Functional properties of muffin as affected by substituing wheat flour with carob powder
Keywords:fortification, phenolics, antioxidant, browning
Carob (Cerationa soliqua L.) pod is the good source of dietary fiber, minerals and polyphenolic substances. The aim of this study was to prepare muffin where wheat flour was substituted with carob powder, and determine some physicochemical properties. Carob powder was prepared by milling dry carob pods to particles smaller than 600 μm. Then wheat flour in muffin dough was replaced by carob powder in 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/w) and subsequently baked at 180 °C for 20 min. It was found that the height of the muffin fortified with carob powder decreased in comparison with that in control muffin sample. Although the height of muffins decreased with the increase in level of carob powder, the differences were not statistically significant. Weight loss was similar for all the muffin samples in this study. Moisture content of muffins with carob powder was significantly higher than that in control. Addition of carob powder had also effect on water activity of muffin. While 0.905 aw was observed in control sample, significantly higher aw values were determinated in fortified muffins (0.912 – 0.923 aw). The antioxidant characteristics were determinated using spectrophotometric assays for total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS). TPC values gradually increased with the increase in level of carob powder from 348.1 to 829.1 μg gallic acid.g-1 dry matter but TFC values significantly increased in muffin with 15 and 20% (w/w) of carob powder. All the antioxidant assays showed strong and positive association with the increase in level of carob powder. Addition of carob powder resulted in the increase of browning index and FAST index as a metrics of the formation of Maillard products.
Ambigaipalan, P., Shahidi, F. 2015. Date seed flour and hydrolysates affect physicochemical properties of muffin. Food Bioscience, vol. 12, p. 54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2015.06.001
Apak, R., Ozyurek, M., Guclu, K., Capanoglu, E. 2016. Antioxidant activity/capacity measurement. 2. Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT)-based, mixed-mode (electron transfer (ET)/HAT), and lipid peroxidation assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 5, p. 1028-1045. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04743
Ayaz, F. A., Torun, H., Glew, R. H., Bak, Z. D., Chuang, L. T., Presley, J. M., Andrews, R. 2009. Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 286-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-009-0130-3
Benković, M., Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Bauman, I., Komes, D., Srečec, S. 2017. Flow properties and chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flours as related to particle size and seed presence. Food Research International, vol. 100, no. 2, p. 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.08.048
Birlouez-Aragon, I., Leclere, J., Quedraogo, C. L., Birlouez, E., Grongnet, J. F. 2001. The FAST method, a rapid approach of the nutritional quality of heat-treated foods. Nahrung-Food, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 201-205.
Brožková, I., Zapletal, T., Kroutilová, L., Hájek, T., Mot'ková, P., Červenka, L. 2018. The effect of soaking regime and moderate drying temperature on the quality of buckwheat-based product. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 81, p. 15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.015
Cepo, D. V., Mornar, A., Nigovic, B., Kremer, D., Radanovic, D., Dragojevic, I. V. 2014. Optimization of roasting conditions as an useful approach for increasing antioxidant activity of carob powder. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 2, p. 578-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.04.004
Durazzo, A., Turfani, V., Narducci, V., Azzini, E., Maiani, G., Carcea, M. 2014. Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours. Food Chemistry, vol. 153, p. 109-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.045
Jacob, K., Garcia-Alonso, F. J., Ros, G., Periago, M. J. 2010. Stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes during thermal processing. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 192-198.
Karaca, O. B., Saydam, I. B., Guven, M. 2012. Physicochemical, mineral and sensory properties of set-type yoghurts produced by addition of grape, mulberry and carob molasses (Pekmez) at different ratios. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 65, no. 1, p. 111-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2011.00731.x
Krishnan, J. G., Padmaja, G., Moorthy, S. N., Suja, G., Sajeev, M. S. 2010. Effect of pre-soaking treatments on the nutritional profile and browning index of sweet potato and yam flours. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2010.01.010
Lauková, M., Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. 2016. Effect of hydrated apple powder on dough rheology and cookies quality. Potravinarstvo, vol. 10, no. 1. p. 506-511. https://doi.org/10.5219/597
Loullis, A., Pinakoulaki, E. 2018. Carob as cocoa substitute: a review on composition, health benefits and food applications. European Food Research and Technology, vol. 244, no. 6, p. 959-977. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-017-3018-8
Mohamed, D. A., Hamed, I. M., Al-Okbi, S. Y. 2008. Ceratonia siliqua pods as a cheap source of functional food components. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, vol. 104, no. 1, p. 25-29.
Mukhopadhyay, D., Dasgupta, P., Roy, D. S., Palchoudhuri, S., Chatterjee, I., Ali, S., Dastidar, S. G. 2016. A sensitive In vitro spectrophotometric hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay using 1,10-phenantroline. Free Radicls and Antioxidants, vol. 6, no. 1 , p. 123-131. https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2016.1.15
Nath, P., Kale, S. J., Kaur, C., Chauhan, O. P. 2018. Phytonutrient composition, antioxidant activity and acceptability of muffins incorporated with red capsicum pomace powder. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore, vol. 55, no. 6, p. 2208-2219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3138-6
Pawlowska, K., Kuligowski, M., Jasinska-Kuligowska, I., Kidon, M., Siger, A., Rudzinska, M., Nowak, J. 2018. Effect of replacing cocoa powder by carob powder in the muffins on sensory and physicochemical properties. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 73, no. 3, p. 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-018-0675-0
Roman, L., Gonzalez, A., Espina, T., Gomez, M. 2017. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore, vol. 54, no, 7, p. 2094-2103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2649-x
Rtibi, K., Selmi, S., Grami, D., Amri, M., Eto, B., El-Benna, J., Sebai, H., Marzouki, L. 2017. Chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of carob pods and leaves (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on the gastrointestinal tract: A review. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 93, p. 522-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.088
Salinas, M. V., Carbas, B., Brites, C., Puppo, M. C. 2015. Influence of different carob fruit flours (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on wheat dough performance and bread quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology, vol. 8, no. 7, p. 1561-1570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-015-1527-7
Seczyk, L., Swieca, M., Gawlik-Dziki, U. 2016. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta. Food Chemistry, vol. 194, p. 637-642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.086
Tounsi, L., Karra, S., Kechaou, H., Kechaou, N. 2017. Processing, physico-chemical and functional properties of carob molasses and powders. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 1440-1448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-017-9523-4
Zacharová, M., Burešová I., Gál, R., Walachová D. 2018. Chicory syrup as a substitution of sugar in fine pastry. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Science, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 487-490. https://doi.org/10.5219/890
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).