samples. In Animal Science Journal (Vol. 91, Issue 1). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13425 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13425

Listrat, A., Gagaoua, M., Normand, J., Andueza, D. J., Gruffat, D., Mairesse, G., Chesneau, G., Mourot, B.-P., Gobert, C., & Picard, B. (2020). Are there consistent relationships between major connective tissue components, intramuscular fat content and muscle fibre types in cattle muscle? In Animal (Vol. 14, Issue 6, pp. 1204–1212). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1751731119003422 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119003422

Listrat, A., Gagaoua, M., Normand, J., Gruffat, D., Andueza, D., Mairesse, G., Mourot, B., Chesneau, G., Gobert, C., & Picard, B. (2020). Contribution of connective tissue components, muscle fibres and marbling to beef tenderness variability in longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles. In Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Vol. 100, Issue 6, pp. 2502–2511). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10275

Wegner, J., Albrecht, E., Fiedler, I., Teuscher, F., Papstein, H. J., & Ender, K. (2000). Growth- and breed-related changes of muscle fiber characteristics in cattle. In Journal of Animal Science (Vol. 78, Issue 6, p. 1485). Oxford University Press (OUP). https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7861485x DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7861485x

Li, X., Xie, X., Zhang, C., Zhen, S., & Jia, W. (2017). Role of mid- and far-infrared for improving dehydration efficiency in beef jerky drying. In Drying Technology (Vol. 36, Issue 3, pp. 283–293). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2017.1326129 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2017.1326129

Dikeman, M. E. (Ed.). (2017). Ensuring safety and quality in the production of beef Volume 2. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351114172 DOI: https://doi.org/10.19103/AS.2016.0009

Mwangi, F. W., Charmley, E., Gardiner, C. P., Malau-Aduli, B. S., Kinobe, R. T., & Malau-Aduli, A. E. O. (2019). Diet and Genetics Influence Beef Cattle Performance and Meat Quality Characteristics. In Foods (Vol. 8, Issue 12, p. 648). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120648 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120648

Pannier, L., Gardner, G. E., Pearce, K. L., McDonagh, M., Ball, A. J., Jacob, R. H., & Pethick, D. W. (2014). Associations of sire estimated breeding values and objective meat quality measurements with sensory scores in Australian lamb. In Meat Science (Vol. 96, Issue 2, pp. 1076–1087). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.037 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.037

Miner, J. L. (2004). The adipocyte as an endocrine cell1. In Journal of Animal Science (Vol. 82, Issue 3, pp. 935–941). Oxford University Press (OUP). https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.823935x DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.823935x

Vahmani, P., Mapiye, C., Prieto, N., Rolland, D. C., McAllister, T. A., Aalhus, J. L., & Dugan, M. E. R. (2015). The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review. In Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology (Vol. 6, Issue 1). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0026-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0026-z

de Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., Cozma, A. I., Ha, V., Kishibe, T., Uleryk, E., Budylowski, P., Schünemann, H., Beyene, J., & Anand, S. S. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. In BMJ (p. h3978). BMJ. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3978

Mensink, R. P., Zock, P. L., Kester, A. D., & Katan, M. B. (2003). Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. In The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 77, Issue 5, pp. 1146–1155). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1146

Garg, M. L., Blake, R. J., & Wills, R. B. H. (2003). Macadamia Nut Consumption Lowers Plasma Total and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Hypercholesterolemic Men. In The Journal of Nutrition (Vol. 133, Issue 4, pp. 1060–1063). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.4.1060 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.4.1060

Forouhi, N. G., Koulman, A., Sharp, S. J., Imamura, F., Kröger, J., Schulze, M. B., Crowe, F. L., Huerta, J. M., Guevara, M., Beulens, J. W., van Woudenbergh, G. J., Wang, L., Summerhill, K., Griffin, J. L., Feskens, E. J., Amiano, P., Boeing, H., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Dartois, L., … Wareham, N. J. (2014). Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. In The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp. 810–818). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(14)70146-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70146-9

Khaw, K.-T., Friesen, M. D., Riboli, E., Luben, R., & Wareham, N. (2012). Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Concentration and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Study. In M. B. Katan (Ed.), PLoS Medicine (Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. e1001255). Public Library of Science (PLoS). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001255 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001255

Davis, H., Magistrali, A., Butler, G., & Stergiadis, S. (2022). Nutritional Benefits from Fatty Acids in Organic and Grass-Fed Beef. In Foods (Vol. 11, Issue 5, p. 646). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050646 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050646

Butler, G., Ali, A. M., Oladokun, S., Wang, J., & Davis, H. (2021). Forage-fed cattle point the way forward for beef? In Future Foods (Vol. 3, p. 100012). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fufo.2021.100012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fufo.2021.100012

Calder, P. C. (2015). Functional Roles of Fatty Acids and Their Effects on Human Health. In Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Vol. 39, Issue 1_suppl, pp. 18S-32S). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607115595980 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607115595980

Vafeiadou, K., Weech, M., Altowaijri, H., Todd, S., Yaqoob, P., Jackson, K. G., & Lovegrove, J. A. (2015). Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats had no impact on vascular function but beneficial effects on lipid biomarkers, E-selectin, and blood pressure: results from the randomized, controlled Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS) study. In The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 102, Issue 1, pp. 40–48). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.097089 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.097089

Raes, K., De Smet, S., & Demeyer, D. (2004). Effect of dietary fatty acids on incorporation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork meat: a review. In Animal Feed Science and Technology (Vol. 113, Issues 1–4, pp. 199–221). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.09.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.09.001

Prado, J., Prado, I., Visentainer, J., Rotta, P., Perotto, D., Moletta, J., Prado, I., & Ducatti, T. (2009). The effect of breed on the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> muscle of Brazilian beef cattle. In Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences (Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 231–240). The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, PAS. https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/66387/2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/66387/2009

Scollan, N. D., Enser, M., Gulati, S. K., Richardson, I., & Wood, J. D. (2003). Effects of including a ruminally protected lipid supplement in the diet on the fatty acid composition of beef muscle. In British Journal of Nutrition (Vol. 90, Issue 3, pp. 709–716). Cambridge University Press (CUP). https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn2003933 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003933

PCAS. (2021). PCAS Certified Pasturefed. Retrieved from http://www.pcaspasturefed.com.au/.

Shahidi, F., & Ambigaipalan, P. (2018). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits. In Annual Review of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 345–381). Annual Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-111317-095850 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-111317-095850

Vahmani, P., Ponnampalam, E. N., Kraft, J., Mapiye, C., Bermingham, E. N., Watkins, P. J., Proctor, S. D., & Dugan, M. E. R. (2020). Bioactivity and health effects of ruminant meat lipids. Invited Review. In Meat Science (Vol. 165, p. 108114). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108114

Pethick, D. W., Hocquette, J.-F., Scollan, N. D., & Dunshea, F. R. (2021). Review: Improving the nutritional, sensory and market value of meat products from sheep and cattle. In Animal (Vol. 15, p. 100356). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100356

Ribas‐Agustí, A., Díaz, I., Sárraga, C., García‐Regueiro, J. A., & Castellari, M. (2019). Nutritional properties of organic and conventional beef meat at retail. In Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Vol. 99, Issue 9, pp. 4218–4225). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9652 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9652

Arshad, M. S. (Ed.). (2018). Meat Science and Nutrition. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71954 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71954




How to Cite

Angelovič, M., Čapla, J., Zajác, P., Čurlej, J., Benešová, L., Jakabová, S., & Angelovičová, M. (2023). Fatty acids, their proportions, ratios, and relations in the selected muscles of the thigh and roast beef. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 17, 844–861. https://doi.org/10.5219/1765

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.