Antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of leave extracts of Helianthus annuus
Keywords:Antibacterial, antioxidant, growth inhibition, Helinathus annuus
Helianthus annuus has been widely used for its medicinal and nutritional properties. This study was aimed at assessing the ethyl acetate, n-hexane and methanol extracts of Helianthus annuus for antibacterial and antioxidant potentials. The phytochemical screening, total phenols, DPPH radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity were carried out following standard procedures. Preliminary screening of the antibacterial activities of the extracts was carried out on five bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae), using the agar-diffusion method. Growth rate studies in presence of the extract was investigated on two bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis and E. coli). The methanol extract was observed to inhibit the growth of the five bacterial species while ethyl acetate and N-hexane extracts showed inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extended lag periods of 5 - 6 h were observed when the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were grown in broth medium that contained the respective extracts. In broth medium with mixture of extract and ascorbic acid, there was no observed growth of the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli throughout the 7 h incubation period. The total phenolics content of the extracts revealed concentrations of 6.66 ±0.45, 5.58 ±0.11 and 6.06±0.41 mg TAE.g-1) for the methanol, N-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging assay results displayed gradual increase in percentage inhibition from the lowest to the highest concentration across all the standard groups, a similar trend was observed with the extracts, the ethyl acetate extract showed highest percentage inhibition amongst the other extracts. All the extracts showed high reducing power ability. The nitric oxide scavenging ability of the extracts showed constant increase with increase in concentration. Helianthus annus, it could be a good source of antimicrobial and antioxidant especially in a world where resistance to antibiotic has increasingly become a global concern.
Adawia, K. 2017. Comparison of the total phenol, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of methanolic root extracts of Asphodelus microcarpus and Asphodeline lutea growing in Syria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 159-164. https://doi.org/10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25258/phyto.v9i2.8057
Alara, O. R., Abdurahman, N. H., Abdul Mudalip, S. K., Olalere, O. A. 2017. Effect of drying methods on the free radicals scavenging activity of Vernonia amygdalina growing in Malaysia. Journal of King Saud University – Science, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 51-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2017.05.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2017.05.018
Al-Snafi, A. E. 2018. The pharmacological effects of Helianthus annuus-A review. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 1745-1756.
Amaeze, O. U., Ayoola, G. A., Sofidiya, M. O., Adepoju-Bello, A. A., Adegoke, A. O., Coker, H. A. B. 2011. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Müll. Arg) Hutch and Dalziel leaves. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2011, 7 p. https://https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/976701 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/976701
Benslama, A., Harrar, A. 2016. Free radicals scavenging activity and reducing power of two Algerian Sahara medicinal plants extracts. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 158-161. https://doi.org/10.22271/flora.2016.v4.i6c.03 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/flora.2016.v4.i6c.03
Bhaskar, H. V., Balakrishnan, N. 2009. In vitro antioxidant property of laticiferous plant species from Western Ghats Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Health Resrach, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 163-170. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijhr.v2i2.55413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ijhr.v2i2.55419
Boora, F., Chirisa, E., Mukanganyama, S. 2014. Evaluation of nitrite radical scavenging properties of selected Zimbabwean plant extracts and their phytoconstituents. Journal of Food Processing, vol. 2014, 7 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/918018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/918018
Dwivedi, A. 2014. A Review on Heliotropism plant: Helianthus annuus L. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 149-155.
Eze, V. C., Onoja, S. O., Ezeja, M. I., Eze, U. A. 2015. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Helianthus annuus leaves extract on some bacteria causing infection. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 93-100.
Guo, S., Ge, Y., Na Jom, K. 2017. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common sunfower seed and sprouts (Helianthus annuus L.). Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 95. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-017-0328-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-017-0328-7
Ibrahim, T. A., Ajongbolo, K. F., Aladekoyi, G. 2014. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Basella alba and Helianthus annuus on selected food pathogens. Research and Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 27-29.
Jiraungkoorskul, W. 2016. Review of nutraceutical uses of an antioxidant sunflower sprout, Helianthus annuus. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. vol. 9, no. 6, p. 21-23. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2016.v9i6.12874 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2016.v9i6.12874
Johari, M. A., Khong, H. Y. 2019. Total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Pereskia bleo. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 2019, 4 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7428593 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7428593
McDonald, S., Prenzler, D. P, Antolovich, M. 2001. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 1, p. 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00288-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00288-0
Panda, B. N., Raj, A. B., Shrivastava, N. R., Prathani, A. R. 2009. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of Acalypha indica Linn root. Asian Journal Research Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 148-150.
Pavithra, K., Vadivukkarasi, S. 2015. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. Food Science and Human Wellness, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 42-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2015.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2015.02.001
Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. 1992. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 6, p. 945-948. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00018a005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00018a005
Sofowora, A. 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Nigeria :J ohn Wiley & Sons, 256 p.
Subashini, R., Rakshitha, S. U. 2012. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and in vitro antioxidant investigation of methanolic extract of seeds from Helianthus annuus L. Chemical Science Review and Letters, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 30-34.
Trease G. E., Evans, W. C. 2002. Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed. London : Saunders Publishers. p. 221-229. ISBN 8131200876.
Ullah, F., Iqbal, N., Ayaz, M., Sadiq, A., Ullah, I., Ahmad, S., Imran, M. 2017. DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging, antibacterial and phytochemical evaluation of crude methanolic extract and subsequent fractions of Chenopodium botrys aerial parts. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 761-766.
Weidner, S., Krol, A., Karamac, M., Amarowicz, R. 2017. Phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties in seeds of green and yellow-podded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. CyTA-Journal of food, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 373-380. https://doi.org/10. 1080/194 76337 .2017 .1 407826 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2017.1407826
Westh, H., Zinn, C., Rosdahl, V. and Group, S. 2004. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries. Microbial Drug Resistance, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 169-176. https://doi.org/10.1089/1076629041310019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/1076629041310019
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.