The influence of lifestyle on consumer behavior and decision making in research aimed at protein bars
Keywords:consumer, consumer behavior, lifestyle, food market, protein bar
We live in an era when all circumstances on the market are changing rapidly, which leads consumers (even, if they are not aware of it) to certain behaviour that affects their daily activities. Lifestyle can be described as someone's way of living or the things that a person or a particular group of people usually do. It is included among the modern elements of consumer behaviour and also affects an individual´s decision-making process. The concerns over obesity and dangerous food ingredients have prompted a “healthy lifestyle” to become the latest trend in marketing. Therefore, the regular exercising, the reduction of stress, drinking enough water, and eating nutritious food takes on its importance. The main objective of the paper is to assess the consumer behaviour on the market of a selected food commodity. For this purpose, protein bars, which are part of diet not only of athletes but also of ordinary consumers, have been chosen. To achieve this main goal,
a questionnaire was designed and data were collected from the respondents of the different age groups in the Slovak Republic. Based on the primary results, the authors of the paper can claim that more than 60% of the respondents try intentionally to choose better options of food as they want to live healthy. For a deeper analysis, the assumptions were formulated and subsequently verified by the Pearson Chi-square test of independence and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The paper provides useful information on consumer behaviour that can help not only producers and retailers but also to consumers themselves.
Adams, J., Nettle, D. 2009. Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: An empirical study. British Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 83-105. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910708X299664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/135910708X299664
Beardsworth, A., Bryman, A., Keil, T., Goode, J., Haslam, C., Lancashire, E. 2002. Women, men and food: the significance of gender for nutritional attitudes and choices, British Food Journal, vol. 104, no. 7, p. 470-491. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700210418767 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700210418767
Bolori, P., Setaysh, L., Rasaei, N., Jarrahi, F., Yekanineja, M. S., Mirzaei, K. 2019. Adherence to a healthy plant diet may reduce inflammatory factors in obese and overweight women-a cross-sectional study. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 2795-2802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.019
Cairns, K. E., Yap, M. B. H., Pilkington, P. D., Jorm, A. F. 2014. Risk and protective factors for depression that adolescents can modify: a systematic review and meta-analysis of long it udinal studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 169 no. 1, p. 61-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.006
Corrado, D., Basso, C., Rizzoli, G., Schiovan, M., Thiene, G. 2003. Does sports activity enhance the risk of sudden death in adolescents and young adults?. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 1, p. 1959-1963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.03.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.03.002
Ebbeling, C. B., Feldman, H. A., Chomitz, V. R., Antonelli, T. A., Gortmaker, S. L., Osganian, S. K., Ludwig, D. S. 2012. A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 367, no. 15, p. 1407-1416. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203388 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203388
Fernan, C., Schuldt, P. J., Niederdeppe, J. 2017. Health Halo Effects from Product Titles and Nutrient Content Claims in the Context of “Protein” Bars. Journal Health Communication, vol. 33, no. 12, p. 1425-1433. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1358240 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1358240
Forshee, R. A., Anderson, P. A., Storey, M. L. 2018. Sugar-sweetened beverages and body mass index in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 6, p. 1662-1671. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.6.1662 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.6.1662
Géci, A., Nagyová, Ľ., Rybanská, J. 2017. Impact of sensory marketing on consumer´s buying behaviour. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 709-117. https://doi.org/10.5219/835 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/835
Gilbert, L. C. 2010. How to understand high Food prices. Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 61, no. 2, p. 398-425. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2010.00248.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2010.00248.x
Grao-Cruces, A., Fernandez-Martinez, A. & Nuviala, A. 2014. Association of fitness with life satisfaction, health risk behaviors, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Spanish adolescents. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 28, no. 8, p. 2164-2172. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000363 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000363
Grunert, G. K. 2005. Foodquality and safety: consumerperception and demand. European Review of Agrigultural Economics, vol 32, no. 3, p. 369-391. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurrag/jbi011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurrag/jbi011
Guichard, E. 2007. Interactions between flavor compounds and food ingredients and the irinfluence on flavor perception. Food Review International, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 49-70. https://doi.org/10.1081/FRI-120003417 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/FRI-120003417
Huang, E. Y., Devkota, S., Moscoso, D., Chang, E. B., Leone, V. A. 2013. The role of diet in triggering human inflammatory disorders in the modern age. Microbes and Infection, vol. 15, no. 12, p. 765-774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2013.07.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2013.07.004
Christ, A., Günther, P., Lauterbach, M. A. R., Duewell, P., Biswas, D., Pelka, K., Scholz, C. J., Oosting, M., Haendler, K., Baßler, K., Klee, K., Schulte-Schrepping, J., Ulas, T., Moorlag, S. J. C. F. M., Kumar, V., Park, M. H., Joosten, L. A. B., Groh, L. A., Riksen, N. P., Espevik, T., Schlitzer, A., Li, Y., Fitzgerald, M. L., Netea, M. G., Schultze, J. L., Latz, E. 2018. Western diet triggers NLRP3-dependent innate immune reprogramming. Cell, vol. 172, no. 1-2, p. 162-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.013
Imtiaz, R. S., Kuhn-Sherlock, B., Campbell, M. 2012. Effect of dairy protein blends on texture of high protein bars. Journal of Texture Studies, vol. 43, no. 4, p. 275-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00337.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00337.x
Joireman, J., Shaffer, M. J., Balliet, D., Strathman, A. 2012. Promotion Orientation Explains Why Future-Oriented People Exercise and Eat Healthy: Evidence Fromthe Two-Factor Consideration of Future Consequences-14 Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 38, no. 10, p. 1272-1287. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212449362 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212449362
Kelly, P., Deeth, H. C., Bansal, N. 2019. Whey protein ingredient applications. Whey proteins from milk to medicine, Cambridge: Academic Press, p. 335-375. ISBN 9780128121252 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812124-5.00010-2
Kozelová, D., Matejková, E., Fikselová, M., Dékányová, J. 2014. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase. Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 62-66. https://doi.org/10.5219/325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/325
Kubicová, Ľ., Habánová, M. 2012. Development of milk consumption and marketing analysis of its demand. Potravinarstvo, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 66-72. https://doi.org/10.5219/236 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/236
Li, A. S. K., Hu, T. Y. 2019. Are immediate-oriented people unlikely to adopt a healthy lifestyle? The moderation effect of prevention focus. Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 142, p. 276-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.004
Li, Y., Szlachetka, K., Chen, P., Lin, X., Ruan, R. 2008. Ingredient Characterization and Hardening of High-Protein Food Bars: an NMR State Diagram Approach. Cereal & Chemistry, vol. 85, no. 6, p. 780-786. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-85-6-0780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-85-6-0780
Maughan, R. J., Depiesse, F., Geyer, H. 2007. The use of dietary supplements by atheletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 25, no. 1., p. 103-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701607395 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701607395
McGovern, C. M., Militello, L. K., Arcoleo, K. J., Melnyk, B. M. 2018. Factors Associated With Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, vol. 32, no. 5, p. 473-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2018.04.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2018.04.002
McMahon, D. J., Adams, S. L., McManus, W. R. 2009. Hardening of high-protein nutrition bars and sugar/polyol-protein phase separation. Journal of Food Science, vol. 74, no. 6, p. 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01225.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01225.x
Moreno, L. A., de Henauw, S., González-Gross, M., Kersting, M., Molnár, D., Gottrand, F., Barrios, L., Sjöström, M., Manios, Y., Gilbert, C. C., Leclercq, C., Widhalm, K., Kafatos, A., Marcos. A. 2008. Design and implementation of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, p. 504-511. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.177 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2008.177
Mytton, O. T., Nnoaham, K., Eyles, H., Scarborough, P., Mhurchu, C. N. 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of increased vegetable and fruit consumption on body weight and energy intake. BMC Public Health, vol. 14, p. 1-11. Available on: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-886. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-886
Pierański, B., Borusiak, B., Horská, E. 2017. The wine market – an empicrical examination of in-store consumer behaviour. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 739-746. https://doi.org/10.5219/671 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/671
Pollard, J., Kirk, S. F. L., Cade, E. J. 2002. Factors affecting food choice in relation to fruit and vegetable intake: a review. Nutrition Research Reviews, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 373-387. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200244 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200244
Singh, P., Kumar, R., Sabapathy, N. S., Bawa, A. S. 2008. Functional and Edible Uses of Soy Protein Products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 14-28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00025.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00025.x
Sjöberg, A., Hallberg, L., Höglund, D., Hultén, L. 2003. Meal pattern, food choice, nutrient intake and lifestyle factors in The Göteborg Adolescence Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, p. 1569-1578.https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601726 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601726
Sloan, A. E. 2012. Top 10 functional food trends. Food technology, vol. 58, no. 4, p. 28-51. Available on: https://www.ift.org/news-and-publications/food-technology-magazine/issues/2018/april/features/top-10-functional-food-trends-2018.
Thiansilakul, Y., Benjakul, S., Shahidi, F. 2007. Compositions, functional properties and antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from rounds cad (Decapterus maruadsi). Food Chemistry, vol. 103, no. 4, p. 1385-1394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.055 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.055
Thorburn, A. N., Macia, L., Mackay, C. R. 2014. Diet, metabolites, and “Western-Lifestyle” inflammatory diseases. Immunity, vol. 40, no. 6, p. 833-842, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.014
Ubrežiová, I., Urbánová, M., Kozáková, J., Kráľová, T. 2019. Gender differences in consumer preferences when buying dairy products in Slovakia and Russia. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 720-729. https://doi.org/10.5219/1157 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/1157
Van Beek, J., Antonides, G., Handgraaf, M. J. J. 2013. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 54, no. 6, p. 785-791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.015
Wells, L., Farley, H., Armstrong, G. 2007. The importance of packaging design for own-label food brands. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 35, no. 9, p. 677-690. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550710773237 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550710773237
World Health Organization. 2018a. Healthy diet. Available on: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/healthy-diet.
World Health Organization. 2018b. Obesity and over weight. Available on: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
Zhou, P., Gua, M., Liu, D., Liu, X., Labuza, P. T. 2013. Maillard-Reaction-Induced Modification and Aggregation of Proteins and Hardening of Texture in Protein Bar Model Systems. Journal of Food Science, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 437-444. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12061
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).