Perception of sensory attributes and marketing tools of selected milk brands
Keywords:milk, consumers, Slovakia, Rajo semi-skimmed milk, Tami semi-skimmed milk
The research has shown that in the last 5,000 years the human evolution has made the greatest leap in the human history. As a result of these changes, thanks to relatively recent discovery of a specific gene, even adult Europeans can digest milk. In their nutritional guidelines based on the scientific evidence, the official health organizations and institutions recommend drinking milk and eating low-fat dairy products such as yoghurts or cheese. The human body absorbs the necessary amount of calcium in the easiest form from cow's milk. Calcium is the essential element not only for healthy bones and teeth but it is also the important factor for the transmission of nerve impulses, it supports heart activity, helps reduce high blood pressure and "bad" LDL cholesterol levels and alleviate allergic reactions. It has impact on proper blood clotting, affects sperm mobility, helps prevent arthritis or can also contribute to better sleep. Milk is a valuable food not only for calcium content but also for selenium which slows down the aging process and contributes to the protection of the immune system. Acid dairy products prevent the digestive disorders, protect against gastrointestinal infections and improve skin condition. Despite all these positive aspects the consumption of milk, as well as dairy products, has the downward trend in Slovakia. In the last decade, the consumption was at a historical minimum and below the recommended annual dose, which is
91 liters of milk per person. Therefore, the main objective of this research paper was to examine the quality of milk produced by two selected competing companies and identify the various factors affecting consumers´ decision-making process when purchasing milk and dairy products. The attention was concentrated on the sensory attributes (colour, appearance, smell, taste and quality) and marketing tools (brand, packaging, label and price). The primary data were obtained by the questionnaire survey, which was conducted in the Slovak Republic with 284 respondents. For a deeper analysis, the data were evaluated by the statistical methods. Based on the results of the blind testing it was determined that even though the quality of monitored milk is the same, the respondents prefer the sensory attributes of Rajo semi-skimmed milk. When it comes to brand, packaging, label and price Tami semi-skimmed milk also lagged behind.
Andocsová, A. 2019. Consumer behavior of selected generations on the milk market. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Management “People, Planet and Profit: Sustainable Business and Society”, Hungary: Szent István University Gödöllő, p. 293-298. ISBN: 978-963-269-882-3.
Ciotti, G. 2020. The Psychology of Color in Marketing and Branding. Available at: https://www.helpscout.com/blog/psychology-of-color/
Clark, N. 2016. How Food Packaging Color Influences Consumer Behavior. Available at: https://hartdesign.com/industry-news/food-packaging-color-influences-consumer-behavior/
Golian, J., Čapla, J., Zajác, P., Benešová, L. 2019. Mlieko a mliečne výrobky- praktické rady pre spotrebiteľov (Milk and milk products - practical advice for consumers). Nitra: Vydavateľstvo SPU v Nitre. 80 p. (In Slovak) ISBN 978-80-552-2020-8.
Horská, E., Nagyová, Ľ,. Rybanská, J., Kačániová, M. 2018. External features of milk produkt packages as visual indicators of product quality, tradition and impulse to buy: traditions versus creativity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs, vol. 6, 42 p.
Chandon, P., Wansink, B. 2012. Does food marketing need to make us fat? a review and solutions. Nutrition Reviews, vol. 70, no. 10, p. 571-593. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00518.x
Chlebo, P., Šrámková, K., Harasník. V 2009. Stravovacie zvyklosti obyvateľov SR vo vzťahu k osteoporóze (Eating habits of the population of the Slovak Republic in relation to osteoporosis). (In Slovak) Available at: https://www.snzobor.sk/HTML/WEBGALERIA/CD_XXVI_ZD_2009/files/Chlebo%20et%20al..pdf
Krivošíková, A., Géci, A., Nagyová, Ľ. 2019. Purchasing and consuming patterns of seniors on milk market in Slovakia. Marketing a obchod. Nitra : Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita, p. 7-16. ISBN 978-80-552-2103-8.
Krivošíková, A., Nagyová, Ľ., Kubelaková, A., Mokrý, S. 2019. Consumer Preferences on Milk Market: Evidence From Slovak Republic. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 961-970. https://doi.org/10.5219/1221
Kubicová, Ľ., Kádeková, Z., Dobák, D. 2014. Trends in consumption of milk and dairy products in slovakia after eu accession. Polityki Europejskie, Finanse i Marketing, vol. 12, no. 61, p. 90-97.
Kubicová, Ľ., Predanocyová, K., Kádeková, Z. 2019. Factors Affecting the Demand for Milk and Dairy Products. Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 39-47. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2019.110404
Kubicová, Ľ., Predanocyová, K., Kádeková, Z. 2019. The importance of milk and dairy products consumption as a part of rational nutrition. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 234-243. https://doi.org/10.5219/1050
Kurajdová, K., Taborecká-Petrovičová, J. 2015. Literature Review on Factors Influencing Milk Purchase Behaviour. International Review of Management and Marketing, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 9-25.
Kurajdová, K., Táborecká-Petrovičová, J., Nedelová, G. 2019. Quality Attributes that Matters When Purchasing Milk by Slovak Consumers. Economics and Management, vol. 50, no. 4. p. 244-250. https://doi.org/10.2478/sab-2019-0034
Markey, O., Vasilopoulou, D., Givens, D. I., Lovegrove, J. A. 2014. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe?. Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 2, p. 161-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/nbu.12086
Merlo, C. 2015. Dairy Demand Has Become Price Sensitive. Available at: https://www.agweb.com/article/dairy-demand-has-become-price-sensitive-NAA-catherine-merlo
Navigation Advertising. 2018. A Logo Must be Easy to Read, Recognize, Remember and Reproduce. Available at: https://navigationadvertising.com/logo-must-easy-read-recognize-remember-reproduce/?fbclid=IwAR3HzprOTPR5UxogTyrpjyUs6RvtD6NV7RwB2cYWRoMNHAozPudwl5TVFJA
Norton, S. 2015. Should we be drinking milk? Arguments for and against dairy. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/should-we-be-drinking-milk-arguments-for-and-against-dairy-10192238.html
O’Connor, L. M., Lentjes, M. A. H., Luben, R. N., Khaw, K. T., Wareham, N. J., Forouhi, N. G. 2014. Dietary dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: a prospective study using dietary data from a 7-day food diary. Diabetologia, vol. 57, . 909-917. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-014-3176-1
Podolák, J., Mjartan, J. 1974. Horehronie: kultúra a spôsob života ľudu; ľudové zamestnania (Horehronie, culture and way of life of its ocupants; folk employment). (In Slovak) Available at: https://www.worldcat.org/title/horehronie-kultura-a-sposob-zivota-ludu-ludove-zamestnania/oclc/600299035?referer=di&ht=edition
Rybanská, J., Nagyová, Ľ., Horská, E. 2019. Milk product packaging features as the key factor of successful canvassing techniques. Economic science for rural development. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Ekonomikas fakultāte, p. 338-345. ISBN 978-9984-48-321-4.
Rybanská, J., Nagyová, Ľ., Tkáč, F. 2019. Selected psychological factors as predictors of consumer choice in the milk product market. Olsztyn Economic Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 287-298. https://doi.org/10.31648/oej.4376
Rybanská, J., Polat, D., Nagyová, Ľ, Andocsová, A., Géci, A. 2019. Consumer behaviour and promotional strategies differences on the market of milk in Turkey and Slovakia. Proceedings Book of 3rd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics. Turkey. Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, p. 108- 116. ISBN: 978-605-81058-1-2.
VUEPP. 2019. Situačná a výhľadová správa – Mlieko (Situation and outlook report - Milk). (In Slovak) Available at: http://www.vuepp.sk/dokumenty/komodity/2019/Mlieko06_19.pdf
Wang, H., Troy, L. M., Rogers, G. T., Fox, C. S., McKeown, N. M., Meigs, J. B., Jacques, P. F. 2014. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study. International Journal of Obesity, vol. 38, p. 299-305. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2013.78
Weaver, C. M. 2014. How sound is the science behind the dietary recommendations for dairy? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 5, p. 1217S-1222S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.073007
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).